Linguifex's conworld megathread

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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Tue 24 Jan 2017, 12:46

It was an attempt at humor.
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by gestaltist » Tue 24 Jan 2017, 13:33

Linguifex wrote:It was an attempt at humor.
Oh, ok. I would normally probably interpret it as such but there is such a wide spectrum of people on this board that I don't assume anything anymore.

Anyways: other than that one thing confusing me, I keep reading and enjoying your thread. Keep it coming. :)
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Fri 27 Jan 2017, 14:14

gestaltist wrote:Anyways: other than that one thing confusing me, I keep reading and enjoying your thread. Keep it coming. :)
Thank you!

Notes dump for a new triconsonantal-language family for the eastern continent.
Spoiler:
Wǫkratąk, which, if I did this right, means something along the lines of "those having been given the mandate".

/m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
/mb nd ŋg/ <ṃb ṇd ṇg>
/p b t d k g/ <p b t d k g>
/h/ <h>
/w r/ <w r>

/ɔ ɔ̃ a ã ɛ ɛ̃ i/ <o ǫ a ą e ę i>

(C)V(C) syllable structure; roots tended to be of the form -CVC(C)-.

There are some biconsonantal stems that get expanded as per what Mecislau said in the triconsonantal-root thread.

√lɛ̃k 'lie' + -ip 'low' > l@kip 'low-lying'
√lɛ̃k 'lie' + -iMb 'under' > l@kiMb 'underlying'

These are your personal endings:
-aw
-o
-ęr

-e
-it

Sample root:

pęht 'die'

With tense prefixes:

ę-pęht 'is dying'
i-pęht 'will die'
ṇga-pęht 'is about to die'
ǫ-pęht 'died'

Some sound changes which will hopefully set up the system; importantly, I'm trying to get rid of the mandatory stem vowel so that we can end up with pure triconsonantal stems:

CV > VC / _#
CVr > CVC / _#
t > Ø / CCV_#
V > Ø / CVC_C
V > ə / penult
ə > V / #VC_
CVCə > CəC / _V
CCə > CəC / _V
V > Ø / #_
aw > o / _#
V > Ø / #C_CVCC
Voicing assimilation which causes ṇg- to turn into, say, k- ^
Ø > i / #_CC
kC > C: / #i_
ə > a

ępęhtaw > pęhto CęCCo
ępęhto > pęhot CęCoC
ępęhtEr > pęhtet CęCCe~ (the tilde marks reduplication of the preceding radical)
ępęhtã > pęhąt CęCąC
ępęhte > pęhet CęCeC
ępęhtit > pęhti CęCCi

ṇgapęhtaw > ippahto
ṇgapęhto > ippahot
ṇgapęhter > ippahtet
ṇgapęhtą > ippahąt
ṇgapęhte > ippahet
ṇgapęhtit > ippahti

Reflexives are formed with reduplication:

ɛ̃pɛ̃htaw > ɛ̃pɛ̃pɛ̃htaw > ɛ̃ppəhtaw
ṇgapɛ̃htaw > ṇgapapEhtaw > ṇgapapəhto > kpapəhto > ippapahto
ipɛ̃htaw > ipɛ̃pɛ̃htaw > ippəhto
ɔ̃pɛ̃htaw > ɔ̃pɛ̃pɛ̃htaw > ɔ̃ppəhto

If I did this right, the following are the conjugated forms for all tenses but the immediate future:

CVCCo
CVCoC
CVCCe~
CVCąC
CVCeC
CVCCi

*√kort > kǫrto : kęrto : ikkarto : kirto
*√mawh > mǫwho : męwho : immawho : miwho

Imminent future: iC:a-
Future: i
Past: ǫ
Present: ę

Verbal nominalizer: -a
kort-a > karat 'a commanding' (> 'a directive')
kort-ą > karąt 'some commandings'

The passive is a prefix w-/o- depending on the following phone and appears before any tense prefix. You can apply it to the verbal nominalizer:

w-kort-a > okorta > okorat > ikrat 'a being commanded' (> 'an order, a mandate')

lakap 'a lying low'
lakąp 'some lyings low'

Participle: -ǫk

kortǫk > kartǫk
wkortǫn > okortǫn > okərtǫn > kortǫk
ękortǫk > kęrtǫk
wękortǫn > wękərtǫn > wękartǫk
ǫkortǫn > kǫrtǫk
Ggakortǫn > ikkartǫk
ikortǫn > kirtǫk

Wǫkratąk

Plural: -ą
wkortǫką > okortǫką > okortǫąk > okortəAk > okorətąk > koratąk
kortǫką > ikratąk
ękortǫką > kęratąk
wękortǫką > wękortǫąk > wękortəąk > wękorətąk > wękratąk
ǫkortǫką > kǫratak ~ wǫkratąk
Ggakortǫką > ikkaratąk
ikortǫną > kirtǫn

hɔtm 'stand' > hatim 'standing'
kort 'command' > karit 'commanding'
karitą > kariąt > kərąt > karąt
okarit > okərit > korit 'being commanded'
okaritą > okariąt > okrəąt > okərąt > korąt 'being commanded (pl.)'

hatmą

hɔtmaw > hętmo
hɔtmɔ > hętom
hɔtmɛ̃r > hętmęm
hɔtmã > hętąm
hɔtmɛ > hętem
hɔtmit > hętmi

√lɛ̃k 'lie' + -ip 'low' > lɛ̃kip 'low-lying'

lakip 'lying low'
lakipą > lekąp
lakpą 'lying low (pl.)'
lękpęp 'he lies low'
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by loglorn » Sat 04 Feb 2017, 03:32

You are prolific to say the least. I await expectantly for more Zompist Culture Tests to see if i fit into any of your conculture's ideals.
Diachronic Conlanging is the path to happiness, given time. [;)]

Gigxkpoyan Languages: CHÍFJAEŚÍ RETLA TLAPTHUV DÄLDLEN CJUŚËKNJU ṢATT

Other langs: Søsøzatli Kamëzet
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Sat 18 Feb 2017, 08:00

loglorn wrote:You are prolific to say the least. I await expectantly for more Zompist Culture Tests to see if i fit into any of your conculture's ideals.
Thank you!

Just a notes dump:
Spoiler:
kɹom
tenqo > ténɣò

jqlo > iɣlo

klʁʃtj > castí

jqmo > ighmo

basal > ha3ál bʁsʁl

baqi > haghí
pɹws > su3

mohot > mót 'result'
lihiɹ > lír
luhuʃ > lús
tlnip > tlnih
bwtjs > hutí3 'mouth'
eʃqwp > eskhúh
tlenuʃ
tənəː

huocal uógal ʰ

npwhi > nhû
gomhua ŋomwa > ŋómua

wiqal > uíghal
naⁿgi > nánggi
sik’ > 3ík
ɢum > xúm

hjnbe
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Sun 26 Feb 2017, 09:04

More on Archaic Wǫkratąk. Citation forms are the first-person singular.

The subjunctive is used for hypothetical or counterfactual events.

bǫCaCCo SUBJUNCTIVE PAST
bęCaCCo SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT
bęC:aCCo SUBJUNCTIVE IMMINENT FUTURE
weCaCCo SUBJUNCTIVE FUTURE

Bǫsaktęt.
stand/3SG.SUBJ.PST
'Perhaps it stood.'

Bǫntom?
eat/2SG.SUBJ.PST
'Could you have eaten?' (cf. Nǫtom? 'Did you eat?')

Ṃbǫŋąr, bǫlaktęt.
go.out/1PL.INDIC.PST win/3SG.SUBJ.PST
'Because we went out, maybe he won.'

Ṃbǫŋąr, welaktęt.
go.out/1PL.INDIC.PST win/3SG.SUBJ.FUT
'Because we went out, he might win.'

The optative is used both when stating a hoped-for outcome of an event and for making requests. Prenasalized stops become plain voiced stops.

nǫCaCCo OPTATIVE PAST
nęCaCCo OPTATIVE PRESENT
iNCa~CCo OPTATIVE IMMINENT FUTURE (nasalization spreads to the first vowel in the stem; i~ > e~)
iNCaCCo OPTATIVE FUTURE

Nǫsaktę ne.
stand/3SG.OPT.PAST perhaps
'Perhaps it stood.' (Implication: I hope it stood.)

Ą kęndo e imbąŋąk. . .
2SG ask/1SG.INDIC.PRES that go.out/1SG.OPT.IMM.FUT
'I ask you if we may go out. . .'

The jussive is used for commands, requests, and imperatives. Due to the nature of the mood, only the two future tenses can be used with it.

oNCaCCo JUSSIVE IMMINENT FUTURE
oCaCCo JUSSIVE FUTURE

Onlakot!
win/2SG.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'Win (now)!'

Olaktet.
win/3SG.JUSS.FUT
'Let him win.'

Ą kęrto, opahtet.
2SG command/1SG.INDIC.PRES die/3SG.JUSS.FUT
'I command you to let him die.'

Bęṃṃbaŋer, mę ommagel.
go.out/2PL.SUBJ.IMM.FUT 3SG.INAN buy/2PL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'If you (are about to) go, buy it.'

And now for the passives. Hoo, boy, have I got my work cut out for me.

Subjunctives

obǫCaCCo
obęCaCCo
oC:aCCo
obiCaCCo (remade by analogy; otherwise collapses into the jussive future)

Obǫlmąk…
tell/1PL.PASS.SUBJ.PST
'If we had been told…'

Oddalti…
steal/3PL.PASS.SUBJ.PST
'Were they about to be stolen(, then)…'

Optatives

These were basically all remade by analogy because otherwise there'd be no way to tell what tense the verb was in if it wasn't the immediate future. The analogy worked like this: The -ñga- element was similar to the tense marker already, so basically when the forms merged the tense marking was added to the second vowel to distinguish it. Then, analogy kicked in again to level the immediate-future form and bring it in line with the rest of the "obvious" derivations.

oNCǫCCo
oNCęCCo
oNiC:aCCo
oNCiCCo

onlimąk
'that we (hopefully) be told'

onlikti
win/3PL.PASS.OPT.FUT
'that they (hopefully) be conquered'

Jussives

Again, analogy took place here because otherwise these would be identical to the active jussives. Basically what happened was the form was innovated on analogy with the nasal prefix of the optatives.

oñgaCaCCo
oNCaCCo

oñgalamki
inform/3PL.PASS.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'let them be told (right now)'

onlamki
inform/3PL.PASS.JUSS.FUT
'let them be told (in time)'

REFLEXIVES (a.k.a. kill me now)

Lots of analogy here as well because otherwise the system is an incredible mess. X stands for a reduplicant; N is an assimilatory nasal consonant that surfaces as /n/ in the absence of any place features.

iC:ǫXaCCo
iC:ęXaCCo
iñgaC:aCCo
iC:iXaCCo

iwwǫwagbę 'that he hit himself'
iwwęwagbę 'that he hits himself'
iñgawwagbę 'that he will hit himself (soon)'
iwwiwagbę 'that he will hit himself'

iNCǫXaCCo
iNCęXaCCo
iñgaC:aCCo
iNCiXaCCo

iñwǫwagbę 'that he (hopefully) hit himself'
iñwęwagbę 'that he (hopefully) hits himself'
iñgawwagbę 'that he (hopefully) will hit himself (soon)'
iñwiwagbę 'that he (hopefully) will hit himself'

oñgaC:aCCo (analogy here; ordinarily there would have -ṇg-)
oC:aCCo

oñgawwagbę 'let him hit himself'
owwagbę 'let him hit himself'

So let's see some of these in action.

Kęnno e iñkękanno.
want/1SG.INDIC.PRES that see/1SG.REFL.OPT.PRES
'I want to see myself.'

Kęrto e oñgawwageb.
order/1SG.INDIC.PRES that hit/2SG.REFL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'I command you to hit yourself.'

Oñgarratep!
clean/2PL.REFL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'Clean yourselves up!'

Oñgassakot!
stand/2SG.REFL.JUSS.IMM.FUT
'Stand up!'

This last verb, √skt 'stand', shows how a reflexive can be used on an intransitive to convey intensive force. In some daughter languages this became a full-blown intensive.

Onraṃbod e ą bǫlamko…
consider/2SG.JUSS.IMM.FUT that 2SG tell/3SG.OPT.PST
'Suppose that he told you…'

NEGATION

The negative is a particle do that follows the negated word.

Pęląk e mę indaltę do!
want/2PL.INDIC.PRES that 3SG.INAN steal/3SG.OPT.FUT NEG
'We hope nobody steals it!'

Copular constructions

There is no copula.

Mę kanan.
3SG.INAN want/NMLZ
'It is a wish.'

Mę lakap do.
3SG.INAN lie.low/NMLZ NEG
'It is not a lowland area.'

The adverb tal 'then, at that time' is used for the past tense:

Mę kanan tal.
3SG.INAN want/NMLZ then
'It was his wish.'

Mę lakap do tal.
3SG.INAN lie.low/NMLZ NEG then
'It was not a lowland area.'

The future tenses use reflexive forms of the verb √ktl 'make, create' with the postposition de 'into (state)'.

Mę kanan de ikkakatlę.
3SG.INAN want/NMLZ into.state make/3SG.REFL.INDIC.IMM.FUT
'It will be (his, e.g.) wish.'

Mę lakap de ikkatlę.
3SG.INAN lie.low/NMLZ into.state become/3SG.REFL.INDIC.FUT
'It will be a lowland area.'

Notes and work-in-progress:
Spoiler:
√ṃbŋ 'go' + -r TRANSLOCATIVE
√lkt 'win, conquer'
√skt 'stand'
√mgl 'purchase, buy'
√wgb 'hit, strike'
√knn 'want'
√rtp 'clean (sth.)'
√lmk 'inform, tell'
√rṃbd 'think, consider, imagine'
√dlt 'steal'
√plk 'hope, want'
do 'NEGATIVE'

SUBJUNCTIVE b- (analogy restores the *ę that would otherwise be lost when #C_CVCC)

pęhot

bępahto
bępahot
bępahtęt
bępahąt
bępahet
bępahti

With loss of penult /a/:
bępahto
bęphot
bępahtęt
bęphąt
bęphet
bępahti

beṇga-pęht

ibgapahto ~ beppahto
ibgaphot ~ beppahot
ibgapahtęt ~ beppahtEt
ibgaphąt ~ beppahAt
ibgaphet ~ beppahet
ibgapahti ~ beppahti

bi > we / #_C; we- kept by analogy with forms that don't undergo this change

wepahto
wephot
wepahtęt
wephąt
wephet
wepahti

bǫpahto
bǫphot
bǫpahtęt
bǫphąt
bǫphet
bǫpahti

OPTATIVE n-

nępahto
nęphot
nępahtęt
nęphąt
nęphet
nępahti

nEC > EnC / #_
V > V~ / #EnC(C)_
E > i / #_nC
nC > NC and analogy

impąhto
imphǫt
impąhtęt
imphąt
imphęt
impąhti

iñ > ę / #_
a > Ø / #ęC_CV and analogy

ęppahto
ęppahot
ęppahtęt
ęppahąt
ęppahet
ęppahti

imp@hto
imp@hot
imp@htęt
imp@hąt
imp@het
imp@hti

ǫ

IMPERATIVE/JUSSIVE ir-

(analogy with #C_CVCC forms)
r > o / #_C

ripahto
riphot
ripahtęt
riphąt
riphet
ripahti

irṇga

a > Ø / #oN/S_C

ompahto
ompahot
ompahtęt
ompahąt
ompahet
ompahti

rip@htaw
riphot
ripahtęt
riphąt
riphet
ripahti

pęhtaw
pęhot
pęhtęt
pęhąt
pęhet
pęhti

pęhtaw
pęhto
pęhtęr
pęhtą
pęhte
pęhtit
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Tue 28 Feb 2017, 00:55

All right, I've decided that I don't like the prenasalized stops. Thus, they will become implosives /ɓ ɗ ɠ/ ḅ ḍ ġ.

----

Some nominalized stems from the protolanguage created their own analogical patterns. In cases where there are more than four consonants in a word that became analogized, the first three were treated as the root with the rest being a "suffix".

idmǫw 'food' > a verb dęmwo 'I make food', ęddamwo 'I eat' (< 'I make food for myself')
ġarki (pl. ġoraką) 'morsel of food' > a verb ġęrko 'serve food', ęġġarko 'I gorge on'
iñgid 'deer' > ñęgdo 'I prance'
daged 'fox' > dęgdo 'I flee'
kęlir 'brick, ingot' (later > 'brickmaking') > kęlro 'I bake bricks'
ḍibam 'furnace' > ḍębmo 'I fire in a furnace'
kolsǫ 'dowry' > kęlso 'I arrange marriage for someone'
silat (pl. salatą) 'type of flower' > sęlto 'I bloom'
nolon (pl. naląn) 'type of plant' > ęnnalno 'I have allergies' (> nęlno 'I cause someone to suffer an allergic reaction')
malet (pl. malatą) 'type of plant' > ęmmalto 'I look pretty' (> męlto 'I make someone pretty')
dęlañ 'joy' > ęddalño 'I am happy' (> dęlño 'I make someone happy)
sirog (pl. sęragą) 'black' > sęrgo 'I char, I color something black'
dakrim (pl. dokramą) 'raincloud' > ęddakro 'I precipitate, I rain'
tasmǫb (pl. tesamąb) 'deciduous tree' > ęttasmo 'I shed my leaves' (> tęsmo 'I cover in leaves')
tilkales (pl. tilkaląs) 'cloud' > ęttalko 'I drift' (> tęlko 'I cause to drift')

By a similar process:

kęrto 'I command' >
ikrǫt 'code of laws' (mass resultative, typically uncountable, though sometimes you'll see a plural form ikratą when comparing two quantities)
karti (pl. koratą) 'law' (countable resultative)
ikrit (pl. ikratą) 'type of animal described as studious in folklore' (animal nominalizer)
keret (pl. kertą) 'type of animal' (another animal nominalizer)
karit (pl. karątą) 'procedure, due process' (process or result thereof; analogy kicked in to distinguish this plural from the plural of the base nominalizer by adding -ą)
kirat (pl. kirtą) 'judge's seat' (place nominalizer; analogy kicked into distinguish the singular from the base nominalizer)
kirtares pl. kirtarąs 'force of law'

dęmwo 'I make food' >
damwi pl. domawą 'prepared meal'
demew pl. demwą 'type of animal often eaten as food'
damiw pl. damąwą 'cooking process'
damǫw 'cost of food'
dęmaw 'hunger'
damwim pl. domwamą 'large place setting at a feast'
damwǫb pl. demawąb 'type of cereal grain'
dimwames pl. dimwamąs 'summer'

tęrso 'be furious' (√tr 'scream' + -s 'upward') >
itris (pl. itrasą) 'type of animal known to be vicious'
taris (pl. damąwą) 'fury'
tarǫs 'consequence of one's anger'
tęras 'rage'
tersim pl. tersamą 'bully (n.)'
tirsares pl. tirsarąs 'rage, fury (esp. as directed towards something)'

dęlto 'I steal' >
idlǫt 'haul, contraband'
dalti (pl. dolatą) 'stolen good'
dalit (pl. dalątą) 'thievery'
dalǫt 'guilt (as a matter of law)'
dęlat 'guilt (as a matter of conscience)'
diltales pl. diltaląs 'sinkhole'

dakrim (pl. dokramą) 'raincloud' >
dękro 'I precipitate, I rain'
ęddakro 'I drift'
idkǫr 'rain'
dakri (pl. dokarą) 'raindrop'
dakir (pl. dakąrą) 'rainstorm'
dikor (pl. dękarą) 'gray'
dikrakes pl. dikrakąs 'rainy climate'

tasmǫb (pl. tesamąb) 'deciduous tree' >
ęttasmo 'I shed my leaves'
itsǫm (pl. itsamą) 'pile of leaves'
tasmi (pl. tosamą) 'leaf'
tasim (pl. tasąmą) 'autumn'
tisam (pl. tismą) 'stand of trees'
tisom (pl. tęsamą) 'green'
tasmim (pl. tosmamą) 'heavy log'

tilkales (pl. tilkaląs) 'cloud' >
ęttalko 'I drift'
tęlko 'I cause to drift, I set something adrift'
telek pl. telką 'type of animal typically white in color'
tilak pl. tilką 'sky'
tilok pl. tęlaką 'white'

So you get these forms by analogy (some of which was from the singular to the plural or vice versa if one of those forms became identical to something else):

iCCǫC pl. iCCaCą – resultative (typically mass)
CaCCi pl. CoCaCą – resultative (typically instance)
iCCiC pl. iCCaCą – animal
CeCeC pl. CeCCą – animal
CaCeC pl. CaCaCą – plant
CaCiC pl. CaCąCą – process or result thereof
CiCaC pl. CiCCą – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
CaCǫC – price paid for something
CoCoC pl. CaCąC – plant
CęCaC – emotion or mental state (rarely, you'll see a plural CęCąC; this would typically be used for poetic effect or in a philosophical discussion)
CiCoC pl. CęCaCą – color
CaCCim pl. CoCCamą – large object with a given characteristic
CaCCǫb pl. CeCaCąb – yet another plant nominalizer
CiCCa2es pl. CiCCa2ąs – natural occurrence or process; force (the 2 indicates reduplication of the second radical; this was because the original word that instigated this analogy was *tilkeles, and the /l/ was reanalyzed as a reduplicant)

----

There are three main groupings of Wǫkratąk: High Wǫkratąk, spoken in the highlands; Low Wǫkratąk, spoken in the lowland and coastal areas; and East Wǫkratąk, spoken by the group that ended up in the depression between two mountain ranges to the south of the Urheimat.

High Wǫkratąk

High Wǫkratąk merged the implosives into the glottal stop /ʔ/ and coda /h/ became vowel length. /s/ debuccalized into /h/. /l/ fortited to /ɬ/ and /r/ became /l/. /ɛ ɛ̃/ raised to /i ĩ/ following palatalization of alveolars and velars before the latter. /w/ > /b/ if an /m/ preceded it in the stem; otherwise it became /j/, which became a glottal stop following a high front vowel (geminate /j/ became a long glottal stop).

Nǫsaktę ne > Nǫhaksį ni
Ą kęndo e imḅąŋąk > Ą kįndo i imʔąñąk
Olaktet > Ołaktit
Ą kęrto, opahtet > Ą kįlto, opa·tit
Iwwiwagbę > Iʔʔiʔagbį
Kirto > Cilto
Hatim > Hasim
Miwho > Miʔho
Iklat > Ikłat
Onlikti > Onśiksi
ęddamwo > ęddamyo

Low Wǫkratąk

Old Low Wǫkratąk retained the implosives as implosives; various reflexes developed in the different dialects. Original /h/ became the glottal stop /ʔ/; original /g/ became the fricative /h/. Nasal vowels became long vowels and lost their nasality. The third-person singular consonant cluster becomes a geminate of the first consonant, conditioned by the reduplicant at the end of the word. /w/ became /b/ if a labial consonant other than /w/ existed elsewhere in the stem.

Nǫsaktę ne > No·sakte· ne
Ą kęndo e imḅąŋąk > A· ke·ndo e imḅa·ña·k
Olaktet > Olakket
Ą kęrto, opahtet > A· ke·lto, opaʔtet
Iwwiwagbę > Ibbibahbe·
Kirto > Kirto
Hatim > ʔatim
Miwho > Mibʔo
Iklat > Iklat
Onlikti > Onlikti
ęddamwo > ęddambo

East Wǫkratąk

East Wǫkratąk merged the implosives with the corresponding nasals. Postvocalic /w/ became /ʔ/ after /i/; geminates became the sequence /ʔw/. /ŋ/ > /x/. /l/ > /j/.

Nǫsaktę ne > Nǫsaktę ne
Ą kęndo e imḅąŋąk > Ą kęndo e immąxąk
Olaktet > Oyaktet
Ą kęrto, opahtet > Ą kęrto, opahtet
Iwwiwagbę > Iʔwiʔagbę
Kirto > Kirto
Hatim > Hatim
Miwho > Miʔho
Iklat > Ikyat
Onlikti > Onyikti
ęddamwo > ęddamwo
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Tue 28 Feb 2017, 05:55

It occurs to me that kolsǫ 'dowry' would have a plural. It would be oklasą, so oCCaCą. (Actually, this was analogized from iCCaCą, so I might have East Wǫkratąk retain it. This would cause three of the plural paradigms to be the same, which I think would have interesting results.)

Also had to redo a few singular derivations for similar reasons. (How am I going to handle reflexives? [strike]That's going to be a pain and a half.[/strike] Looks like I spoke too soon…maybe…)

CaCCǫk pl. CaCCąk – participial
CaCiC pl. CaCąC – adjectival (active)
CoCiC pl. CoCąC – adjectival (passive)
iCCǫC pl. iCCaCą – resultative (typically mass)
CoCiC pl. CoCCą – resultative (typically instance)
iCCiC pl. iCCaCą – animal
CeCeC pl. CeCCą – animal
CaCeC pl. CaCCą – plant
CaCaC pl. CaCąCą – process or result thereof
CiCaC pl. CiCCą – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
CaCǫC pl. oCCaCą – price paid for something
CoCoC pl. CaCąC – plant
CęCaC – emotion or mental state
CiCoC pl. CęCCą – color
CaCCim pl. CoCCamą – large object with a given characteristic
CaCCǫb pl. CeCCąb – yet another plant nominalizer
CiCCa2es pl. CiCCa2ąs – natural occurrence or process; force
CǫCC pl. CǫCąC – body part
iCCǫC pl. CiCąC – body part
CaCCǫX pl. CeCCąr – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs
iC:aCiC pl. iC:aCąC – body part (esp. internal)
iCCiC pl. CiCąC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands
CęCCo pl. CoCCǫ – animal
CoXaCiC pl. CoXCąC – animal (typically birds)
CąCXiC pl. CaCXąC – animal (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)
CaCeC pl. CeCCǫ – characteristic building or product
CaCoC pl. CiCCǫ – characteristic person

----

Thinking of having the sequence -iw- become -oy in East Wǫkratąk. (Might have the mid-vowel-plus-w sequences become low-vowel-plus-y sequences while I'm at it.) Might hold off on this particular sound change until later; that way some of the various East Wǫkratąk languages can have individual developments in resolving this sequence.

----

Body part paradigms:

kǫps pl. kǫpąs 'arm' (Cǫ- from analogy because of plurals falling together) > kępso 'I reach'
iñnǫk pl. ñinąk 'finger' > ñęnko 'I point (at), I indicate'
taksǫs pl. tekasąr 'knee' > ęttakso 'I bend' (> tękso 'I bend something')
issamis pl. issamąs 'stomach' > sęmso 'I digest'
ilkim pl. likąm 'hand' > lękmo 'I grab, I hold'

CǫCC pl. CǫCąC – body part (√pht 'die' > pǫht pl. pǫhąt 'corpse'; √swp 'detect taste' > sǫwp pl. sǫwąp 'tongue'; √wrk 'support' > wǫrk pl. wǫrąk 'back, spine'; √pwġ 'swallow' > pǫwġ pl. pǫwąġ 'esophagus')
iCCǫC pl. CiCąC – body part (√psn 'detect a scent' > ipsǫn pl. pisąn 'nose'; √rkm 'bite' > irkǫm pl. rikąm 'tooth')
CaCCǫX pl. CeCCąr – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs (√ḅñr 'go out' > ḅañrǫr pl. ḅeñrąr 'foot'; √tkl 'hear' > taklǫl pl. tekląr 'ear')
iC:aCiC pl. iC:aCąC – body part (esp. internal) (√tsp 'coil, roll up' > ittasip pl. ittasąp 'small intestine, guts'; √rtl 'brown' > irratil pl. irratąl 'liver')
iCCiC pl. CiCąC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands (√dlk 'rotate' > idlik pl. diląk 'wrist'; √pkr 'flat' > ipkir pl. pikąr 'palm of the hand'; √wgb 'hit, strike' > iwgib pl. wigąb 'fist'; √nd-r 'stick up, stick out' > indir pl. nidąr 'thumb', √db-w 'be left over' > idbiw pl. dibąw 'little finger')

In High Wǫkratąk, the form CeCCąr got reanalyzed as a dual. Most body parts got shunted into some different plural and the dual got extended. Verbs often analogized out an -r or -ąr ending as appropriate. Further, the iCCiC-pl.-CiCąC-pattern words fell into one of the other patterns.

In Low Wǫkratąk, the the iCCiC-pl.-CiCąC-pattern words fell into one of the other patterns as well.

In East Wǫkratąk, iCCiC became the dual. How this happened is a little unclear since it was the singular form; one guess is that its connotation became "one of a pair" which then extended to the pair itself, and that the plural did not undergo this change due to its identical form to that of the iCCǫC plural.

----

Some more on animals. The form CaCCim pl. CoCCamą (large object with a given characteristic) is sometimes used of large animals.

pętlo pl. potalǫ 'squirrel' > CęCCo pl. CoCCǫ (animal; the proto-form had an original -w that dropped)
sosamit pl. sosamąt 'type of bird' > CoXCiC pl. CoXCąC (typically birds)
tąrrin pl. tararąn 'fish' > CąCXiC pl. CaCXąC (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)

popahit pl. pophąt 'carrion bird'
totasim pl. totsąm 'type of bird associated with deciduous trees' (√tsm 'deciduous tree')
dęlto pl. dotlǫ 'type of animal considered a pest'
delek pl. delką 'owl' (√dlk 'rotate')
wegeb pl. wegbą 'bird of prey' (√wgb 'hit, strike')
wagbim pl. wogbamą 'type of cat that hunts by dropping down from trees' (√wgb 'hit, strike')
tagrim pl. togramą 'bear' (√tgr 'roar, growl')
dękro pl. dokrǫ 'earthworm' (√dkr 'rain(cloud)') (incidentally, dękar 'the smell of impending rain')
dąmmiw pl. dammąw 'type of fish often used for food'

tarek 'guard tower' pl. terakǫ > CaCeC pl. CeCCǫ 'characteristic building or product'
rakot 'king, governor' pl. rikatą > CaCoC pl. CiCCǫ 'characteristic person'

tasem pl. tesamǫ 'fence' (√tsm 'deciduous tree')

√trk 'guard, stand watch'
> tęrko 'I watch, I guard'
> ęttarko 'I stand watch'
> tarik pl. tarąką 'shift, watch'
> tarǫk pl. otraką 'wage'
> tęrak 'vigilance'
> tarkim pl. torkamą 'defensive structure, trap'
> tirkares pl. tirkarąs 'defensive wave'
> tarok pl. tirkǫ 'guardsman'

√ssm 'flow'
> sisam pl. sismą 'estuary'
> sosom pl. sasąm 'type of aquatic plant'
> sasmim pl. sosmamą 'river'
> sismases pl. sismasąs 'current'

√rwm 'do battle'
> rawmǫk pl. rawmąk 'soldier'
> rawim pl. rawąm 'doing battle, engaging in combat'
> irwǫm pl. irwamą 'war'
> rowim pl. rowmą 'battle'
> rawam pl. rawąmą 'combat'
> riwam pl. riwmą 'battlefield'
> ręwam 'belligerence, "fire" (so to speak), drive'
> riwom pl. ręwmą 'red' (first a poetic term, now the standard in High and Low Wǫkratąk)
> rawmim pl. rowmamą 'unit of troops'
> riwmawes pl. riwmawąs 'army, forces'
> rawem pl. rewmǫ 'armory'
> rawom pl. riwmǫ 'commander, general'

----

Forget it, we're tackling reflexives…and that was less painful than I thought it would have been. (I just hope my thought process was correct here.)

iC:oCCǫk pl. iC:aCCąk – participial
iC:oCiC pl. iC:aCąC – adjectival (active)
węC:oCiC pl. węC:oCąC – adjectival (passive)
węC:oCǫC pl. węC:aCCą – resultative (typically mass)
iC:oCiC pl. iC:oCaCą – resultative (typically instance)
węC:oCiC pl. węC:aCCą – animal
iC:oCeC pl. iC:eCCą – animal
iC:oCeC pl. iC:aCCą – plant
iC:oCaC pl. i:CaCąCą – process or result thereof
iC:oCaC pl. iC:iCCą – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
iC:oCǫC pl. woC:aCCą – price paid for something
iC:oCoC pl. iC:aCąC – plant
iC:oCaC – emotion or mental state
iC:oCoC pl. iC:ęCCą – color
iC:oCCim pl. iC:oCCamą – large object with a given characteristic
iC:oCCǫb pl. iC:eCCąb – yet another plant nominalizer
iC:iCCa2es pl. iC:iCCa2ąs – natural occurrence or process; force
oC:ǫCC pl. iC:ǫCąC – body part
węC:oCǫC pl. węC:iCąC – body part
iC:oCCǫX pl. iC:eCCąr – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs
węC:oCiC pl. węC:aCąC – body part (esp. internal)
węC:oCiC pl. węC:iCąC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands
iC:oCCo pl. iC:oCCǫ – animal
iC:oXaCiC pl. iC:oXCąC – animal (typically birds)
iC:ąCXiC pl. iC:aCXąC – animal (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)
iC:oCeC pl. iC:eCCǫ 'characteristic building or product'
iC:oCoC pl. iC:iCCǫ 'characteristic person'

Not sure if the reflexives will be used with the body-part nominalizers, but there they are anyway, just in case.

----

Stress in Archaic Wǫkratąk was on the penult, unless the penult was plain /a/ (nasalized /ã/ was allowed to receive stress). If the penult was non-nasal /a/, stress retracted to the antepenult. Low Wǫkratąk was subject to a rule of /a/-deletion in this position (I have to see if these still apply since I figured out that I didn't delete some /a/ that I needed to):
  • When #C_CV, penult /a/ metathesized with the first consonant: #CaCV > #aCCV.
  • When VC_CV, penult /a/ was dropped.
  • When C_CV(C)#, penult /a/ assimilated to the following vowel, which was then dropped, even when this would create a cluster violating the sonority hierarchy: CaCV(C)# > CVC(C)# (with Cw# > Cu#).
  • When #C_CC, penult /a/ becomes /o/ if one of the intervening consonants is /w/ or if the following vowel is a back vowel. Otherwise, when #C_CC, penult /a/ becomes /e/.
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Tue 28 Feb 2017, 07:49

Redoing a few things: The instance resultative is CoCCi by analogy with its plural due to conflation with the passive adjectival form.

nissam pl. nisasmą 'mountain' > CiC:aC pl. CiCaXCą 'landform'

Verbs ('I am mountainous', 'I am characteristic of rivers', that sort of thing) are derived from these roots. In High and Low Wǫkratąk, this pattern becomes the standard agent nominalizer for reflexive verbs.

√kls 'marry off, arrange marriage for'
> ękkalso 'get married'
> iklǫs pl. iklasą 'matrimony'
> kolis pl. kolsą 'family'
> kalas pl. kaląsą 'wedding'
> kalǫs pl. oklasą 'dowry'
> kęlas 'apprehension related to a wedding, "cold feet" (so to speak)'
> kalos pl. kilsǫ 'mother-in-law'

√kps 'reach'
> kepes pl. kepsą 'giraffe'
> kipas pl. kipsą 'type of tall flower'
> kopos pl. kapąs 'vine'
> kǫps pl. kǫpąs 'arm'
> kokpis pl. kokpąs 'flamingo'
> kąppis pl. kappąs 'swan'
> kippas pl. kipapsą 'summit, peak'

√krñ 'play a musical instrument'
> kęrño 'I write a song (for instruments)'
> ękkarño 'I play a musical instrument'
> karñǫk pl. karñąk 'musician'
> korñǫk pl. korñąk 'musical instrument'
> ikrǫñ pl. ikrañą 'instrumental music'
> koriñ pl. korñą 'instrumental song'
> karañ pl. karąñą 'musicianship; composition'
> kirañ pl. kirñą 'bazaar'
> kęrañ 'concentration on playing an instrument'
> karñim pl. korñamą 'drum'
> kirñares pl. kirñarąs 'creative genius related to musical instruments'
> karoñ pl. kirñǫ 'master musician'

√nlr 'sing'
> nalrǫk pl. nalrąk 'songwriter, poet'
> inlǫk pl. inlaką 'vocal music, poetry'
> nolik pl. nolką 'song, poem'
> nalak pl. naląką 'composition'
> nilak pl. nilką 'desk'
> nęlak 'creativity'
> nilkales pl. nilkaląs 'inspiration, burst of creativity'
> nǫlk pl. nǫląk 'mouth'
> nonlik pl. nonląk 'songbird'
> nalok pl. nilkǫ 'ashik, bard'

√nsm 'be mountainous'
> ęnnasmo 'I am mountainous'
> nasmǫk pl. nasmąk 'piedmont'
> nasim pl. nasąm 'mountainous'
> Nosim 'a specific mountain'
> insim pl. insamą 'type of bird found at high altitudes'
> nesem pl. nesmą 'type of mammal found at high altitudes'
> nasem pl. nasmą 'type of tree found at high altitudes'
> nisam pl. nismą 'mountain range'
> nosom pl. nasąm 'type of plant found at high altitudes'
> nęsam 'wanderlust'
> Nasmim 'a specific mountain'
> nasmǫb pl. nesmąb 'type of plant found at high altitudes'
> nasom pl. nismǫ 'mountain-dweller'
> nissam pl. nisasmą 'mountain'

√ppt 'be powerful, have force to back up a threat'
> papat pl. papąt 'threat (party)'
> ippǫt pl. ippatą 'destruction'
> popti pl. poptą 'show of force'
> ippit pl. ippatą 'type of dangerous animal'
> papat pl. papątą 'threat (ultimatum)'
> papǫt pl. oppatą 'bribe, hush money'
> pępat 'fear'
> paptim pl. poptamą 'obstacle, hazard, danger, trap'
> piptapes pl. piptapąs 'hurricane'
> pąppit pl. pappąt 'shark'

√skt 'shine'
> sakat pl. sakątą 'light'
> sokot pl. sakąt 'type of flower'
> sikot pl. sęktą 'yellow'
> saktǫb pl. sektąb 'lichen, moss'
> siktakes pl. siktakąs 'sun'
> saktǫt pl. sektąr 'eye'
> soskit pl. soskąt 'type of bird'
> sąkkit pl. sakkąt 'cuttlefish, squid, octopus'

√tkt 'be foreign; trade'
> ęttoktok 'I am foreign'
> ittokit pl. ittakąt 'foreign'
> tękot 'I trade'
> taktǫk pl. taktąk 'trader, tradesman'
> takit pl. takąt 'trading, for trade, dealing with trade'
> tokit pl. tokąt 'traded'
> itkǫk pl. itkatą 'trade; economy'
> tokit pl. toktą 'deal, transaction'
> tękat 'foreign mindset'
> taket pl. tektǫ 'trade goods'
> takot pl. tiktǫ 'foreigner'

√tlk 'cloud'
> ęttalko 'I drift'
> tęlko 'I cause to drift, I set something adrift'
> telek pl. telką 'type of animal typically white in color'
> tilak pl. tilką 'sky'
> tilok pl. tęlką 'white'
> tilkales pl. tilkaląs 'cloud'
> talkǫk pl. telkąr 'white of the eye'
> tąllik pl. talląk 'type of whale'
> talok pl. tilkǫ 'transient'

wtk 'stretch'
> wǫwǫtkǫk pl. wǫwtakąk 'sky'
> witak pl. witką 'type of plant'
> wotok pl. watąk 'type of plant'
> watkim pl. wotkamą 'bridge'
> wǫtk pl. wǫtąk 'lower jaw'
> watok pl. witkǫ 'person who makes rope'
> iwwotak pl. iwwitką 'type of flower'
> iwwotak 'pain due to torture'
> węwwotǫk pl. węwwitąk 'throat'
> iwwotok pl. iwwitkǫ 'acrobat, performer'

----

The nisba-type form in this language was originally a postpositive . Sandhi rules have transformed it into a suffix that will cause, when appropriate, gemination of the final consonant or deletion of penult /a/. These forms, unlike in Arabic, cannot stand on their own and require a referent (they do not have plural forms).

nalrǫk > nalrǫkkę 'relating to a songwriter'
nolik > nolikkę 'poetic'
ikrǫñ > ikrǫññę 'musical'
ippǫt > ippǫttę 'destructive'
nisam > nismę 'endemic to a mountain range'
nęsam > nęsmę 'dealing with wanderlust, full of wanderlust'
witak > witkę 'relating to the witak plant'
iwwotak > iwwotkę 'relating to the iwwotak plant'

----

Also thinking about having ñ > g in onset in East Wǫkratąk.
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Wed 01 Mar 2017, 08:26

So the three dialect groupings of Wǫkratąk are:
  • Nasommę (High Wǫkratąk)
  • Takil (Low Wǫkratąk)
  • Ḅǫñrǫkkę (East Wǫkratąk)
----

-r 'far'

----

tiktel pl. tiktąl 'city' > CiC1eC pl. CiC1ąC 'structure built for some purpose'

tirtek pl. tirtąk 'defensive fortification' (dialectally > 'tower over the city gate' > 'city gate')
sissem pl. sissąm 'water wheel'
tistem pl. tistąm 'lumber mill'
riwrem pl. riwrąm 'suit of armor'
nilner pl. nilnąr 'theater'
pippet pl. pippąt 'battering ram'
tiktet pl. tiktąt 'trading post' (dialectally > 'bank')
ñinñek pl. ñinñąk 'marker, landmark'
dikder pl. dikdąr 'gutter; rain barrel; downspout'
dimdew pl. dimdąw 'oven, stove' (dialectally > 'kitchen')
liklep pl. likląp 'shelter, refuge, hideout, safe house'
wigweb pl. wigwąb 'unit of armed forces'
pihpet pl. pihpąt 'grave'

----

√tkl 'be urban'
> takil pl. takąl 'urban, city-'
> itkǫl pl. itkalą 'populace, culture'
> tokil pl. toklą 'resident'
> takal pl. takąlą 'city life'
> tikal pl. tiklą 'town square' (< 'city center')
> taklim pl. toklamą 'city-state'
> tęklo pl. toklǫ 'rat, pest'
> totakil pl. totkąl 'pigeon'
> takol pl. taklǫ 'city-dweller, urbanite'
> tiktel pl. tiktąl 'city, urban area'

√plr 'contradict, be inconsistent'
> palir pl. paląr 'contradictory'
> iplǫr pl. iplarą 'disagreement, dissent'
> polir pl. polrą 'disagreement, sticking point'
> palar pl. paląrą 'contradiction, inconsistency, problem'
> pęlar 'cognitive dissonance'
> palor pl. pilrǫ 'intellectual rival'

√nkt 'purify'
> inkit pl. inkatą 'type of animal'
> nakat pl. nakątą 'purification; fast'
> nikat pl. niktą 'type of plant often used to sweeten water'
> naktǫb pl. nektąb 'type of plant used as medicine'
> nakot pl. niktǫ 'ascetic'

√ḅkl 'split'
> ḅakil pl. ḅakąl 'splitting (something)'
> ḅokil pl. ḅokąl '(something) split'
> ḅaḅaklǫk pl. ḅaḅkaląk '(something that is) splitting'
> ḅikal pl. ḅiklą 'fault line'
> ḅiklakes pl. ḅiklakąs 'earthquake causing a rift'
> ḅikkal pl. ḅikaklą 'valley'
> ḅaḅkal pl. ḅaḅkąl 'valley'

√nḍ-p 'hollow out'
> ęnnaḍpo 'I feel depressed'
> nanaḍpǫk pl. nanḍapąk 'depressed person'
> naḍpǫk pl. naḍpąk 'spoon'
> noḍip pl. noḍąp 'hollowed-out'
> noḍip pl. noḍpą 'husk, shell'
> niḍap pl. niḍpą 'type of flower with large bulb'
> nęḍap 'depression'
> nǫḍp pl. nǫḍąp 'skeleton'
> inḍǫp pl. niḍąp 'animal shell'
> innaḍip pl. innaḍąp 'skeleton'
> inḍip pl. niḍąp 'palm of the hand' (poetic variant, became standard in Takil)
> niḍḍap pl. niḍaḍpą 'depression, rift valley'

----

Checking on my participles…going to have to add in a rule where the first vowel of three low vowels is deleted if it doesn't create an unwieldy cluster, particularly in initial position.

BASE (ADJECTIVAL)

CaCCǫk
CaCCąk
CoCCǫk
CoCCąk

-ǫ- PAST

CǫCCǫk
CǫCCąk
wǫCaCCǫk
wǫCCaCąk

-ę- PRESENT (these tend to develop into forms with specialized meanings; the adjectival forms above are preferred)

CęCCǫk
CęCCąk
węCęCCǫk
węCCaCąk

-ġa- IMMEDIATE FUTURE

ġaCaCCǫk
ġaCCaCąk
ġoCaCCǫk
ġoCCaCąk

-i- FUTURE

CiCCǫk
CiCCąk
wiCaCCǫk
wiCCaCąk

----

Now on to reflexive participles (fun…).

CaXaCCǫk
CaXCaCąk

CǫXaCCǫk
CǫXCaCąk

CęXaCCǫk
CęXCaCąk

iC:aXaCCǫk
iC:aXCaCąk

CiXaCCǫk
CiXCaCąk

----

Verbal nominalizer

CaXCaC
CaXCąC

----

So stuff like nanaktǫk pl. nankatąk 'fasting', dadamwǫk pl. dadmawąk 'eating', tatalkǫk pl. tatlakąk 'drifting', nanalnǫk pl. nanlanąk 'allergy-stricken'…
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Thu 02 Mar 2017, 08:40

Ḅǫñrǫkkę should be Mǫñrǫkkę, shouldn't it? That dialect merged the implosives with the nasals. And Nasommę should be Nahommį.

For reference purposes:
Spoiler:
CaCCo·k pl. CɨCCa·k – participial
CaCiC pl. CɨCa·C – adjectival (active)
CoCiC pl. CoCa·C – adjectival (passive)
iCCo·C pl. iCCɨC – resultative (typically mass)
CoCiC pl. CoCCa· – resultative (typically instance)
iCCiC pl. iCCɨC – animal
CeCeC pl. CeCCa· – animal
CaCeC pl. CɨCCa· – plant
CɨCaC pl. CaCɨ·C – process or result thereof
CiCaC pl. CiCCa· – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
CaCo·C pl. oCCɨC – price paid for something
CoCoC pl. CɨCa·C – plant
Ci·CaC – emotion or mental state
CiCoC pl. Ci·CCa· – color
CaCmiC pl. CoCmɨC – large object with a given characteristic
CaCbo·C pl. CeCba·C – yet another plant nominalizer
CiCCɨse2 pl. CiCCɨsa·2 – natural occurrence or process; force
Co·CC pl. Co·Ca·C – body part
iCCo·C pl. CiCa·C – body part
CaCCo·X pl. CeCra·C – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs
iC:aCiC pl. iC:ɨCa·C – body part (esp. internal)
iCCiC pl. CiCa·C – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands
Ci·CCo pl. CoCCo· – animal
CoXaCiC pl. CoXCa·C – animal (typically birds)
Ca·CXiC pl. CɨCXa·C – animal (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)
CaCeC pl. CeCCo· – characteristic building or product
CaCoC pl. CiCCo· – characteristic person
CiC:aC pl. CiCɨXCa· – landform

iC:oCCo·k pl. iC:ɨCCa·k – participial
iC:oCiC pl. iC:ɨCa·C – adjectival (active)
wi·C:oCo·C pl. wi·C:ɨCCa· – resultative (typically mass)
iC:oCiC pl. iC:oCɨC – resultative (typically instance)
wi·C:oCiC pl. wi·C:ɨCCa· – animal
iC:oCeC pl. iC:eCCa· – animal
iC:oCeC pl. iC:ɨCCa· – plant
iC:oCaC pl. i:CaCɨC – process or result thereof
iC:oCaC pl. iC:iCCa· – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
iC:oCo·C pl. woC:ɨCCa· – price paid for something
iC:oCoC pl. iC:ɨCa·C – plant
iC:oCaC – emotion or mental state
iC:oCoC pl. iC:e·CCa· – color
iC:oCmiC pl. iC:oCmɨC – large object with a given characteristic
iC:oCbo·C pl. iC:eCba·C – yet another plant nominalizer
iC:iCCase2 pl. iC:iCCɨsa·2 – natural occurrence or process; force
oC:o·CC pl. iC:o·Ca·C – body part
wi·C:oCo·C pl. wi·C:iCa·C – body part
iC:oCCo·X pl. iC:eCra·C – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs
wi·C:oCiC pl. wi·C:ɨCa·C – body part (esp. internal)
wi·C:oCiC pl. wi·C:iCa·C – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands
iC:oCCo pl. iC:oCCo· – animal
iC:oXaCiC pl. iC:oXCa·C – animal (typically birds)
iC:a·CXiC pl. iC:ɨCXa·C – animal (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)
iC:oCeC pl. iC:eCCo· 'characteristic building or product'
iC:oCoC pl. iC:iCCo· 'characteristic person'
Personal pronouns

to 1SG > N to, T to, M to
ą 2SG > N ą, T a·, M ą
ęr 3SG.M > N įl, T e·r, M ęr
oḍ 3SG.F > N oʔ, T oḍ, M om
3SG.INAN > N mį, T me·, M mę

1PL > N hą, T sa·, M są
eḅ 2PL > N iʔ, T eḅ, M em
ihhi 3PL.M > N i·hi, T iʔʔi, M ihhi
aḍor 3PL.F > N aʔol, T aḍor, M anor
eti 3PL.INAN > N isi, T eti, M eti

Thinking of changing the "past" adverb from tal to al. Then it can attach itself to the verb, and since I want to introduce metathesis at some point, it could get incorporated into the pattern for past verbs from a construction PRESENT + 'then' meaning "having just" done whatever. Then the l can assimilate and cause a new pattern which will ultimately replace the original past construction. This would probably happen in Tikal. Not sure if I want it to happen in Nahommį. Either way, it is less likely that it will occur in Mǫñrǫkkę.

dęmwo al 'I have just made food' > dęmwoal > dęmwol > dęmlow > dęmmow > de·mmow

This metathesis of "suffix" consonant plus last radical of the pattern occurs in other forms as well:

wagbim pl. wogbamą > wahmib pl. wohmɨb
tasmǫb pl. tesmąb > taspo·m pl. tespa·m (the b assimilates in voicing to the consonant with which it is in contact)
taksǫs pl. tekasąr > takso·s pl. tekɨra·s 'knee' (no assimilation of r because no consonant in contact with it)
nissam pl. nisasmą 'mountain' > nisasma· pl. nisɨsma·

More on Tikal

h → ʔ
g → h
V~ → V:
3SG middle radical geminates
w…P P…w → b…P P…b / $_$
a a: → ɨ ɨ: / _(C)C{a,ã}(:)
a(:) → Ø / VC_#
Vm → V· / $_#
nCa: → C / V_#
e: → i:
Spoiler:
a· → e· / _#
o·k a·k → aw o·
o…o e…e → o…wo e…je / _C
a…o a…e → wa…o je…e / _C
a a· → ə a / penult
ə → a / _C:
aw → o / _#
V· → V[- long] / _#
o· a· ɨ· e· i· → u ə əj i aj
ə → a / C:_
i → ja / _C:
wa → o / #_j
C: → C
V → Ø / #ojC_CV
aw → o / _%, creating defective forms
o…o e…e → a…o a…e / _#

CəCCo pl. CɨCCo – participial
CəCiC pl. CɨCəC – adjectival (active)
CoCiC pl. CoCəC – adjectival (passive)
iCCuC pl. iCCɨC – resultative (typically mass)
CoCiC pl. CoCCe – resultative (typically instance)
iCCiC pl. iCCɨC – animal
CeCjeC pl. CaCCe – animal
CjeCeC pl. CɨCCe – plant
CɨCaC pl. CaCəjC – process or result thereof
CiCaC pl. CiCCe – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
CəCuC pl. oCCɨC – price paid for something
CoCwoC pl. CɨCəC – plant
CajCaC – emotion or mental state
CiCoC pl. CajCCe – color
CəCmiC pl. CoCmɨC – large object with a given characteristic
CəCbuC pl. CeCbəC – yet another plant nominalizer
CiCCɨse2 pl. CiCCɨsə2 – natural occurrence or process; force
CuCC pl. CuCəC – body part
iCCuC pl. CiCəC – body part
CəCCuX pl. CeCəC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs
jaCaCiC pl. jaCɨCəC – body part (esp. internal)
iCCiC pl. CiCəC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands
CajCCo pl. CaCCo – animal
CoXəCiC pl. CoXCəC – animal (typically birds)
CaCiC pl. CɨCəC – animal (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)
CjeCeC pl. CeCCo – characteristic building or product
CwoCoC pl. CiCCo – characteristic person
CjaCaC pl. CiCɨXCe – landform

jaCaCCo pl. jaCɨCCo – participial
jaCoCiC pl. jaCɨCəC – adjectival (active)
ojCCuC pl. ojCɨCCe – resultative (typically mass)
jaCoCiC pl. jaCoCɨC – resultative (typically instance)
ojCCiC pl. ojCɨCCe – animal
jaCoCeC pl. jaCeCCe – animal
jaCoCeC pl. jaCɨCCe – plant
jaCoCaC pl. jaCaCɨC – process or result thereof
jaCoCaC pl. jaCiCCe – characteristic place, or plant (typically flowers)
jaCoCuC pl. jaCɨCCe – price paid for something (analogy kicks in here)
jaCoCwoC pl. jaCɨCəC – plant
jaCoCaC – emotion or mental state
jaCoCwoC pl. jaCiCCe – color
jaCoCmiC pl. jaCoCmɨC – large object with a given characteristic
jaCoCbuC pl. jaCeCbəC – yet another plant nominalizer
jaCiCCəse2 pl. jaCiCCɨsə2 – natural occurrence or process; force
oCuCC pl. ajCuCəC – body part
ojCCuC pl. ojCCəC – body part
jaCoCCuX pl. jaCeCəC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs
ojCCiC pl. ojCCəC – body part (esp. internal)
ojCCiC pl. ojCCəC – body part, especially ones occurring in pairs, particularly of the hands
jaCaCCo pl. jaCaCCo – animal
jaCoXəCiC pl. jaCoXCəC – animal (typically birds)
jaCaCiC pl. jaCɨCəC – animal (typically used only of fish or animals closely associated with water)
jaCoCeC pl. jaCeCCo 'characteristic building or product'
jaCoCwoC pl. jaCiCCo 'characteristic person'
Spoiler:
√ġlp 'burn'
> ġęlop 'I burn (something)'
> ġalip pl. ġaląp 'setting something aflame'
> ġolip pl. ġoląp 'hot'
> ġalap pl. ġaląpą 'fire'
> ġilap pl. ġilpą 'pyre'
> ġoġalip pl. ġoġląp 'type of bird'
> ġolep pl. ġelpǫ 'metal'
> ġalġep pl. ġilġąp 'furnace'
> ęġġalpo 'I burn'
> ġaġalpǫk pl. ġaġalpąk 'burning'
> iġġolap pl. iġġaląpą 'fire'
> iġġolop pl. iġġęlpą 'orange'
> iġġolpim pl. iġġolpamą 'forest fire'
> iġġilpales pl. iġġilpaląs 'fire'

√kl-ḅ 'fall (down)' (in Takil and Mǫñrǫkkę, a verb kęlḅo 'I drag down' was derived from this)
> ękkalḅo 'I fall'
> ikkoliḅ pl. ikkaląḅ 'falling'
> ikkolaḅ pl. ikkaląḅą 'fall'
> iC:oCCǫb pl. ikkelḅąb 'type of plant that droops'
> ikkilḅales pl. ikkilḅaląs 'gravity'
> ikkoloḅ pl. ikkilḅǫ 'invalid'

√nḍ-p 'hollow out'
> ęnnaḍpo 'I feel depressed' > įnnaʔpo; e·nnaḍpo; ęnnanpo
> nanaḍpǫk pl. nanḍapąk 'depressed person' > nanaʔpǫk pl. nanʔapąk; nanaḍpo·k pl. nanḍapa·k; nananpǫk pl. nannapąk
> naḍpǫk pl. naḍpąk 'spoon' > naʔpǫk pl. naʔpąk; naḍpo·k pl. naḍpa·k; nanpǫk pl. nanpąk
> noḍip pl. noḍąp 'hollowed-out' > noʔip pl. noʔąp; noḍip pl. noḍa·p; nonip pl. nonąp
> noḍip pl. noḍpą 'husk, shell' > noʔip pl. noʔpą; noḍip pl. noḍpa·; nonip pl. nonpą
> niḍap pl. niḍpą 'type of flower with large bulb' > niʔap pl. niʔpą; niḍap pl. niḍpa·; ninap pl. ninpą
> nęḍap 'depression' > nįʔap; ne·ḍap; nęnap
> nǫḍp pl. nǫḍąp 'skeleton' > nǫʔp pl. nǫʔąp; no·ḍp pl. no·ḍa·p; nǫnp pl. nǫnąp
> inḍǫp pl. niḍąp 'animal shell' > inʔǫp pl. niʔąp; inḍo·p pl. niḍa·p; innǫp pl. ninąp
> innaḍip pl. innaḍąp 'skeleton' > innaʔip pl. innaʔąp; innaḍip pl. innaḍa·p; innanip pl. innanąp
> inḍip pl. niḍąp 'palm of the hand' > inʔip pl. niʔąp; inḍip pl. niḍa·p; innip pl. ninąp
> niḍḍap pl. niḍaḍpą 'depression, rift valley' > niʔʔap pl. niʔaʔpą; niḍḍap pl. niḍaḍpa·; ninnap pl. ninanpą

√tkl 'be urban'
> takil pl. takąl 'urban, city-' > tacił pl. takął; takil pl. taka·l; takiy pl. takąy
> itkǫl pl. itkalą 'populace, culture' > itkǫł pl. itkałą; itko·l pl. itkala·; itkǫy pl. itkayą
> tokil pl. toklą 'resident' > tocił pl. tokłą; tokil pl. tokla·; tokiy pl. tokyą
> takal pl. takąlą 'city life' > takał pl. takąłą; takal pl. taka·la·; takay pl. takąyą
> tikal pl. tiklą 'town square' > sikał pl. sikłą; tikal pl. tikla·; tikay pl. tikyą
> taklim pl. toklamą 'city-state' > takśim pl. tokłamą; taklim pl. toklama·; takyim pl. tokyamą
> tęklo pl. toklǫ 'rat, pest' > tįkło pl. tokłǫ; te·klo pl. toklo·; tękyo pl. tokyǫ
> totakil pl. totkąl 'pigeon' > totacił pl. totkął; totakil pl. totka·l; totakiy pl. totkąy
> takol pl. taklǫ 'city-dweller, urbanite' > takoł pl. takłǫ; takol pl. taklo·; takoy pl. takyǫ
> tiktel pl. tiktąl 'city, urban area' > siktił pl. siktął; tiktel pl. tikta·l; tiktey pl. tiktąy

tirtek pl. tirtąk 'defensive fortification' > sirtik pl. sirtąk; tirtek pl. tirta·k; tirtek pl. tirtąk
sissem pl. sissąm 'water wheel' > hihhem pl. hihhąm; sissem pl. sissa·m; sissem pl. sissąm
tistem pl. tistąm 'lumber mill' > sihtim pl. sihtąm; tistem pl. tista·m; tistem pl. tistąm
riwrem pl. riwrąm 'suit of armor' > lJiʔlim pl. rJiʔrąm; riwrem pl. riwra·m; riwrem pl. riwrąm
nilner pl. nilnąr 'theater' > nJilnil pl. nJilnąl; nilner pl. nilna·r; niyner pl. niynąr
pippet pl. pippąt 'battering ram' > pippit pl. pippąt; pippet pl. pippa·t; pippet pl. pippąt
tiktet pl. tiktąt 'trading post' > siktit pl. siktąt; tiktet pl. tikta·t; tiktet pl. tiktąt
ñinñek pl. ñinñąk 'marker, landmark' > ñJinñik pl. ñJinñąk; ñinñek pl. ñinña·k; xinxek pl. xinxąk
dikder pl. dikdąr 'gutter; rain barrel; downspout' > zikdil pl. zikdąl; dikder pl. dikda·r; dikder pl. dikdąr
dimdew pl. dimdąw 'oven, stove' > zimdib pl. zimdąb; dimdew pl. dimda·w; dimdew pl. dimdąw
liklep pl. likląp 'shelter, refuge, hideout, safe house' > śikłip pl. śikłąp; liklep pl. likla·p; yikyep pl. yikyąp
wigweb pl. wigwąb 'unit of armed forces' > yigyib pl. yigyąb; wihweb pl. wihwa·b; wigweb pl. wigwąb
pihpet pl. pihpąt 'grave' > pi·pit pl. pi·pąt; piʔpet pl. piʔpa·t; pihpet pl. pihpąt
Spoiler:
√ḅñ-k 'go out; anticipate'

ḅęñaw 'anticipation'
ḅañǫk pl. oḅñaką 'advance, advance payment'
ḅiñkañes pl. ḅiñkañąs 'tide'
ḅañok pl. ḅiñkǫ 'gofer, errand boy'
ḅoḅañik pl. ḅoḅñąk 'type of migratory bird'

√ḅñ-w 'arrive, come' (-w 'towards')

ḅoñiw pl. ḅoñwą 'journey'
ḅañaw pl. ḅañąwą 'traveling, journey'
ḅiñwañes pl. ḅiñwañąs 'future'

√ḍl-ḅ 'submerge' (-ḅ 'under')
ḍilaḅ pl. ḍilḅą 'bottom of a body of water'
ḍilḅales pl. ḍilḅaląs 'tendency for things to sink in water'
ḍalḅim pl. ḍolḅamą 'sunken log, water hazard'
ḍillaḅ pl. ḍilalḅą 'cave opening onto a body of water'

√ḍl-w 'lure'
ḍoliw pl. ḍolwą 'trap, distraction'
ḍalew pl. ḍalwą 'brightly-colored plant'
ḍilaw pl. ḍilwą 'open-air market'
ḍęlaw 'daydreaming, being lost in thought'
ḍalwim pl. ḍolwamą 'formation/maneuver of armed forces intended to trick the opposition'
ḍoḍaliw pl. ḍoḍląw 'brightly-colored species of bird'
ḍalow pl. ḍilwǫ 'bad kid, bad influence'

√ḍl-m 'seize, take away' (-m 'from, away')
ḍalmǫk pl. ḍalmąk 'agent of the court in charge of asset seizure and collecting fines'
ḍolim pl. ḍolmą 'fine'
ḍalam pl. ḍaląmą 'seizure, removal'
ḍilam pl. ḍilmą 'desk where fines are paid'
ḍalmǫb pl. ḍelmąb 'pitcher plant'

√ġbr 'discern, divide; judge'
ġabor pl. ġibrǫ 'judge'
iġbǫr pl. iġbarą 'justice'
ġobir pl. ġobrą 'verdict'
ġibar pl. ġibrą 'threshing floor'
ġobor pl. ġabąr 'chaff'
ġibrabes pl. ġibrabąs 'earthquake'
iġbir pl. ġibąr 'hand with the fingers and thumb extended and held together to make a paddle-like gesture'

√ktb 'remember'
kotbǫk pl. kotbąk 'past'
katib pl. katąb 'intelligent'
iktǫb pl. iktabą 'history'
kotib pl. kotbą 'memory (of something)'
katab pl. katąbą 'memory (as a process)'
kętab 'nostalgia'
ikkatib pl. ikkatąb 'mind, memory'
kętbo pl. kotbǫ 'mammal renowned in folklore for its intelligence'
kitbates pl. kitbatąs 'history'
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

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User avatar
Linguifex
roman
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Posts: 949
Joined: Fri 03 Aug 2012, 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Sun 05 Mar 2017, 10:17

Reposting the Lardil-esque language from the Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread here:

/m n̪ n ɲ ŋ/ m ṉ n ñ ng (geminate /ŋː/ is written ngg)
/p t̪ t tʲ k ʔ/ p d t j k ʔ
/s̪ s ʃ h/ z s š h
/w l̪ l j/ w ł l y

/u o ɔ a ə ɛ e i/ u o ɔ a ə ɛ e i

(C)V(C)

Some sort of assimilation will occur with the coronals, not sure exactly how it's going to work yet.

I'm thinking about collapsing the dental-alveolar-palatal distinction in the daughter languages (in the obstruents at least).

Some possible sound changes (not all for the same language!) that I've spitballed:
Spoiler:
t̪ t tʲ → s̪ s ʃ / _{e,i}
ɔ ɛ → o e
ə → i

ʃ → x
tʲ → ʃ

VN → Ṽ / _%
w → m / _%
mC → NC
m → ŋ / _#

p → w / _%

V → Ø / _V

V → Ø / V_

V → ː / V_

V{p,h} → Vː / _%

Vh → Ṽː
VF → Vː

NS → Sː

NF → Nː

{ɔ,ɛ} → a / _(C)(C){a,ə}

u i → w j / _V

u i → w j / V_

{p,k} → Ø / _%
p k → w j / _%

{l̪,l} → j / _%

{l̪,l} → w / _%

t̪ > t : t̪ : t : t̪ : t : t̪ : t : t̪ : t : t̪
t > t : t̪ : t : t : tʲ : t : t : t : t : t
tʲ > tʲ : t : tʃ : s : tʲ : t : t : tʲ : ts : ʃ
Actually…it occurs to me that palatal > dental, without an apparent alveolar intermediate (?!), is attested in some Bantu languages (I want to say specifically in Sam somewhere?), so that's another option. A weird option, but an option nonetheless.

Also, take a note: l-stopping.

łəy epłəʔij
łəy e-płə-ʔ-ij
1SG.M APPL.BEN-kill-IRR-3SG.M.M
'I would kill for him'

The irrealis is more like a tense here, but even then it's kind of weird. Only the irrealis form can be negated.

łəy opłəʔij
łəy płə-ʔ-ij
1SG.M kill-IRR-3SG.M.M
'I would kill him'

łəy opłəʔijye
łəy płə-ʔ-ij-ye
1SG.M kill-IRR-3SG.M.M-NEG
'I would not kill him'/'I did not kill him'

It is also mandatorily marked along with the future tenses.

əj dɛpłəʔtuye
əj dɛ-płə-ʔ-tu-ye
3SG.M.M NFUT-kill-IRR-1SG.M-NEG
'he is not about to kill me', 'he will not kill me now'

əj ṉopłəʔtu
əj ṉ-płə-ʔ-tu
3SG.M.M. FUT-kill-IRR-1SG.M
'he will kill me (at some later time)'

The past only takes an irrealis if it's talking about possibilities not realized (or if it's being negated).

əj ɛññepłəʔtu
əj ɛññe-płə-ʔ-tu
3SG.M.M DPST-kill-IRR-1SG.M
'he could have killed me (long ago)'

əj ɛññepłəʔtuye
əj ɛññe-płə-ʔ-tu-ye
3SG.M.M DPST-kill-IRR-1SG.M-NEG
'he didn't kill me (long ago)'

-ye here is classified as a suffix rather than a clitic since it is subject to assimilation:

opłəʔɛnle
łəy płə-ʔ-ɛn-le
1SG.M kill-IRR-2SG.M-NEG

Its "default" form is -ye; it only assimilates to the coronal consonants:

əj ngəʔangye
əj ng-ə-ʔ-ang-ye
3SG.M.M APPL.LOC-exist-IRR-1PL.M-NEG
'we don't have it'

Up until now, we've seen certain object affixes. Some of them have M.M in the gloss. That isn't a typo. Turns out, what pronouns and affixes you use depend on whether you're male or female.

If you're male, you use these pronouns and affixes:

1SG łəy, -y
2SG.M iṉṉɛn, -ṉṉɛ
2SG.F tangja, -ngja
3SG.M əj, -ij
3SG.F dahay, -dahay

1PL jang, -ang
2PL.M lɔk, -lɔ
2PL.F ɔd, -d
3PL.M mɛngna, -nna
3PL.F ləng, -lə

If you're female, you use these:

1SG itul, -tu
2SG.M hɛš, -h
2SG.F ngɛṉ, -ngɛ
3SG.M łiš, -iš
3SG.F zahɛ, -z

1PL.MIXED ɛṉkin, -ṉkin
1PL.F nɔs, -nɔ
2PL.M tanggal, -ngal
2PL.MIXED dɔjja, -ajja
2PL.F zimzɛm, -zi
3PL.M əkim, -ki
3PL.F dɔłək,

You refer to non-sapient referents with the same third-person gender that you are—males use the masculine pronoun, females use the feminine. For males, mixed groups default to the feminine forms of the plural.

In the gloss, I mark the speaker first before the referent—M.F means 'male speaker, referring to female'.

If an impermissible cluster (that is, one that is not a two-consonant intervocalic cluster) occurs, a dummy vowel is appended in the appropriate location. Before a labial or velar consonant, the vowel added is o. Before glottal consonants, it is ə. Before other consonants, it is e.

I'm trying to get into applicatives here. We've got a few.

ng- LOCATIVE APPLICATIVE
e-/y- BENEFACTIVE APPLICATIVE
ay- INSTRUMENTAL APPLICATIVE
k- MALEFACTIVE APPLICATIVE
jə- COMITATIVE APPLICATIVE
w- CAUSATIVE

łəy ngetilʔij
łəy ng-til-ʔ-ij
1SG.M APPL.LOC-eat-IRR-3SG
'I would eat there'

łəy ngetilij
łəy ng-til-ij
1SG.M APPL.LOC-eat-IRR-3SG
'I'm eating there'

Oftentimes you can create ditransitives with such sentences.

łəy pəjɔu ngetilij
łəy pəjɔu ng-til-ij
1SG.M porridge APPL.LOC-eat-IRR-3SG
'I'm eating porridge there'

Speaking of eating…

pəjɔu letilel
pəjɔu e-til-y
porridge APPL.BEN-eat-1SG.M
'I'm eating (my) porridge'

The benefactive applicative has the allomorph y- when the root would have a prothetic e-:

etlo
tlo
'steal'

yejyoʔeṉṉɛ
e-tlo-ʔ-ṉṉɛ
APPL.BEN-steal-IRR-2SG.M.M
'would steal for you (male)' (spoken by male)

"But wait!" you might be saying. "You said it had an allomorph y-, but you didn't say anything about anything else changing! You've wrecked the stem!" That's not a typo either, which brings us to…

Assimilation occurs between the coronals (ṉ, n, ñ, d, t, j, z, s, š, ł, l, y). They assimilate to the preceding coronal, if applicable.

kij
kij
'ruin, wreck, destroy'

kijyɔ
kij-lɔ
ruin-2PL.M.M
'ruin y'all (male)' (spoken by male)

-dahay
-dahay
3SG.M.F

kijjahay
kij-dahay
ruin-3SG.M.F
'ruin her (female)' (spoken by male)

-lə
-lə
3PL.M.F

kijyə
kij-lə
ruin-3PL.M.F
'ruin them (females)' (spoken by male)

-zɛ
-zɛ
3SG.F.F

kijšɛ
kij-zɛ
ruin-3SG.F.F
'ruin her' (spoken by female)

-nɔ
-nɔ
1PL.F.F

kijñɔ
kij-nɔ
ruin-1PL.F.F
'ruin us (females)' (spoken by females)

-zi
-zi
2PL.F.F

kijši
kij-zi
ruin-2PL.F.F
'ruin you (females)' (spoken by female)

This process occurs before epenthetic vowels are placed to break up illegal clusters:

-y
-y
1SG.M

dil
dil
'save'

dilel
dil-y
save-1SG.M
'save me' (spoken by male)

-ṉṉɛ
-ṉṉɛ
2SG.M.M

dilennɛ
dil-ṉṉɛ
save-2SG.M.M
'save you (male)' (spoken by male)

kijej
kij-d
ruin-2PL.M.F
'ruin y'all (females)' (spoken by male)

kijeñña
kij-nna
ruin-3PL.M.M
'ruin them (male)' (spoken by male)

-z
-z
3SG.F.F

kiješ
kij-z
ruin-3SG.F.F
'ruin her' (spoken by female)

-ṉkin
-ṉkin
1PL.MIXED

kijeñkin
kij-ṉkin
ruin-1PL.F.MIXED
'ruin us (mixed group)' (spoken by female)
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Creyeditor » Sun 05 Mar 2017, 16:00

I did not understand l-stopping?
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Sun 05 Mar 2017, 16:09

Creyeditor wrote:I did not understand l-stopping?
Oh, sorry, that was a note to myself. Basically the idea was that laterals would fortify to voiced stops in a daughter language or two.
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Creyeditor » Sun 05 Mar 2017, 16:11

Nice idea [:)]
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Sun 05 Mar 2017, 20:06

Creyeditor wrote:Nice idea [:)]
Thank you!

I want to call this family Dujajikiswə. Now I just have to make some morphemes to make it work…

dujajikiswə
duj-ajik-i-swə
tree-person-PL-GEN

There we go.

Reflexives always have some sort of applicative; if there's no other pertinent argument, they take a benefactive or a malefactive.

əj ejʔɛššej
əj e-j-ʔɛš-st
3SG.M.M APPL.BEN-PST-learn-RFLX.M.M
'he studied'

əj kedzɛzzed
əj k-j-zɛz-st
3SG.M.M APPL.MAL-PST-hit-RFLX.M.M
'he struck himself'

No daughter language preserves every tense. There are quite a few.

ngay- REMOTE PAST
ɛññe- DISTANT PAST
j- PAST
łɛ- HESTERNAL PAST
š- HODIERNAL PAST
əl- IMMEDIATE PAST (venir de)
Ø- PRESENT
w-/ɔ- IMMEDIATE FUTURE
dɛ- NEAR FUTURE
ṉ- FUTURE
əl- REMOTE FUTURE

"Remote" here basically means "beyond one's lifespan". "Distant past" is within one's lifespan but beyond more than six years or so; "past" is for anything between yesterday and that time. "Hesternal" and "hodiernal" imply "yesterday" and "earlier today", respectively; "immediate past" carries the connotation of "I've just finished doing X", similar to French venir de. "Immediate future" is much the same except it connotes that one is about to do something (does aller de have the same force? It's been awhile since I've had French classes). "Future" is anything from later today to about six years from now; "distant future" is beyond that to within a reasonable estimate of one's lifespan, and "remote future" is farther still.

ləng nəʔngayjeyjahay
ləng nəʔ-ngay-tley-dahay
3PL.M.F APPL.ABL-REM.PST-go-3SG.M.F
'they left (a long time ago)'

łiš ngɛññełeñidahay
łiš ng-ɛññe-łeñi-dahay
1SG.M APPL.LOC-D.PST-live-3SG.M.F
'back in my day, I lived here'

łiš kejpełəij
łiš k-j-płə-ij
1SG.M APPL.MAL-PST
'I killed him'

eəltilel
e-əl-til-y
APPL.BEN-IMM.PST-eat-1SG.M
'I just ate'

əj yalloset
əj e-Ø-allo-st
3SG.M.M APPL.BEN-PRES-recognize-RFLX.M.M
'he recognizes himself'

Recall that all future tenses must be irrealis:

əj kɔpłəʔey
əj k-ɔ-płə-ʔ-y
3SG.M.M APPL.MAL-IMM.FUT-kill-IRR-1SG.M
'he's going to kill me', 'he's about to kill me'

dahay edɛtilʔey
dahay e-dɛ-til-ʔ-y
3SG.M.F APPL.BEN-FUT-eat-IRR-1SG.M
'I'll eat it'

łiš ngeṉdełeyʔedahay
łiš ng-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M APPL.LOC-DIST.FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go there (eventually)'

mɛngna nəʔəletleyʔedahay
mɛngna nəʔ-əl-tley-ʔ-dahay
3PL.M.M APPL.ABL-REM.FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'they will leave there (in the end)'

nəʔ- ABLATIVE APPLICATIVE

ɔd nəʔɔtleyjahay
ɔd nəʔ-ɔ-tley-dahay
2PL.M.F
'y'all (female or mixed group) are about to leave'

ləng nəʔsetleyšəjʔɔ
ləng nəʔ-š-tley-zəjʔɔ
3PL.M.F APPL.ABL-HOD.PST-go-RFLX.MIXED
'they split up'

The clitic p- attaches to the beginning of a clause to indicate purpose:

peləng ɔššii dɛtkɔñyə, ləng nəʔsetleyšəjʔɔ
p=ləng ɔšši-i dɛ-tkɔñ-lə ləng nəʔ-š-tley-zəjʔɔ
PURPOSE=3PL.M.F track-PL NEAR.FUT-look.for-3PL.M.F 3PL.M.F APPL.ABL-HOD.PST-go-RFLX.MIXED
'they split up to search for clues'

pɔskayə, łiš ešjilel
p=ɔ-skayə łiš e-š-til-y
PURPOSE-IMM.FUT-walk 1SG.M APPL.BEN-HOD.PST-eat-1SG.M
'I ate because I will take a walk later'
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Mon 06 Mar 2017, 03:57

A bunch of new applicatives in this post, plus one sort-of idiomatic phrase.

dahay nəʔjejyeyeš
dahay nəʔ-j-tley-z
3SG.M.F APPL.ABL-PST-go-REFL.M.F
'it split, it broke, it split apart'

tul- INESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway tultetleyjahay
əj kawway tul-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.INESS-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went in the house'

yɛ- INTRATIVE APPLICATIVE (always takes a plural object suffix)

əj kawwayi yɛjjeyeyyə
əj kawway-i yɛ-j-tley-lə
3SG.M.M house-PL APPL.INTRA-PST-go-3PL.M.F
'he went between the houses'

ngɔh- SUBESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway ngohjejyeyjahay
əj kawway ngoh-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.SUBESS-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went under the house', 'he went to the bottom of the house'

keng- SUPERESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway kengjejyeyjahay
əj kawway keng-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.SPRESS-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went over the house', 'he went on top of the house', 'he went to the top of the house'

m- EGRESSIVE APPLICATIVE

əj kawway mejjeyeyjahay
əj kawway m-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M house APPL.EGR-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went starting from the house', 'he left the house'

əhəm- PERLATIVE APPLICATIVE

Typically refers to movement along some (exterior) surface.

əj ked əhəmjejyeyjahay
əj ked əhəm-j-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M path APPL.PERL-PST-go-3SG.M.F
'he went along the path'

jaj- ACCUSATIVE APPLICATIVE

This is "accusative" in the sense of time/duration, though it can also be used with other referents. In this latter case, it has the sense of an instrumental referring to a large quantity of the referent—a good example of the sense of it would be "he went through a hundred ball-point pens before he found one that worked".

əj ngɛngi jajjejkoñyə
əj ngɛng-i jaj-j-tkoñ-lə
3SG.M.M time.unit-PL APPL.ACC-PST-search-3PL.M.F
'he searched for hours'

ij- ESSIVE APPLICATIVE

Used with respect to time. Some dialects have subsumed the function of this into that of the locative or the inessive.

əj kɔzeṉ ngɛng ijñejyeyʔedahay
əj kɔz-n ngɛng ij-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M two-ORDINAL time.unit APPL.ESS-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go at two', 'he will come at two'

The above sentence is a bit ambiguous; there's a way to deal with that which I will describe later.

aṉ- DURATIVE APPLICATIVE

Another time applicative, this time referring to something happening while something else is coming on.

əj ingkay aṉṉedłeyʔedahay
əj ingkay aṉ-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M feast APPL.DUR-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go during the feast', 'he will come during the feast'

uʔ- ANTERIOR APPLICATIVE

This basically means "before something happens" or "by the time of".

əj ingkay uʔṉedłeyʔedahay
əj ingkay uʔ-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M feast APPL.ANT-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go before the feast', 'he will come by the time the feast starts'

ṉɛʔ- POSTERIOR APPLICATIVE

This basically means "after" or "once an event has ended".

əj ingkay ṉɛʔṉedłeyʔedahay
əj ingkay ṉɛʔ-ṉ-tley-ʔ-dahay
3SG.M.M feast APPL.POST-FUT-go-IRR-3SG.M.F
'he will go after the feast', 'he will come once the feast is over'
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Mon 06 Mar 2017, 08:39

dehs- MANNER APPLICATIVE

Basically refers to a manner of doing something, moving it from an adpositional phrase to a direct object. Dialectally, the perlative is ignored in favor of this applicative.

əj hutʔo dehsenuñij
əj hutʔo dehs-ñuñ-ij
3SG.M.M old.man APPL.MAN-appear-3SG.M.M
'he looks like an old man'

əj hutʔo dehseskayəij
əj hutʔo dehs-skayə-ij
3SG.M.M old.man APPL.MAN-walk-3SG.M.M
'he walks like an old man'

Adverbs are often derived from verbs or adjectives using these constructions.

əj ngɛkayup dehsetleyjahay
əj ngɛkay-up dehs-tley-dahay
3SG.M.M slow-NMLZ APPL.MAN-go-3SG.M.F
'he's slow'

Adjectives come after the noun, with two exceptions: Words denoting quantity and words denoting ethnicity.

sɛngin ajik
sɛngin ajik
north person
'one of the Sengin' (compare ajik sɛngin 'northern person', with no connotation about specific people)

kɔz sɛnginupi
kɔz sɛngin-up-i
two north-ADJ.NMLZ-PL
'two Sengin people'

hutʔo kɛʔa
hutʔo kɛʔa
old.man tall
'tall old man'

I'm toying with making adjectives a more-or-less closed class, as in Çuvvaccoçim and its related languages. Not totally sold on the idea, but not willing to discount it either. Derivational processes would probably be restricted to ethnicities and numbers (like fractions). Speaking of which…

To form fractions, reduplicate the onset and nucleus of the initial syllable, then add the suffix -ta. If there's a fricative in the coda, it fortites.

kɔz
kɔz
two
'two'

kɔkɔjja
kɔ~kɔjja
FRACTION~two/FRACTION
'half'

Demonstratives are clitics that attach to the end of the noun phrase and distinguish three degrees of relevance/distance and three degrees of visibility. The visible determiners also distinguish two degrees of height—above the speaker or level with/below the speaker.

=w this, these (visible, above)
=kɛ this, these (visible, level/below)
=ijñɔ this, these (partially visible)
=a this, these (not visible)

=s that, those (visible, above)
=ngang that, those (visible, level/below)
=sung that, those (partially visible)
=ñu that, those (not visible)

=ay yon (visible, above)
=ɛndi yon (visible, level/below)
=ṉ yon (partially visible)
=ilul yon (not visible)

They are considered clitics due to their attaching at the end of the relevant phrase:

keddamkɛ!
ked-tam=kɛ
path-ADV=this.below
'this way (referring to a trail)!' (note how the clitic follows the adverbializer)

keddama!
ked-tam=a
path-ADV=this.invisible
'this way (referring to, for instance, following a smell or mental directions)!' (note how the clitic follows the adverbializer)

ngɛllɔješ
ngɛllɔj=s
walking.stick=that.partially.visible
'that half-buried walking stick'

hutʔo kɛʔailul
hutʔo kɛʔa=ilul
old.man tall=yon.not.visible
'yonder tall old man (who is not visible)'

"Passive"-type constructions can be formed in several ways. The first is simply dropping the agent nominal; if the object suffix isn't a reflexive, it's assumed that the nominal that is overtly present isn't doing whatever the action says.

hutʔo jongakij
hutʔo j-ngak-ij
old.man PST-see-3SG.M.M
'the old man was seen', 'somebody saw the old man'

There's also "applicative 'passives'". What I mean by this is that, typically for benefactive or malefactive passives, you can promote the object to a subject and leave the agent as an object suffix with the benefactive/malefactive indicating that the object is the recipient of the consequences of the action.

pəjɔu letilel
pəjɔu e-til-y
porridge APPL.BEN-eat-1SG.M
'I'm eating (my) porridge'

A "passive" can also use the instrumental applicative (though here I glossed it as "inversion" à la Georgian—or Kgáweq'). The agent need not be overtly stated unless necessary.

hutʔo (łəy) ayjongakipey
hutʔo (łəy) ay-j-ngak-ip-y
old.man (1SG.M) APPL.INST-PST-see-INV-1SG.M
'the old man was seen by me'

Finally, you can demote the agent to an adverb—or rid yourself of it completely—with a more-or-less "true" passive voice:

hutʔo jongakeṉ (jinəngtam əjšowətam)
hutʔo j-ngak-ṉ (jinəng-tam əj-swə-tam)
old.man PST-see-PASS (father-ADV 3SG.M.M-GEN-ADV)
'the old man was seen (by his father)'

Kinship! This is going to be funactually, it was much less painful than I thought once I got the gist of it.
Wikipedia contributors wrote:Floyd Lounsbury discovered[1] a seventh, Dravidian, type of terminological system that had been conflated with Iroquois in Morgan’s typology of kin-term systems because both systems distinguish relatives by marriage from relatives by descent, although both are classificatory categories rather than based on biological descent. The basic idea is that of applying an even/odd distinction to relatives that takes into account the gender of every linking relative for ego’s kin relation to any given person. A MFBD(C), for example, is a mother’s father’s brother’s daughter’s child. If each female link (M,D) is assigned a 0 and each male (F,B) a 1, the number of 1s is either even or odd; in this case, even. However, variant criteria exist.[2][3][4] In a Dravidian system with a patrilineal modulo-2 counting system, marriage is prohibited with this relative, and a marriageable relative must be modulo-2 odd. There exists also a version of this logic with a matrilineal bias. Discoveries of systems that use modulo-2 logic, as in South Asia, Australia, and many other parts of the world, marked a major advance in the understanding of kinship terminologies that differ from kin relations and terminologies employed by Europeans.

The Dravidian kinship system involves selective cousinhood. One's father's brother's children and one's mother's sister's children are not cousins but brothers and sisters one step removed. They are considered consanguinous (pangali), and marriage with them is strictly forbidden as incestuous. However, one's father's sister's children and one's mother's brother's children are considered cousins and potential mates (muraicherugu). Marriages between such cousins are allowed and encouraged. There is a clear distinction between cross cousins, who are one's true cousins and parallel cousins, who are, in fact, siblings. Like Iroquois people, Dravidians refer to their father's sister as mother-in-law and their mother's brother as father-in-law.
So…

F = Father
B = Brother
N = Son
M = Mother
S = Sister
D = Daughter

Matrilineal: (F,B,N) = 0, (M,S,D) = 1
Marriageable = modulo-2 odd

FSD = 2 X
FBD = 1 O
MBD = 2 X
MSD = 3 O
MBN = 1 O

sajis father's brother's daughter; mother's sister's daughter
ɛweñ father's sister's son; mother's brother's son
əʔɛng brother; father's brother's son; mother's sister's daughter (older)
eʔjok brother; father's brother's son; mother's sister's daughter (younger or same age)
jeh sister; father's sister's daughter; mother's brother's daughter (older)
adni sister; father's sister's daughter; mother's brother's daughter (younger or same age)

ñɛpke father's brother
kukiṉ father's sister
saswəu father's father
soy father's mother
pɛʔu mother's brother
ñeeja mother's sister
jɛngho mother's father
kaw mother's mother

(Below, "brother" and "sister" include the cousins that would be included as well; "cousin" does not.)

uʔejəs older brother's son
ɛjšoñ younger brother's son
wiungə older brother's daughter
sule younger brother's daughter
ʔuak older sister's son
ʔaj younger sister's son
kəłiso older sister's daughter
əuʔa younger sister's daughter
ekɛn cousin's son
ohjung cousin's daughter
Last edited by Linguifex on Wed 08 Mar 2017, 05:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Linguifex
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Wed 08 Mar 2017, 05:47

A quick aside regarding the Tlar Kyanà language.

Proto-Tlar Kyanà phonology

/m n ŋ/
/p b ⁿb t d ⁿd k g ⁿg ʔ/
/ɸ β s z x ɣ h/
/l ɾ/
/w j/

/u o ɔ a ɛ e i/

Tones: *A *B *C *D

(C)(ɾ)(l)(w/j)VT(l/ɾ)(N)(S)

m p b ⁿb ɸ β ŋ k g ⁿg x ɣ → mɲ pʃ bʒ ⁿbʒ ɸʃ βʒ ɲ c ɟ ⁿɟ ç ʝ / _{j,i}
t d ⁿd s z k g ⁿg x ɣ → tʃ dʒ ⁿdʒ ʃ ʒ p b ⁿb ɸ β / _w
{w,j} → Ø / C_V
Sɾ → Sʰ
VN → V[+ nasalized] / _(C)%
ɾ → Ø / V_(C)%
ɾ → l
u o ɔ ɛ e i → oi̯ u o e i ei̯
l → ɹ / _(N)(S)%
a → o / _K
Development of register: Aspirated stop/voiceless fricatives → register one; else, register two
Voiced/voiceless merger; prenasalized stops become plain voiced
ei̯ → ai̯
ʔ → Ø
Ba Ea → u̯a i̯a → ɔ ɛ
B E → u̯ i̯ / _V
Nasals assimilate to the place of a following obstruent
tl → tɬ (male speech)
h → Ø / ! #_
ç ʝ → ʃ ʒ
x ɣ → i̯ / before full vowels (i.e., not onglides)
x ɣ → Ø

Phonology at the time the writing was standardized:

/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n (~ hn) ny ng
/p b t d c ɟ k g/ p b t d ky gy k g
/ɸ β s z ʃ ʒ h/ f v s z sy zy h (/h/ is only ever word-initial)
/l ~ ɹ/ l ~ r (realized as a rhotic in the coda)

The clusters [ɲɟ ŋg] are written ngy and ngg, respectively.

/u o ɔ a ɛ e i/ u o ɔ a ɛ e i
/oi̯ ai̯/ oy ay
/u̯V i̯V/ uV iV

[+nas] Vn (An h is used if a coda /n/ is pronounced, in which case the coda is written hn, or following n if the next syllable has no onset, in which case the sequence is written VnhV. VnV indicates a non-nasalized syllable with /n/ as the onset of the next syllable.)

Development of Tones

Muy Baon

A1 → mid
A2 → low trailing
B1 → high rising
B2 → low dropping (glottalized unless _S)
C1 → dipping
C2 → high rising (glottalized)
D1 → high rising
D2 → low dropping (glottalized unless _S)

oi̯ ai̯ → ui̯ a
ŋ → n / #_
mɲ ɸʃ βʒ → mj ɸj βj
b d ɟ g → β z ʒ ɣ / #_V[+ high] (includes diphthongs and triphthongs)
ũ ĩ → õ ẽ

Nguyna

A1 → mid
A2 → low trailing
B1 → low (dipping unless _S)
B2 → low (dipping unless _S)
C1 → mid rising
C2 → high rising (glottalized)
D1 → low (dipping unless _S)
D2 → low (dipping unless _S)

N → ŋ / _%
V[- high] → Ø / V[- high]_
oi̯ → ai̯
c ɟ → tʃ dʒ
õ ẽ → ɔ̃ ɛ̃

Nikyuwar

A1 → mid level
A2 → low falling
B1 → low rising (glottalized)
B2 → high-mid (glottal stop)
C1 → high rising
C2 → high-mid
D1 → high-mid
D2 → high-mid

S → F / _(C)%
tl → dl (female speech)
ai̯ → oi̯
õ {ɔ̃,ɛ̃} ẽ → ũ ã ĩ
ʃ ʒ → x ɣ

Orthographic tone

A1 u o ɔ a ɛ e i
A2 ù ò ɔ̀ à ɛ̀ è ì
B1 ǔ ǒ ɔ̌ ǎ ɛ̌ ě ǐ
B2 û ô ɔ̂ â ɛ̂ ê î
C1 ú ó ɔ́ á ɛ́ é í
C2 ủ ỏ ɔ̉ ả ɛ̉ ẻ ỉ
D1 ū ō ɔ̄ ā ɛ̄ ē ī
D2 ȕ ȍ ɔ̏ ȁ ɛ̏ ȅ ȉ

Sỉsǒk Tlar Kyanà
Mȕy Bǎȍn
Ngùynâ
Nǐkyúwār

Spoiler:
*zeCsaBk → siC2soB1k / siˀ˦˥ sok˦˥ : siˀ˦˥ sok˦˥ : si˥˧ soˀx˩˨ / sỉsǒk
*tɾlaAɾ → tlaA1ɹ / tlaɹ˧ : tlaɹ˧ : tlaɹ˧ / tlar
*kɾjaAnaA → caA1naA2 / ca˧ na˨˩ : ca˧ na˨˩ : ca˧ na˨˩ / kyanà
*muD ⁿbɾaBʔonD → moi̯D2 baB1õD2 / mui̯ˀ˨˩ ba˦˥ õ˨˩ : mai̯˨˩˨ bã˨˩˨ : moi̯˥˧ baˀ˩˨ ũ˥˧ / Mȕy Bǎȍn
*ŋuAnaB → ŋoi̯A2naB2 / nui̯˨˩ naˀ˨˩ : ŋai̯˨˩ na˨˩˨ : ŋoi̯˨˩ naʔ˥˧ / Ngùynâ
*niBkɾjuChwaDl → *niB2cuC1waɹD1 / ni˨˩ cu˧˨˧ waɹ˦˥ : ni˩ tʃu˧˥ waɹ˨˩˨ : niʔ˥˧ cu˦˥ war˥˧ / Nǐkyúwār
*bamAʔunA → pãA2õi̯A2 / pã˨˩õi̯˨˩ : pãi̯˨˩ : pã˨˩ũi̯˨˩ / pànhùyn
*baɾmAʔuɾnA → pamA2oi̯nA2 / pa˨˩ mui̯n˨˩ : pa˨˩ mai̯n˨˩ : pa˨˩ moi̯n˨˩ / pàmùyhn
*eAʔuB → i̯oi̯B1 / i̯ui̯˦˥ : i̯ai̯˦˥ : i̯oi̯˩˨ / iǔy
*eAuB → i̯oi̯B2 / i̯ui̯˨˩ : i̯ai̯˨˩˨ : i̯oi̯ʔ˥˧ / iûy
*ⁿbeAʔuB → bi̯oi̯B1 / bi̯ui̯˦˥ : bi̯ai̯˦˥ : bi̯oi̯˩˨ / biǔy
*ⁿbeAuB → bi̯oi̯B2 / bi̯ui̯˨˩ : bi̯ai̯˨˩˨ : bi̯oi̯ʔ˥˧ / biûy
*priBdoD → pai̯B1tuD2 / pa˦˥ tu˨˩ : pai̯˨ tu˨˩˨ : poˀi̯˩˨ tu˥˧ / pǎytȕ
*xiC → ʃai̯C1 / ʃa˧˨˧ : ʃai̯˧˥ : xoi̯˦˥ / syáy
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Linguifex
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Re: Linguifex's conworld megathread

Post by Linguifex » Thu 09 Mar 2017, 08:37

Personal pronouns. Forms are cited in the pattern Proto-Nyar Toler Kyanà → Middle Sỉsǒk Tlar Kyanà → Mȕy Bǎȍn : Ngùynâ : Nǐkyúwār / Orthographic.

1SG *hiw A → hai̯ A1 → ha˧ : hai̯˧ : hoi̯˧ / hay
1DL.INCL *hɾwo D → hlu D2 → hluˀ˨˩ : hlu˨˩˨ : hlu˥˧ / hlȕ
1DL.EXCL *βo A → ɸu A2 → ɸu˨˩ : ɸu˨˩ : ɸu˨˩ /
1PL.INCL *kjɛ C → ce C2 → ceˀ˦˥ : tʃeˀ˦˥ : ce˥˧ / kyẻ
1PL.EXCL *βu C → ɸoi̯ C2 → ɸuˀi̯˦˥ : ɸaˀi̯˦˥ : ɸoi̯˥˧ / fủy

2SG.M *glu A wɾij A → kloi̯ A2 wai̯ A2 → klui̯˨˩ wa˨˩ : klai̯˨˩ wai̯˨˩ : kloi̯˨˩ woi̯˨˩ / klùywày
2DL.M *kej A tu B → kai̯ A2 toi̯ B2 → ka˨˩ tuˀi̯˨˩ : kai̯˨˩ tai̯˨˩˨ : koi̯˨˩ toi̯ʔ˥˧ / kàytûy
2PL.M *glom D → klũ D2 → klõˀ˨˩ : klũ˨˩˨ : klũ˥˧ / klȕn

2SG.F *ŋlim C → ŋlãi̯ C2 → nlãˀ˦˥ : nlãˀi̯˦˥ : nlõi̯˥˧ / nlảyn
2DL.F *ⁿbwɛb B → bep B2 → bep˨˩ : bep˩ : beɸʔ˥˧ / bêp
2PL.F *ɣɔj A → i̯oi̯ A2 → i̯oi̯˨˩ : i̯ai̯˨˩ : i̯oi̯˨˩ / iùy

3SG.M *kɾɛ A → ke A1 → ke˧ : ke˧ : ke˧ / ke
3DL.M *dljɔnⁿg A → dlõg A2 → dlõg˨˩ : dlɔ̃g˨˩ : dlũɣ˨˩ / dlòn'g (if the coda were instead a velar nasal, it would be written dlòng(h); the non-nasal vowel with the velar nasal coda would be dlòhng)
3PL.M *βje C → ɸʃi C2 → ɸjeˀ˦˥ : ɸʃiˀ˦˥ : ɸʃi˥˧ / fsyỉ

3SG.F *ⁿbji A → bʒai̯ A2 → βi̯a˨˩ : bʒai̯˨˩ : bʒoi̯˨˩ / bzyày
3DL.F *sin B → sãi̯ B1 → sã˦˥ : sãi̯˨˩˨ : sũˀi̯˩˨ / sǎyn
3PL.F *ɸjew D → ɸʃiw D1 → ɸjew˦˥ : ɸʃiw˨˩˨ : ɸʃiw˥˧ / fsyīw
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