Overall, not bad.nzk13 wrote:Spoiler:LESSON 8:
切手をコンビ二で買った。 (can't use に as a locative for verbs that don't imply a static location)
母が郵便局へ行く。 (お母さん is the word I taught, but for now 母 still works)
母が手紙を出す。 (see above)
だ。 (小さい is a verbal adjective so it does not need the copula)
山が町から遠い "far from", not "far to"
犬の山は山をくる 山の犬が町へ/町に来る。 (remember that word order for の is like "'s", not like "of")
Code: Select all
prox med dist interrog pronominal これ それ あれ どれ kore sore are dòre (Informal) こいつ そいつ あいつ どいつ koitsu soitsu aitsu doitsu attributive この その あの どの kono sono ano dono locative ここ そこ あそこ どこ koko soko asoko dòko directional こちら そちら あちら どちら kochira sochira achira dòchira (informal) こっち そっち あっち どっち kotchi sotchi atchi dòtchi method こう そう ああ どう kō sō ā dṑ type こんな そんな あんな どんな konna sonna anna dònna
Yes, this is fine. It basically works the same as "this kind of/that kind of" in English. With に ni added it becomes "this much/that much"misora wrote:I'm trying to understand the latest one, and I had a question about the "type" ones. Could you use them to describe a type of people that you disagree with, as in the sentence "あんな人は好きじゃない"?
The difference is that the で de particle you are referring to is instrumental, e.g. 筆で字を書く Fude de jì o kàku "(You should) write the letters with a brush". Compare 字をこう書く Jì o kō kàku "(You should) write the letters like this."Also how does the "method" one differ from the particle で which I learned to roughly mean by means of, if that's actually correct.
clawgrip is certainly still active on the board, and I don't think they're going to ignore any questions you may have - no matter how many months ago the last post in the thread was.GrandPiano wrote:Is this still active? I'm reading through it, and I have a few questions.
This can happen yes, e.g. 町から mach(ì) karaGrandPiano wrote:OK, thanks. So, after a downstep, the pitch keeps rising, right? And is there a pitch reset after every word or word-particle combination? Also, I thought [ɺ] was in free variation with [ɾ]?
Finally - Are these vowel devoicings correct?I've read that accented vowels actually can be devoiced, and a pitch accent is still perceived thanks to the following downstep. Is this true?Spoiler:
For all the final vowel devoicings, everything I say here applies specifically to when the words are pronounced in isolation.
- 人 h(i)to yes
- 町 mach(i) no
- 行く ik(u) no
- 歩く aruk(u) maybe
- する s(u)ru no*
- しない sh(i)nai no*
- 話す hanas(u) yes
- 話した hanash(i)ta yes
- Final vowels cannot usually be devoiced unless the previous syllable has an accent. So for example, 価値 kàch(i) is fine. This is also why ik(u) is not normal, but arùk(u) is possible. There is, however, some variation in how people speak, and it's hard to say if it's being partially devoiced, shortened, or what's going on. I can imagine people saying, for example, sush(i).
- Normally, devoicing cannot occur when one of the surrounding consonants is voiced, which is why I said no for s(u)ru and sh(i)nai. But since these two are extremely common and basic words, they do sometimes get pronounced that way.
So you can take away from this that devoicing is messy in real speech, just like contractions and mergers in English. But according to more careful speech, the rules are fairly clear.