Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

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Ceresz
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Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 16:59

Lektion ett
Lesson one
In the first lesson we will rush trough the pronunciation and start looking at how nouns are declined.

Pronunciation
I won't be discussing the pronunciation that much, instead I will list of the consonant and vowel inventory. If you want to learn more you could always read up on the Wikipedia article on Swedish phonology here. I will try to list accurate IPA transcriptions when providing vocabulary. I might even upload pronunciation sound clips if I get the chance.

These are the consonant phonemes of Swedish:

Code: Select all

Nasal      : m n ŋ
Plosive    : p b t d k g 
Approximant: j
Fricative  : f v s ɕ ɧ*
Trill      : r**
Lateral    : l
* you can easily get away with pronouncing /ɧ/ as /x/, and I actually think most of the native speakers pronounce /ɧ/ this way.

** southern dialects pronounce /r/ as [ʀ] or [ʁ]. /r/ is often realized as [ɾ] as well.

These are the vowel phonemes:
Image

Indefinite and definite
Before moving on to the fun stuff we have to cover the different articles and how to use them.

There are to genders in Swedish: common gender (utrum) and neuter (neutrum). There used to be three genders (feminine, masculine and neuter), but feminine and masculine eventually merged into what is now the common gender.

The indefinite article for words of the common gender is en:
En hund - A dog
En katt - A cat
En kvinna - A woman
En man* - A man

The definite article is actually a suffix, -(e)n.
Hunden - The dog
Katten - The cat
Kvinnan - The woman
Mannen* - The man

* there is actually another word spelled <man> in Swedish, but with a different pronunciation and meaning. Man can either be [man:] which means man as in the example above, or [mɑːn] which means mane. The definate form of man as in mane is manen ([ˈmɑːnən]), while the definite form of the word for man is mannen ([ˈmanːən]).

The indefinite article for neuter nouns is ett.
Ett hus - A house
Ett jobb - A job
Ett liv - A life
Ett tak - A ceiling

The definite article for neuter nouns is also a suffix, -(e)t.
Huset - The house
Jobbet - The job
Livet - The life
Taket - The ceiling

Vocabulary so far & IPA
Since there is no way to tell what article you should use, I will provide the words with its corresponding article.

En katt - A cat - [ənː katː]
En hund - A dog - [ənː hɵnːd]
En kvinna - A woman - [ənː kvɪnːa]
En man - A man - [ənː manː]
En man - A mane - [ənː mɑːn]
Ett hus - A house - [ətː hʉːs]
Ett jobb - A job - [ətː jʊbː]
Ett liv - A life - [ətː liːv]
Ett tak - A ceiling - [ətː tɑːk]
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ossicone » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 18:25

Tack!

I'm glad you explained the <r> because I forgot to ask.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 18:32

Varsågod! (You're welcome)

I'll try to cover what we've already covered in the next two lessons :-).
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by rickardspaghetti » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 22:09

Gå över på svordomarna direkt. -_-
そうだ。死んでいる人も勃起することが出来る。
俺はその証だ。
Spoiler:
Ǧ Š Ȟ Ž Č

ǧ š ŋ ȟ ž č
:swe: [:D] :vgtl: [:D] :eng: [:)] :ita: [:|] :lkt: [:'(]
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 22:18

Nej :-o. Jag började ju lära henne så att hon skulle kunna säga/skriva annat än "tack, horor" :lol:.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ossicone » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 22:28

rickardspaghetti wrote:Gå över på svordomarna direkt. -_-
Concha tu madre weon. Como que coño. Eres un pendejo hijo de puta que te parió. :-D
Sorry for that, my finger slipped...
I just realized I know far to many swear words in Spanish. Also, some it's probably wrong, but whatever.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Sun 28 Nov 2010, 22:30

Spanish swearwords... yeah, I remember a few myself 8-).
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Mon 29 Nov 2010, 22:45

Lektion två
Lesson two
All right, in this lesson I will try to teach you how to form plural and genitive. In the next lesson we'll move on the good stuff (i.e forming complete sentences with verbs and pronouns and such).

Plural
Remember how I said that there is no way to tell whether to use en or ett? Well, this also goes for the plural forms. At least for two of them. Let's start by looking at the one we actually can predict.

Let's use the word flaska (bottle) which is a noun of the common gender (which means it takes the indefinite article en).

Code: Select all

            Singular    « Plural
Indefinite: (en) flaska « flaskor
            (a) bottle  « bottles 
Definite  : flaskan     « flaskorna
            the bottle  « the bottles
From now on let's call this plural form the -or form. Well then, how can we tell when to use this form? It's quite simple, actually. If the nouns ends in a (and is of the common gender, which all nouns belonging to the -or form are) you should use the -or form.

Now, I can't promise you that this is always the case since I haven't tried it out with every common gendered noun ending in a, so therefore I will suggest that you learn not only the indefinite article when learning a new noun, but also which plural form it belongs to (sorry).

As you can see (hopefully), all you need to do to remove the final a and replace it with the -or suffix, et voilà: plural. If you want to change it into definite all you have to do is add -na.

It should be noted that /r/ + /n/ is realized as [ɳ]. The same goes for /r/ + /t/, /d/, /s/ or /l/, which are realized as [ʈ], [ɖ], [ʂ] and [ɭ] respectively, even though it's probably far more common for /r/ + /l/ to be pronounced simply as [l].

All right, now let's take a look at the other two forms: -er and -ar.

-(e)r

Code: Select all

            Singular  « Plural
Indefinite: (en) katt « katter
            (a) cat   « cats
Definite  : katten    « katterna
            the cat   « the cats
-ar

Code: Select all

            Singular  « Plural
Indefinite: (en) hund « hundar
            (a) dog   « dogs
Definite  : hunden    « hundarna
            the dog   « the dogs
Unfortunately there is no way to tell when to use -er and when to use -ar, at least as far as I can tell, so you'll just have to learn it with the noun.

As you can see you simply attach the plural ending and then the definite ending (which is na once again).

-er nouns ending in e only receive an -r when in plural.

Now, I should also tell you that all of the nouns that take -ar plural form are of the common gender, just like the ones which take the -or form. Nouns which receive the -(e)r, however, consists mainly of common gendered nouns, but there are also some neuter nouns which take this ending in plural.

For example, the word parti (as in a political party):

Code: Select all

            Singular    « Plural
Indefinite: (ett) parti « partier
            (a) party   « parties
Definite  : partiet     « partierna
            the party   « parties
Now, let's move on to the two remaining plural forms. And trust me, they're easier.

Neuter nouns which end in a vowel simply take the ending -n when in plural indefinite, and -na when in plural definite. For example, the word hjärta (meaning heart):

Code: Select all

            Singular     « Plural
Indefinite: (ett) hjärta « hjärtan
            (a) heart    « hearts
Definite  : hjärtat      « hjärtana
            the heart    « the hearts
Simple, isn't it?

Now for something even simpler: neuter nouns which doesn't end in a vowel receive no ending at all. The plural form is the same as the singular form. Let's use the word hus (house), which you've already encountered to demonstrate this:

Code: Select all

            Singular  « Plural
Indefinite: (ett) hus « hus
            (a) house « houses
Definite  : huset     « husen
            the house « the houses


As you can see the only difference is the plural definite form, which is marked by the suffix -en.

All right, that was easy, wasn't it?

It should be noted that there are also a few common gendered nouns which are unmarked in plural indefinite as well. These words are usually derived from other words. For example the word bagare which means baker is derived from the verb att baka which means to bake.

Code: Select all

            Singular    « Plural
Indefinite: (en) bagare « bagare
            (a) baker   « bakers
Definite  : bagaren     « bagarna
            the baker   « the bakers


The plural definite suffix is the same as for any other common gendered noun, only difference here being that it replaces the final e in the word bagare. The singular definite suffix is also the same as for any common gendered noun.

Genitive
Now, how the hell do you form genitive you might ask? Well... I'll tell you, but I'm warning you, it's actually quite difficult. Ready? All right, here I go...

Add -s.

Hard, isn't it? If you had trouble with that, wait until I tell you what to do when a noun already ends in s like hus:

You don't add it.

*insert sound of minds being blown*

Structure of nouns
All right, let's sum it all up by showing you which order everything goes in. It's actually quite simple and shouldn't take you too long to memorise:

Noun stem « (Plural) « (Definite suffix) « (Genitive -s)

For example, if we wanted to put hund in the definite and genitive form we would first add the definite suffix which is -en and the add the genitive suffix which is (don't beat yourself up if you can't remember) -s:

Hundens
The dog's

Now you should have enough knowledge to form sentences like Hundens hus (The dog's house) :-D.

Vocabulary & IPA
All right, before listing the vocabulary I just wanted to add that vocabulary will be given with it's indefinite article and indefinite plural form from now on, unless it's the same as its indefinite singular form, then you'll only see the article. I will be enclosing the plural forms in parenthesis. And since I didn't list the plural form for the previous lesson I'll add them too.

En katt(er) - A cat - [ənː kʰatː]
En hund(ar) - A dog - [ənː hɵnːd]
En kvinna(or) - A woman - [ənː kʰvɪnːa]
En man* - A man - [ənː manː]
En man(ar) - A mane - [ənː mɑːn]
Ett hus - A house - [ətː hʉːs]
Ett jobb - A job - [ətː jʊbː]
Ett liv - A life - [ətː liːv]
Ett tak - A ceiling - [ətː tʰɑːk]

* the plural of man (man) is män [mənː].

En flaska(or) - A bottle - [ənː flasːka]
Ett parti(er) - A political party - [ətː pʰaʈiː]
Ett hjärta(n) - A heart - [ətː jæʈa]
En bagare - A baker [ənː bɑːgarə]
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Mon 29 Nov 2010, 23:00

I will try to add some exercises to the next lesson.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ossicone » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 05:54

Can I say:

Hundens huset

to mean 'the house of the dog'?

Also, Ossicones fiskar!
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 13:19

Ossicone wrote:Can I say:

Hundens huset

to mean 'the house of the dog'?

Also, Ossicones fiskar!
Well, hundens hus both mean 'the dog's house' and the 'house of the dog', since 'of' constructions aren't generally used in Swedish, so no. But your second sentence is of course correct ;-).
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ear of the Sphinx » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 14:36

What's the difference between hundens hus and hundens huset? Only the first one is correct?
Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ossicone » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 19:28

Milya0 wrote:What's the difference between hundens hus and hundens huset? Only the first one is correct?
I was trying to see if the noun after the genitive could take a definite article. (But it can't, like English.)

In Spanish you could say:
La casa del perro.
Lit: The house of the dog.
'The dog's house'

OR

Una casa del perro.
Lit: 'A house of the dog.'
'The dog's house.' (Implying he has more than one.)
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 20:22

Yeah, listen to Ossicone. I'm not in the condition to explain Swedish to anyone right now, so lesson three will have to wait until tomorrow. Sorry.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ossicone » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 20:28

Ceresz wrote:Yeah, listen to Ossicone. I'm not in the condition to explain Swedish to anyone right now, so lesson three will have to wait until tomorrow. Sorry.
Yes, because I am the master of Swedish! :mrgreen:

How do you say beer then?
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 20:32

Ossicone wrote:
Ceresz wrote:Yeah, listen to Ossicone. I'm not in the condition to explain Swedish to anyone right now, so lesson three will have to wait until tomorrow. Sorry.
Yes, because I am the master of Swedish! :mrgreen:

How do you say beer then?
You sure are.

Beer in swedih i öl [øːl],
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ossicone » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 20:43

Jag ha horans öl.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 20:44

Ossicone wrote:Jag ha horans öl.
Almost correct. Present tense of "att ha" is "har". So it should be "Jag har horans öl" :-D.
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by eldin raigmore » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 22:08

Ceresz wrote:These are the vowel phonemes:
Image
Your phonology has way too many front-vowel phonemes and way too few central-vowel phonemes. I advise you to re-do your 'lang with a more symmetrical arrangement of most front-vowels being matched by back-vowels at the same "height" (closeness), and also with some more central-vowels (though not as many as back-vowels).

Also, your front-vowels are too concentrated in the "closer" section of the chart; it looks like nearly all the vowels that are front of center are also closer than open-mid. If you're going to have that many front- and near-front-vowels, you should spread them out more and have more of them be near-open and open and open-mid.

Are you aware that the name of your conlang is in fact the name of an actual natlang?
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Re: Swedish lessons - Svenskalektioner

Post by Ceresz » Tue 30 Nov 2010, 22:09

...yes, since this is an actual natlang.
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