Vaku lessons

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KpTroopaFR
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Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 18:32

Hello, and welcome to my Vaku lessons, where you can learn Vaku, ask questions and even contribute !

Vaku is my second conlang, and is a work in progress. It is built around a simple concept :
1. In a word, if the first Consonnant is voiced, then all of the other consonnant will be voiceless.
Example : pidawa : life
2. The maximum amount of CV syllables in a word is 3, but as many lone consonnants as humanly prounceable can be put in between.
Example : Čwurgvab : earth/ground.

Now the alphabet [:D]

Vowels :
a /a/
e /e/
ë /ɛ/
o /o/
i /i/
u /u/

Consonnants :
b /b/
p /p/
g /g/
k /k/
j /ɮ/
č /ɬ/
w /w/
hw /ʍ/
d /d/
t /t/
dh /ð/
th /θ/
r /r/
hr /r̥/
v /v/
f /f/
h /h/*

*NOTE : the letter "h" is "neutral", and thus acts as both voiced and voiceless.

Next up, grammar and conjugation !
Last edited by KpTroopaFR on Mon 25 Jul 2016, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 19:27

Nouns' Declension
Nouns decline according to number.

Examples :
vkohr : soul
Singular : vkohr
Plural : vkohrtha

pidawa : life

Singular : pidawa
Plural : pidawdha

In conclusion, for nouns that end in consonnants, add "-tha" if the last consonnant is voiceless, or "-dha" if it's voiced. For nouns that end in vowels, do the same, but remove the last vowel.

Conjugating verbs
Verbs conjugate according to person, number and tense.
All verbs end in "-e" in their infinitive and first person forms.

Example :

kade : to catch

Present :
1st Sg.: ku kade
2nd Sg.: wu kada
3rd Sg.: te/tha/dhi kado
1st Pl .: hwe kad
2nd Pl.: wuth kadwu
3rd Pl.: dhët kadwi

Preterit
1st Sg.: kadre
2nd Sg.: kadra
3rd Sg.: kadro
1st Pl .: kad
2nd Pl.: kadru
3rd Pl.: kadri

Future
1st Sg.: kaje
2nd Sg.: kaja
3rd Sg.: kajo
1st Pl .: ka
2nd Pl.: kaju
3rd Pl.: kaji

For verbs like dete (to be) that end in voiceless consonnants, replace w, r and j by hw, hr and č respectively.

Next up, more grammar !
Last edited by KpTroopaFR on Tue 26 Jul 2016, 10:22, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 20:16

Now let's take a peek at the writing system, shall we ?

Warning : big image
Spoiler:
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As you may have noticed, the Vaku writing system is quite similar to the elvish one. Meaning that the vowels aren't really letters on their own, but rather diacritic marks.

A couple useful sentences/words :
Dikahwu [->] Hello
Tigawu [->] Goodbye
Va deto wu vutaha ? [->] (Literally) What is your mood ?
Huda deta wu ? [->] Who are you ?
Va deto wu gekaro ? [->] What is your name ?
Ku dete KpTroopaFR [->] I am KpTroopaFR
Ku gekaro deto KpToopaFR [->] My name is KpTroopaFR
Ku pidowe di... [->] I live in...
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by kiwikami » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 20:55

The idea of this voicing contrast continuing throughout the entire word is an interesting one - a pleasant switcharoo from voicing assimilation as it's usually implemented. Are there ever any affixes or other morphemes that don't conform to the voicing rule, or is it universal? Do the second parts of compounds (if compounding is possible) follow the rule as well? Can words ever begin with the neutral /h/?

I also noticed you have interdental /θ/ and /ð/ and lateral /ɬ/ and /ɮ/, but no alveolar /s/ and /z/; is there a particular reason why you chose this? (Not liking alveolar fricatives, fyi, is a perfectly good reason. [:P] ) Also, phonemes in the IPA are usually represented between slashes // while phones go between brackets []; so when presenting the phonology, slashes are likely closer to what you're getting at here.

An abugida writing system! [+1] Such fun! Or is it an abjad? (That is, do you have to write out every vowel diacritic, or can they be omitted if they can be inferred from the rest of the word/context?) Either way - such fun! [:D]
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 21:05

kiwikami wrote:The idea of this voicing contrast continuing throughout the entire word is an interesting one - a pleasant switcharoo from voicing assimilation as it's usually implemented. Are there ever any affixes or other morphemes that don't conform to the voicing rule, or is it universal? Do the second parts of compounds (if compounding is possible) follow the rule as well? Can words ever begin with the neutral /h/?

I also noticed you have interdental /θ/ and /ð/ and lateral /ɬ/ and /ɮ/, but no alveolar /s/ and /z/; is there a particular reason why you chose this? (Not liking alveolar fricatives, fyi, is a perfectly good reason. [:P] ) Also, phonemes in the IPA are usually represented between slashes // while phones go between brackets []; so when presenting the phonology, slashes are likely closer to what you're getting at here.

An abugida writing system! [+1] Such fun! Or is it an abjad? (That is, do you have to write out every vowel diacritic, or can they be omitted if they can be inferred from the rest of the word/context?) Either way - such fun! [:D]
1) The voicing rule is universal, and english suffixes like "-er" or "-est" are seperate words, used as adjectives ("har" and "ki"). And words can begin with "h"

2) In my opinion, /θ/ and /ð/ act like /s/ and /z/ substitutes and I prefer the interdentals over the alveolars [:P]. Also, /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ act as /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ substitutes as well.

3) I'll correct the "slashes problem".

4) Vowels cannot be omitted, but consonnants can go without them (as in the aforementioned "Čwurdëgvab").

Have fun with the abugida !
Last edited by KpTroopaFR on Mon 25 Jul 2016, 22:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 21:29

Do you perchance know someone who could turn my handwritten letters into computer-made ones ? Not necessarily fonts or Unicode characters, but just nicer looking computer-made symbols.

If you do, let me know.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Mon 25 Jul 2016, 21:58

More Grammar rules

Possessors (my, your, his...) don't exist in Vaku. Instead, they are replaced by the owner's pronoun.
Example : Ku hitha detwi raku. = Me [owns [->]] pets are small. = My pets are small.

From verbs to nouns :

1st declension : dete : to be [->] duhuth : existence, being [first type] ; hruge : to speak, talk, say [->] hruguth [second type]
2nd declension : roče : to love [->] roča : love, romance
3rd declension : fahe : to fall [->] fahi : fall
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by DesEsseintes » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 05:05

KpTroopaFR wrote:Do you perchance know someone who could turn my handwritten letters into computer-made ones ? Not necessarily fonts or Unicode characters, but just nicer looking computer-made symbols.

If you do, let me know.
I recommend looking up clawgrip, our resident conscript magician. [:)]

I'm pretty sure this thread contains some useful advice of the sort you're looking for.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 09:45

DesEsseintes wrote:
KpTroopaFR wrote:Do you perchance know someone who could turn my handwritten letters into computer-made ones ? Not necessarily fonts or Unicode characters, but just nicer looking computer-made symbols.

If you do, let me know.
I recommend looking up clawgrip, our resident conscript magician. [:)]

I'm pretty sure this thread contains some useful advice of the sort you're looking for.
I'll make sure to check that out, thank you.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 14:09

Now for some lexicon !
Keep in mind the lexicon only has over a hundred words, meaning it will constantly be updated.

Page 1
pidawa : life.
dhehëka : death
vkohr : soul
bačoku : mind, mindscape
čwurdëgvab : earth, ground, overworld (as in the world of the living/mortal)
vohrak : sky, heaven
rif : yes
gak : no
pidowe : to live
dhehokthe : to die
tor : please
gači : thank you
dikahwu : hello, greetings
tigawu : goodbye
hejoge : to breathe
dete : to be
hate : to have
ku : I, me, my
wu : you, your (1 pers.)
te : he, him, his
tha : she, her
dhi : it, this, its
hwe : we, our
wuth : you, your (plur.)
dhët : they, them, their
kade : to catch
koda : language
ki : superlative mark
har : comparison mark
kodre : constructed, built up, made up
gut : good
bat : bad
roča : love
roče : to love
githë : animal
hithë : pet
vaka : arm
kuwëjo : blood
thavho : gold
čivo : head
jahito : hand
čegdhu : man, human, mortal
čegdha : woman
dedë : mountain
hradh : sea
va : what
huda : who
vuhi : which
hwido : why
vfatu : when
vtak : where
kuth : while
vëku : bird
gepuku : blade
buki : book
hwagude : wolf
rothe : to see
gihrapu : friend
gihrape : to be friend
hhrat : big, large
haguge : wide
raku : small
hegabu : short
geku : happy
thavhëd : golden
kuwëjëd : bloody
rakičëd : creative
rite : to do
dkafu : easy
dhhrifu : hard
hitako : music
dakuhu : made of stone
figi : fish
rakifo : iron
hekepu : steel
rath : weapon
rakiči : creativity
hekepëd : made of metal
dhihehëhr : intricate
hhratkuhu : boulder
kuhu : stone (in general)
pebble : rakuhu
hipa : like, as
hu : and
kiboru : according to
rëthihe : can be, to be able to
bëti : beast, monster
rathëte : to rain
rathëtuth : rain
kodi : tomorrow
kidi : yesterday
hatu : indeed
da : here, there
raktu : long
rita : light, brightness, enlightenment
ritahët : lit up, enlightened
hiri : hair
hakuhr : everything
hikuhr : nothing
hokuhr : anything, something
btihre : to be born
karuhe : to stay, to remain
rithi : free
hiča : equal
këgbi : right (legal)
dota : doctor, medic
dheke : to sing
fahe : to fall
fahi : fall
di : in
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 14:46

Page 2
këv : if
kegavwe : to lie (on the ground)
fege : to (tell a) lie
krog : dog
jupu : cat
dhehokthët : dead
hwerugvab : on the ground
wethe : to eat
rihre : to stack
bokiku : bottom
beto : boat
krova : chain
krove : to chain
krovëd : chained up
tiwo : afraid
rife : to riot
kire : to kill
waha : white
baha : black
betofë : on board (boat)
pugu : steerage
pahi : innocent
jath : guilty
rak : mean
hevagi : anger
hëvge : to anger
hëvged : angry, angered
fere : to fly
feri : flight
hëtuku : hell
dhaka : stormy
dhak : storm
rathëtu : rainy
paro : idiot, idiotic
čveha : star
refe : shine
jahuth : meeting
jate : to meet
tagoro : time (period)
hëhriku : time (moment/hours)
pahbe : to present
këgwar : god, deity
gvë : end
rik : on, upon
këji : angel
čeče : to send
krače : to bless
hibe : to help, to save
hrije : to survive
thagve : to think
hruge : to speak, to talk, to say
hruguth : dialogue
kidor : crazy
kiwe : to start
hërv : elf
ghra : with
kudova : concept
duhuth : existence, being
feguth : lie
hejugudh : breath
kagra : deep (literally)
čiruvu : deep (mentally, as in "that's deep")
rothuth : sight
gihraputh : friendship
rite : to light up
reke : to recommend
vutaha : mood, moodiness
vutahe : to be moody
gekaro : name
vikahwu : hello (to all people)
përde : to fart (loudly)
pëjde : to fart (softly)
rakiče : to be creative
wate : to want, to be willing to, to look forward to
čivde : order
karadha : coffee
čara : old
bepu : new
Last edited by KpTroopaFR on Tue 26 Jul 2016, 16:37, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by Xing » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 14:59

My favourite question when I discover another conlang teaching:

How do I order a cup of coffee?
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 15:00

Xing wrote:My favourite question when I discover another conlang teaching:

How do I order a cup of coffee?
Interesting. I'll take note and make it "askable".
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 15:07

Xing wrote:My favourite question when I discover another conlang teaching:

How do I order a cup of coffee?
You can just say :
"ku wate karadha čivde, tor"
Or shorter : "wate karadha čivte tor"
Which means "I am willing to order coffee [OMITTED : so serve me coffee], please"

There you go ^^
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by Lambuzhao » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 15:47

DesEsseintes wrote:
KpTroopaFR wrote:Do you perchance know someone who could turn my handwritten letters into computer-made ones ? Not necessarily fonts or Unicode characters, but just nicer looking computer-made symbols.

If you do, let me know.
I recommend looking up clawgrip, our resident conscript magician. [:)]

I'm pretty sure this thread contains some useful advice of the sort you're looking for.
Correction: our Most Valuable Conscriptorial Mage in residence
[;)]
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by Lambuzhao » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 15:52

Is the citation/dictionary/generasl verb form in /e/ an INFINITIVE? or is it the PRS.1SG ??

If it is the infinitive, is it pronounced differently from the PRS.1SG???

ku wate karadha čivde, tor Lit. 'I'd like to order a coffee, please'

vs

ku čivde karadha Lit. 'I'm ordering coffee {now}'

:wat:
:?:
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 15:56

Lambuzhao wrote:Is the citation/dictionary/generasl verb form in /e/ an INFINITIVE? or is it the PRS.1SG ??

If it is the infinitive, is it pronounced differently from the PRS.1SG???

ku wate karadha čivde, tor Lit. 'I'd like to order a coffee, please'

vs

ku čivde karadha Lit. 'I'm ordering coffee {now}'

:wat:
:?:
It's pronounced the same. You can tell them apart by seeing where they are in the sentence. It's more or less comparable to irregular verbs in english : you just have to know it.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by Lambuzhao » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 16:00

vfatu koda btihro
ku vkohr dheko!

[:D]
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by KpTroopaFR » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 16:06

Lambuzhao wrote:vfatu koda btihro
ku vkohr dheko!

[:D]
You just reminded me to tell everyone to try to speak Vaku, as they have everything to make a basic dialogue.
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Re: Vaku lessons

Post by Lambuzhao » Tue 26 Jul 2016, 16:08

You show basic possessor [->] possessed relationships

E.g.

ku hitha 'my pets'
wu vutaha 'your mood'
wu gekaro 'your name'

How does a possessive work between two nouns? The same or different?

How do ADJs work? Do they go before or after nouns they modify?

How do you say 'old' and 'new' ?

Oh, could you also talk about Adjective Comparison (Comparative, Superlative) if it exists in Vaku?

[:)]
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