Šaupė

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ian9113
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Šaupė

Post by ian9113 » Wed 21 Sep 2011, 03:19

Šaupė is a language I've recently created, originally called "August" because I made it in August and tend to be very dissatisfied with language names. I'm still not completely sold on "Šaupė."

Anyway, Šaupė is an SVO language with a large consonant and vowel inventory, with a strict vowel harmony system that is used to distinguish tense in verbs. It also has a pitch-accent (two-tone) system. It has some nasal vowels, as well as "palatalized" vowels, vowels that tend to sound between [ja] and [a] (with the vowel replacing <a>), making the preceding consonant more palatal as well.

Phonology / Orthography.

Consonants:
Image

Vowels:
Image

Vowel Harmony:

Code: Select all

Front   Middle    Back
i       ɪ - ɨ     u
e       ø         o
ɛ       y
a
A word can have vowels that belong to either Front or Back groups, and either can contain a Middle vowel, which is considered neutral:

If a word's first vowel (that is not a middle vowel) is a Front vowel, then the following vowels must either be Middle or Front vowels.
If a word's first vowel is a Back vowel, then the following vowels must be either Back or Middle.
If a word's first vowel is a Middle vowel, the following vowel can be either front or back, but after it is a front vowel, then the following vowels must be either front or middle. (I.e., pö > pösa > pösasesüny (no back vowels))

The only time vowel harmony is broken is when using the formal (which is inflected on almost every part of speech). In example, the informal sentence "Go to the house", 'ipravė ę dvonu' in the formal is 'iprace ęn dvoňe', where "dvoňe" violates the vowel harmony of the otherwise back-vowel word.

You can download an incomplete grammar PDF here:
Šaupė Grammar PDF

Some things that are not included but are complete:

Verb person endings:

Code: Select all

     S       P
1    da/du  ca/cu
2    vė/vu  žė/žu
3    sa/so  ša/šo
Example, verb = "vama", 'to see'

Code: Select all

Present - vama
vamada   vamaca     I see       we see
vamavė   vamažė     you see     y'all see
vamasa   vamaša     it sees     they see

Past - vumu
vumudu   vumucu     I saw       we saw
vumuvu   vumužu     you saw     y'all saw
vumuso   vumušu     it saw      they saw

Future - vimi
vimida   vimica     I will see       we will see
vimivė   vimižė     you will see     you all will see
vimisa   vimiša     it will see      they will see
Thoughts, criticisms, comments?

WIP Dictionary (alphabet has more stuff than the grammar book; numbers and some other things): WIP Dictionary
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:eng: :deu: :hun: (kezdő)
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Solarius
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Re: Šaupė

Post by Solarius » Wed 21 Sep 2011, 20:28

I like it! The phoneme inventory is pretty european, but if that's what your going for, its fine.
Check out Ussaria!
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Re: Šaupė

Post by Valoski » Wed 21 Sep 2011, 20:30

God its nice to see a non-nooby European phonology. I just love European phonologies.
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Xing
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Re: Šaupė

Post by Xing » Wed 21 Sep 2011, 20:48

ian9113 wrote:It has some nasal vowels, as well as "palatalized" vowels, vowels that tend to sound between [ja] and [a] (with the vowel replacing <a>), making the preceding consonant more palatal as well.
Are palatalised vowels a kind of rising/opening diphthongs?
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Re: Šaupė

Post by ian9113 » Wed 21 Sep 2011, 21:47

xingoxa wrote:Are palatalised vowels a kind of rising/opening diphthongs?
A bit, I don't know exactly how to explain it, but in the word "pêngka", in that case instead of the word being [pjɛŋka], it reduces the amount of palatalization on the [ɛ] but also increases the intensity of the [p], making pêngka pronounced ['pʰʲɛŋka].

Thank you for the kind words. I suppose I was going for a mostly European phonology. Not all of the consonants are used.

Also, I forgot to mention that an ogonek represents nasal vowels (ą ę į ų) and a circumflex represents "palatal" vowels (â ê î ô û).

I'm trying to get a bit more done on the grammar; at the moment I know that adverbs must match the verb and adjectives must match that which they describe. Hopefully soon I'll be able to get some relative clauses up... :-s

Syllable Structure:

Words can be a limitless number of syllables, but at least must be either a consonant or a vowel. (Similar to Czech "v"). Consonants can be clustered together, (CVCCV) usually medial-only. For instance, [pm] can only occur between vowels while [st] can occur before or after or between. There are no "illegal" or impossible consonant clusters, as long as it's part of the phonology it works. In addition to consonant clusters between vowels, [r] and [j] can be inserted after any consonant, thus you can have CVCCjV, (i.e. "kafkje" or something). Such a consonant cluster as [fk] can't occur initially or finally. Clusters such as [st], [ʃt], [dv], [ts], [dz], can.
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eldin raigmore
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Re: Šaupė

Post by eldin raigmore » Thu 29 Sep 2011, 21:32

ian9113 wrote:You can download an incomplete grammar PDF here:
Šaupė Grammar PDF
Good so far! 8-)
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Re: Šaupė

Post by ian9113 » Thu 06 Oct 2011, 22:18

Recently I figured out some of that verbs inflect for. As you may know, verbs have three "slots", the prefix, the vowels in the verb, and the suffix. Vowels inflect for tense, and suffixes inflect for person and tense (when a vowel change is not possible). Prefixes inflect for mood, voice, and some other things. The possible prefixes and their meanings are listed below:

Imperative Mood - Present tense only
i(s)- / ü(s)-
Iprase ę dvonu. Go to the house.
i-pras-e ę dvo-nu
IMP-go.PRES.1sg the house-ACC

Causative - All tenses
ve(s)- / vö(s)-
Ū veprasa ę dvonu juo vösėre įžne cy. Because I go to the house, you are near it.
ū ve-pras-a ę dvo-nu juo vös-ėre įžne cy
I CAUS1-go.PRES-1sg the house-ACC you CAUS2-are near it.ACCsg

When using the causative, the second verb (the effect) always uses the prefix, regardless of vowel harmony category.

Perfective - All tenses
ante(s)- / onty(s)-
Anteprasa ę dvonu. I have gone to the house. (Present perfect)
Ontyposu ę dvonu. I had gone to the house. (Past perfect)
Ontyprosu ę dvonu. I have always gone to the house. (Past iterative/habitual perfect)
Antepėsa ę dvonu. I will have gone to the house. (Future perfect)

The perfective has another form used with the future to form the future-past perfect:
āntė(s)- / öntü(s)-
Āntėpėsa ę dvonu. I will have gone to the house. (Future past perfect)

I don't know if some of these would be considered imperfect or perfect, but they're considered the same as this is the only way to create such a construction in Šaupė.
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Re: Šaupė

Post by Chelsara » Thu 06 Oct 2011, 23:25

I don't have anything constructive to add, but I like it so far!

Where did you get the name from? Reminds me of a name of one of my conlangs, Ķaupe. Haha :-)
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Re: Šaupė

Post by ian9113 » Sun 09 Oct 2011, 03:02

I don't really know where I got the name... out of thin air I suppose (where I get most words if I'm not feeling lazy).

I'd like to talk about some of the language in terms of the culture. Šaupė has an involved honorifics system, where almost every part of a clause can inflect for honorifics(?). For instance:

"Go to the house" in standard (familiar):

Iprase ę dvonu.
/i'prasɛ ɛ̃ 'dʋʷonʊ/
i-pras-e ę dvo-nu
IMP-go.PRS-3sg the house-ACC


This basic form is used for familiar people, such as family members, friends, younger people, etc. etc. Past this, there are three more levels of possible honorific speech:

1) The verb is honorific:

Iprace ę dvonu.
/i'pracɛ ɛ̃ 'dʋʷonʊ/
Please go to the house.

2) The object is honorific:

Iprase ęn dvoňe.
/i'pracɛ ɛ̃n 'dʋʷoɲɛ/
Go to the house, please.

3) Both the verb and subject are honorific:

Iprace ęn dvoňe.
//i'pracɛ ɛ̃n 'dʋʷoɲɛ/
Could you possibly go to the house?

Almost every case has an honorary alternative. However, this does not create more than three levels of honorary inflection as above. Only in the third and most honorary level are all parts of speech inflected if possible. An honorary inflection is allowed to violate a vowel harmony rule, as in dvoňe.
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Re: Šaupė

Post by cybrxkhan » Sun 09 Oct 2011, 03:06

OMG IT'S A EUROPEAN PHONOLOGY! NOOOOOOOooo... Just kidding.

Judging from your examples it really reminds of Romanian for some reason. Did you draw inspiration from there, or am I just making assumptions?
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ian9113
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Re: Šaupė

Post by ian9113 » Sun 09 Oct 2011, 17:32

cybrxkhan wrote:OMG IT'S A EUROPEAN PHONOLOGY! NOOOOOOOooo... Just kidding.

Judging from your examples it really reminds of Romanian for some reason. Did you draw inspiration from there, or am I just making assumptions?
I get bored with limited phonological inventories... I tend to be like "I want THAT sound!", so this is as small as it gets!

Most of my inspiration for this is from Baltic ~ Slavic. "Dvo" comes from the general Slavic root "dom" or something. Perhaps the circumflexes remind you of Romanian? Also, some words have Latin roots, such as "mėnsis" for month and "memyras" for memory...

In Šaupė, as you may know, tense is inflected by changing the vowels of a word. These changes tend to follow a certain pattern (however most of the time I forget the pattern so it can change). The infinitive form of the verb, such as "ansavis", to make up or create, can have either front, middle, or back vowels (recall the three categories of vowels for vowel harmony). For example, "jungo", to join or participate. The infinitive is also the present tense, so "ansava" is "I make" and "jungu" is "I participate." The vowels need to change to form the past tense, which must consist of back vowels.

Front-vowel Infinitive to Past Tense:
i > u , o
ė > ö , ü
e > o , u
a > u
ā > ū

The second vowel in a series is what comes after the first. This means that if you had a present tense verb with two "i"s, the second "i" would be "o" and not "u". This is not always done...

Middle-vowel Infinitive to Past Tense:
ü > u
ö > o
y > u ~ o

Back-vowel Infinitive to Past Tense:
ū > u
u > ü
o > ö

Thus,
ansavis > onsuvus (a > o instead of a > u)
jungo > jüngö

The future tense must consist of all front vowels.

Past tense to Future tense:
ü > e
ö > a ~ ė
y > i
ū > ė
u > a ~ e ~ ė ~ i
o > ė ~ e ~ a

Thus,
onsuvus > ėnsėvis
jüngö > jenga

As in most languages, Šaupė has various irregular verbs that may or may not follow this pattern. For the most part, however, each tense form will have the same vowel category as they should.

Two irregular verbs, "prasis" to go, and "tūrus" to have.
present > past > past iterative/habitual > future
prasis > posu > prosu > pėsė
tūrus > tčauru > tčūru > tāre
Edit: Change log:
1. Made <u> represent /ʊ/, and <ū> represent /u/, and ā represent /æ/.
2. Changed verb-person endings:

Code: Select all

    S            P  
1  a / u      ne / nū
2  e / ö      jys / jys
3  ai / uo    â / û
prasa prasne
prase prajys
prasai prasâ
Deutsche Sprache = schwere Sprache
:eng: :deu: :hun: (kezdő)
:con: Adranivicu
:con: Minten
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