Omzinian Scrap thread

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Omzinian Scrap thread

Post by Omzinesý » Mon 21 Jan 2013, 20:58

It's better to look at the last message!
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project I

Post by Omzinesý » Mon 21 Jan 2013, 20:59

My newest project: Qhe´`a:g

Phonology

Code: Select all

		            bilabial	      dental	        palatal	velar	        uvular               glottal
nasal:		        /m/ <m>	    /n/ <n>		               /ŋ/ <ṅ>
‘nasal affricate’*: /m~/ <mx> 	  /n~/ <nx>		            /ŋ~/ <n>
affricate:		   /p͡φ/ <px/bx>	/t͡θ/ <tx/dx>		       /k͡x/ <kx/gx>	/qχ/ <qx/ĝx>
plosive:		      /p/ <p/b>	   /t/ <t/d>		           /k/ <k/g>	    /q/ <q/ĝ>              /ʔ/ <´/`>
spirant:		      /φ/ <ph/bh>	/θ/ <th/dh>		          /x/ <kh/gh>	  /χ/ <qh/ĝh>           h <’h/`h>
sibilant:			                   /s/ <s/z>			
lateral:			                     /r/ <r>			                        /ʀ/ <r̂>	
semi-vowel:				                           /j/ <j/y>		
*A nasal affricate is just a nasal followed by a nasalized vowel, on the surface. It does, however, contrast with a ‘plain nasal’ that is followed by a non-nasal vowel. I think postulating the concept of the nasal affricate is easier than claiming that nasality is a feature of vowels that appears exclusively after nasal consonants. That would double the number of vowels.

Vowels
Short
i, y u
eH, eL, ø, , o
a*

Long
i:, y:, u:
e:H, e:L, ø:, o:
a:*

*I have some problems with describing the phoneme /e/ because of the vowel harmony. eH, and eL are one phoneme, but they behave differently in respect of the vowel harmony.

Phonotaxis

Vowel harmony
There is a high/low vowel harmony in the language. So, vowels of the high group (i, i:, y, y:, u, u:, eH, e:H) cannot appear in the same word with vowels of the low group (eL, e:L, ø, ø:, o, o:, a, a:).

The high and low vowels correspond to each other. So, all suffixes and infixes have high and low variant. /e/ appears in both groups but corresponds to different vowels.
i – eL
i: - e:L
y – ø
y: - ø:
u – o
u: - o:
eH –a
e:H - a:

Uvulars appear exclusively in words with vowels of the low group.



The most complex syllabic structure is CCVC and the simplest CV.

All consonants (expect affricates that are changed to plain stops or nasals) can appear either as onsets or codas.

Long vowels are treated as one vowel here. Analyses of two identical vowels would be very possible but then the phonotaxis would need schemes with two vowels. There are no diphthongs, but /j/ can follow a vowel and be pronounced phonetically like a diphthong.

Onset clusters can only consist of “harmonic” stops or nasals. They are, thus, either two nasals or two plosives with identical MOA’s. They are articulated with one release, so the first consonant is non-released. A velar and a uvular cannot form a harmonic cluster. In morphological processes, vowels can appear between the components of harmonic clusters, so they are not treated as a single phoneme.

pt, pk, pq, tp, tk, tq, kp, kt, qp, qt
mn, mŋ, nm, nŋ, ŋm, ŋn

All consonants (expect affricates that are changed to plain stops or nasals) can appear either as onsets or codas.

Long vowels are treated as one vowel here. Analyses of two identical vowels would be very possible but then the phonotaxis would need schemes with two vowels. There are no diphthongs, but /j/ can follow a vowel and be pronounced phonetically like a diphthong.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project I

Post by Omzinesý » Sun 27 Jan 2013, 12:52

Can anybody understand this?

Tone

Qhe`a:g has two segmental tones: H (high) and L (low). But all syllables have two segmental tones which makes the number of syllabic tones four: HH (high-high), HL (high-low), LH (low-high), and LL (low-low). What is special in the tonal system of Qhe`a:g is that the initial tone of a syllable is always lexical, but the second tone is part of a grammatical pattern that is used in derivational morphology.

The initial (lexical) tone of the syllable has developed from the voice value of the preceding consonant, and because the morphology of the language is, to some extend, based on consonental radicals, the lexical tone is phomically part of the consonant. The tone is still written with consonant letter, as well. Because the native writing system is a kind of abugida, there isn’t any other possibility to do that.

As seen in the phonology section, every obstruent has two letters to write it. The first one (unvoiced at the beginning) marks the high tone following the consonant and the second (voiced letter) marks the low tone. Both of the examples below would have the other (grammatical) tone segment following the lexical one. So the surface realization of <ta> would actually have either HH or HL tone.

<ta> /ta˥/
<da> /ta˩/

The tonogenesis is so new a process in the course of the language that the consonants without an unvoiced pair (i.e. sonorants) cannot trigger a tone on the following syllable either. They just take the following tone (if they are not preceded by an obstruent (see below)).

If a consonant is not followed by a vowel but an obstruent or the word end, it just loses its tone.
If a consonant is followed by a sonorant, its tone is realized in the following syllable, because sonorants do not have an inherent tone. The tone of the consonant just jumps over the tonally neutral obstruent.

Examples:
(The underlined tones are grammatical and not handled here.)

<senki> ‘man’ [sen˥ki˥˩]
HH HL

<senak> ‘mankind’ [se˥˩nak˩]
HL LL
- The beginning of the syllable beginning with /n/ adopts the following (grammatical) low tone.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project II

Post by Omzinesý » Tue 19 Mar 2013, 18:52

My new project: Qoyan

The phonology is a mixture of a fonology somebody presented on ZBB and my old African-Greenlandic phonology.


plosives: p t[ɾ] k q k͡p
nasals: m n ŋ ŋ͡m
pre-nasalized stops: mb nd ŋg ŋ͡mg͡b
voiced fricatives: j ɣ ʁ
voiceless fricatives: s ʃ[ɧ] χ (h)
latral: l
clicks: |‖

[ɾ] is an allophone of /t/ between vowels
[ɧ] is an allophone of /ʃ/ if it's in a breathy envirnment
Nasals and nasalized prenasalized stops appear in harmony so that only one group is allowed in one uncombined word

i
o
a

Only /a/, having a back allophone [ɑ], and /o/ can appear before uvulars.

Historical /h/ causes a vowel to have breathy voice. It nowadays only appears as hiatus, so it's better to say that breathy voiced vowels are phonemic and /h/ is not.


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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project II

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 27 Mar 2013, 21:16

The language has four tones: low <a>, high <á> and rising <aá>. The rissing tone does not lie on two vowels; that's just the easiest was to write it.

Qoyan is a pitch-accent language and normally only one syllable has the high (or rising) tone. Some words don't have a tone, at all.


Genders

Qoyan has two genders: masculine and feminine.

Feminine has its pitch-accent on the last syllable.

hoqá 'a woman' 'a female person'

Masculine has its tone on the pen-ultimate syllable and it's normally rising.

hoóqa 'a man' 'a male person'

Some actor nouns take the high tone.

xhópki 'murderer' from xhopki 'to murder'


The ergative, which is not a very commonly used case, is formed by placing the high tone before the old high tone.

hóóqa 'man ERG' (The two vowels is just a wring convention. <hóqa> would be read similarly.)
hóqá 'woman ERG'
The actor nouns do not change xhópki 'murderer ERG'
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Re: Qhe`a:g (tone)

Post by Linguist_Wannabe » Thu 28 Mar 2013, 04:41

Omzinesý wrote:The initial (lexical) tone of the syllable has developed from the voice value of the preceding consonant, and because the morphology of the language is, to some extend, based on consonental radicals, the lexical tone is phomically part of the consonant. The tone is still written with consonant letter, as well. Because the native writing system is a kind of abugida, there isn’t any other possibility to do that.

As seen in the phonology section, every obstruent has two letters to write it. The first one (unvoiced at the beginning) marks the high tone following the consonant and the second (voiced letter) marks the low tone. Both of the examples below would have the other (grammatical) tone segment following the lexical one. So the surface realization of <ta> would actually have either HH or HL tone.

<ta> /ta˥/
<da> /ta˩/
Was this inspired by Thai and/or Lao? Their script does the exact same thing. For example the letter that marks /s/ and by default gives a rising tone on the following vowel is written ส. There is another letter that also marks /s/ and by default gives a mid, level tone on the following vowel which is written ซ. However, when the script was devised (before tonogenesis), ซ marked a voiced fricative, as opposed to ส which has always been voiceless.

Same with the letter ห, which has always marks /h/ and by default gives a rising tone on the following vowel. It's counterpart is ฮ, which today marks /h/ and by default gives a mid, level tone on the following vowel. However, in the past it marked /ɦ/.

Similar things happened with ฝ (/f/ + rising tone) vs. ฟ (/f/ + mid, level tone, formerly */v/).

The same thing happened with aspirated stops. /kʰ/ + rising tone is written with ข, while /kʰ/ + mid, level tone is written with ค or ฆ. The first of these was originally */g/, and the second was */gʱ/. Both of these first merged into */gʱ/, which then lost it's voicing, becoming /kʰ/, but putting mid, level tone on the following vowel like other previously voiced consonants did, as opposed to the rising tone put on vowels by consonants that have always been voiceless.

The same kind of thing happened in Lao and Shan.

Omzinesý wrote:The tonogenesis is so new a process in the course of the language that the consonants without an unvoiced pair (i.e. sonorants) cannot trigger a tone on the following syllable either. They just take the following tone (if they are not preceded by an obstruent (see below)).


The tonogenesis does not need to be that "new" for this kind of thing to happen. Thai tonogenesis is centuries old, and yet a similar thing can be observed with implosives and unaspirated stops (which I often hear pronounced as glottalised or slightly ejective).

Omzinesý wrote:If a consonant is not followed by a vowel but an obstruent or the word end, it just loses its tone.
If a consonant is followed by a sonorant, its tone is realized in the following syllable, because sonorants do not have an inherent tone. The tone of the consonant just jumps over the tonally neutral obstruent.


I'm assuming that you mean "tonally neutral sonorant" in the last sentence. If so, then Thai and Lao do the exact same thing.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project I

Post by Omzinesý » Sun 31 Mar 2013, 20:25

Linguist_Wannabe

I have some understanding of Thai writing. So, it must have afftected.
I have not been working with that language for a while, so I am not sure anymore of from where I tried to take influence.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project III

Post by Omzinesý » Mon 09 Sep 2013, 10:55

Newest idea for a Romlang.

A West-Romace language in Iberian Peninsula that has been affected by Arabic.
Because its tructure should be affected that should be due to incomplete learning by Arabs and their language shift to this imperfect Romlang.
Arabic feature:
- Definite articles are only l' if the PRECEDING word ends in a vowel.
- Nominal possession is syntactic: POSSESSED + ARTICLE + POSSESSOR
- Pausa forms. If a clause ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped.

- Arabic loan vords in all domains. They have arabic style broken plurals.

- Something about verb morphology as well, I'm not sure what.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project IV

Post by Omzinesý » Fri 21 Mar 2014, 22:14

An unnamed speed-lang. (maybe not that speedy but I wrote it up in one hour.)


Consonants

p <p> t <t> ʨ <tj><t> k <k> q <q> k͡p <kp>
(β <b>) ( <d>) ɣ <g> ʁ <r>
s <s> ɕ <sj><s> ħ<x>
(s <z>) (ʓ <dj>)
l <l>
m <m> n <n> l̃ <h> ɲ <nj><n> η <ng> ɴ <nr> η͡m <nw>
j <j> (<dj>) w <w>

The phonemes marked with ( ) only appear as lenited versions of corresponding plosives.

Phonotactics:
The most complex syllable structure is CVC and the simplest V. (The cluster /n/+/s/ is an exception, but it only appears when underlying /s/ has been nasalized.) CV and VC are also possible. So the syllable structure is simply (C)V(C). All vowels appear as nuclei and all consonants expect /ɣ/ <g> as onsets. The last syllable of a word is always the stressed one. All plosives, nasals, approximants, /s/ <s>, and / ħ/ <x> can appear as its codas. Only /j/ <j>, /n/ <n> (that assimilates with the following sound in POA), /l/ <l>, and / ħ/ <x> can appear as codas of unstressed syllables.

Before /i/, dentals are pronounced as palatals. Before the other vowels, the combination /dental/ + /j/ is pronounced as a palatal.

Vowels
i <i> u <u>
ɛ <e> ɑ <a>

Noun cases:
Functions:

Absolutive – the case of transitive subjects, the case of agent-like intransitive arguments (subjects)
Nominative – case of transitive objects, the case of patient-like intransitive arguments (subjects), case of possessor (genitive)
Dative – the case of recipient and some other indirect objects, the case of goal
Locative – with inanimate nouns the case of location, with animate nouns the comitative function

Formation:

Absolutive – the basic stem of a noun, nearly always ends in a consonant
Nominative – absolutive stem with the last consonant nasalized: p -> m, t -> n, k -> ng, q -> nr, kp/w -> nw, s ->ns, l -> h, j -> nj, nasals stay the same
Dative – the absolutive stem + a vowel + x, The vowel is not derivable.
Locative – infix /-x-/ before the last consonant and a suffix /-a-/

Example paradigms:
Abs: suq ‘a man’ tjek ‘a woman’ pam ‘a farm house’
Nom: sunr ‘a man’ tjeng ‘a woman’ pam ‘a farm house’
Dat: suqax ‘to a man’ tjekux ‘to a woman’ pamax ‘to a farm house’
Loc: suxqa ‘with a man’ tjexka ‘with a woman’ paxma ‘at a farm house’

Verbs:
Evidentiality:
Function:

Egophoric – the speaker has been a part of the event and describes his or her own experiences
Sensory – the speaker has seen/heard/tasted etc. the event or seen/heard/tasted etc. consequences from which he or she infers the event
Reportative – the speaker has heard of the event from somebody else

Evidential suffixes:
-u – egophoric
-a – sensory
- i – reportative


Syntax:

This is a split-S language. So, agent-like intransitive arguments are marker like transitive agents with the nominative, while patient-like intransitive arguments are marker like transitive patients with the absolutive. This allows the verbs to be quite freely ambitransitive, i.e. appear either as transitive verbs with both agent and patient or without one of them. Pro-drop is, however, impossible, because omitting an argument in the syntax would also leave it out from the semantic argument structure.

Examples: (Kunaq is a male name.)

Kunanr mogek kpitja.
Kunaq.NOM tree.ABS fall.SENS
‘Kunaq felled a tree.’

Mogek kpitja.
tree.ABS fall.SENS
‘A tree fell.’

Kunanr kpitja.
Kunaq.NOM fall.SENS
‘Kunaq felled [something].’

The word order is very free, so English passives can be translated just by changing the word order.

Mogek Kunanr kpitja.
tree.ABS Kunaq.NOM fall.SENS
‘A tree was felled by Kunaq’
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project V

Post by Omzinesý » Mon 30 Jun 2014, 17:30

Vowel inventory of an unnamed project

Stressed syllables have seven vowel sounds (six monophthongs and one diphthong).

In the orthography stressed vowels are always marked with an accent <é> or <ê>.
i <í>, u <ú>
e <î> or <ê>, o <û> or <ô>
a <é>, ɒ <ó>
ai <ý>

Unstressed syllables have only five vowels (four monophthongs and one diphthong). Unstressed syllables don't have accent marks in the orthography.
ɪ <i>, ʊ <u>
ɛ <e>, ɔ <o>
ɛɪ <y>

When high vowels are unstressed, they become near-high (i -> ɪ and u -> ʊ). And when low vowels are unstressed, they become mid-low (a -> ɛ and ɒ -> ɔ). And what comes to the diphthong ai -> ɛɪ.
The mid vowels can, however, become either near high or mid-low. This is partially determined by a vowel-harmony rule, which I have not completed, but there are undermined cases, as well. The vowels that become mid-low, when unstressed, are written with the "low vowel letters plus tilde <ê> and <ô>, when stressed, and the vowels that become near-high are written with "high letters" ´plus tilde <î>, <û>, when stressed.

Generative analysis would say that the language has nine vowel phonemes:
i <í> - ɪ <i>, u <ú> - ʊ <u>
e <î> - ɪ <i>, o <û>- ʊ <u>
e <ê> - ɛ <e>, o <ô> - ɔ <o>
a <é> - ɛ <e>, ɒ <ó> - ɔ <o>
ai <ý> - ɛɪ <y>
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project VI

Post by Omzinesý » Sat 05 Jul 2014, 21:43

My newest phoneme system (nothing to do with the previous postings)

p, t, k, q
s, ʃ, x
m, n, ŋ
l, ʟ r, ʀ*
j, w

High group of vowel harmony:
i, ə, u

Low group of vowel harmony:
e, a, o
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project VII

Post by Omzinesý » Sat 20 Dec 2014, 23:02

Random idea for my newest project

The language has an ergative-absolutive alignment which realizes in case markers of nouns.

Lé rôve trovê .
please ERG.boy ABS.girl
'The girl likes the boy.'

Lé trôve rovê.
please ABS.boy ERG.girl
'The boy likes the girl.'


But when the arguments are personal prefixes, they are attached to the verb without any case marking. Then the syntactic functions are expressed by markers of deictic directionality (the difference between go and come). Pleasing is thought as movement from the pleaser to the pleased one. Because the first person is the primary deictic center, the deixis marking tells which is the subject and which is the object.

Kénle.
[cæn̯ʲl̯ʲɛ]
k-e-n-le
sg1-ø-sg2-please.towards_deictic_center
'I like you.'

Kéonloe
[cænʷlʷɛ]
k-e-n-loe
sg1-ø-sg2-please.outwards-deictic_center
'You like me.'
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project VIII

Post by Omzinesý » Tue 28 Jul 2015, 17:54

Cagenian is my old speed-lang of which I sometimes make new versions.

Cagenian (etnonym Kagen) is an endogenous European language spoken somewhere in the Mediterranean. Hypothesis on relationships with Basque and Etruscan have been posed, but both are controversial.

Phonology

p t t͡ʃ k k͡x
b d d͡ʒ g
f s ʃ h
m n
l r
j

Voiced plosives do not appear in native words, which doesn't matter much because most of the vocabulary is of Romance/Latin or Arabic origin.

<p t c c/ch k
b d g/gh
f s sc h
m n
y>

Palatals appear only before front vowels, ʃ also appears word-finally.
k͡x <k> is also palatalized when preceding front vowels but that's not phonemic.
Velars are written with c, g, and sc /sk/ when they precede back vowels and with ch, gh, and sch when they precede front vowels.

Vowels
i u
e o
a ɑ
ai ɑi ɑu

Vowels have stressed and unstressed versions
stressed - unstressed
a - ɐ~ə <â - â>
ɑ - ɐ~ə <a - a>
e -ɪ/ə <e - i/a>
o - ʊ/ə <o - u/a>
i - ɪ <i - i>
u - ʊ <u - u>
ai - e <ȧ - e>
ɑi - e <ȧ - e>
ɑu - <o - ǔ>
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project VIII

Post by Omzinesý » Tue 28 Jul 2015, 18:02

Nouns have three cases the agentive, the patientive and the genitive. The agentive is the case of all agents/actors (either transitive or intransitive) and the patientive is the case of all patients/undergoers (either transitive or intransitive).
The same endings also mark definiteness/deixis. There are two deictic articles: the proximate (this) and the distal (that). Nouns have no genders and all nouns have the same inflectional paradigm.

Code: Select all

                agentive         patientive         genitive
indefinite      -ø                     -ø                -ú
proximate       -i                     -e                -í
distal          -o                     -a                -ó
The accent marks the stress on the ending.
There is also an interfix -u that appears at the end of the first part of compounds. It is clearly related to the indefinite genitive ú.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project VIII

Post by Omzinesý » Tue 28 Jul 2015, 18:24

Transitivity is not the important thing of Kagenian verbs. Verbs can be used transitively or intransitively as unergatives or unaccusatives. The case of the "subject" is the only that matters.

Pera morá 'Pero died.'
Pero morá 'Pero killed (something).'
Pero morá cata. 'Pero killed the cat.'

Cross-referencing
Number is not marked in personal affixes, so the affixes are 1st person, 2nd person familiar, 2nd person formal, 3d person proximate, and 3d person distal. There is also an infinitive.

1st-AG -i, 1st-PAT -u
2nd-fam-AG -er, 2nd-fam-PAT -or
2nd-form-AG -el, 2nd-form-PAT -er
PROX-AG i-, PROX-PAT e-
DIST-AG o-, DIST-PAT a-
INF-ACT -en, INF-PASS -on

The personal affixes can be joined:
1>2 ri
2>1 ru
Third person prefixes can co-occur with 1st and 2nd person suffixes. Two third person prefixes cannot co-occur.

TAM
Cagenian has three "tenses": present, imperfect(ive past) and perfect(ive past).
Present is the simple basic form. Th perfect is formed by moving the stress one syllable right. Because most verbs has their stress on the last syllable of the stem in the present, the stress appears on a personal suffix or a perfective suffix -á in perfect. Imperfect is formed with an auxiliary ant the infinitive.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project IX

Post by Omzinesý » Sun 17 Jan 2016, 14:48

A NEW UNNAMED PROJECT

The consonant inventory is too symmetric and it has typologically very rare phonemes like velar/palatal laterals.

Consonants
Edit: Omitted the rounded consonants.

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pɸ-p̪f 	ts tθ tɬ	cɕ kx kɩ̥	
p	        t	       k	        
f	      s θ ɬ	  ɕ  x ɩ̥	 
m	        n	       η	       
mṽ	      nṽ	       ηṽ	       
	         l	       ɩ	        
	         r
                       j            
I call mṽ nṽ ηṽ nasal affricates. Phonetically, they are nasals followed by a nasal vowel i.e. nasal consonants with a slow nasal rease. Historically, they have probably been some kind of affricates, but because nasal fricatives are hard to hear the fricative release has disappeared and only the long nasal release says. (I don't know what processes could create a real nasal affricate, at the beginning.

Prestopped sonorants appear as a result of sc. d-effect (term from Navajo), a morpological process that makes sonorants prestopped.
bm dn gη gηʷ
bmṽ dnṽ gηṽ gηʷṽ
dl gɩ gɩʷ
dr


Vowels
Edit: Added rhotic centranl/back vowels.

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i	ɨ	ɨ˞  u
e	ə   ɚ	o
a	ɑ	ɑ˞  ɒ

There are three POAs of vowels: front unrounded, central/back unrounded, and back rounded. Front (unrounded) vowels cause palatalization of the preceding consonant. Palatalized velars are palatals, actually. *The palatals stridents only appear before front (unrounded) vowels.
Rounded and unrounded consonants are merged before rounded (back) vowels.

Tones and phonations are phonemic, too, but I don't know yet how they work.

Phonotaxis is CV, but words can begin with a vowel, so the first syllable can be just v.
Word-final /ə/ can be dropped if it's the last sound in an utterance, sc. pausa forms.
Last edited by Omzinesý on Wed 16 Aug 2017, 18:29, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project IX

Post by Omzinesý » Sat 23 Jan 2016, 21:30

Nominal conjugation of the lang of the previous post.

There are two genders: masculine and feminine. There are three cases: direct, oblique, and genitive.

There four declension, though 1st and 2nd, and 3th and 4th are quite similar. Plurals are identical in 1st and 2nd, and 3th and 4th one.

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direct, oblique, genitive
The root pat is used for all of the conjugations in the examples.

1. (masculines ending in <e> /ə/, which diappears in some conditions)

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sg. pat, patɒ <patua>, patu 
pl. patu, patu, patɚ <pater>
2. (feminines ending in <e> /ə/, which diappears in some conditions)

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sg. pat, patɑ˞ <patra>, patɨ˞ <patry>
pl. patu, patu, patɚ <pater> 
3. (masculines ending in <a> /ɑ/ or <y> /ɨ/)

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sg. pata, pato, pato 
sg. paty, pato, pato
pl. patɚ <pater>, paterɒ <paterua>, paterɒ <paterua>
4. (feminines ending in <ia> ʲa or <i> ʲi)

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sg. patʲa <patia>, patʲe <patie>, patʲe <patie>
sg. patʲi <pati>, patʲe <patie>, patʲe <patie>
pl. patɚ <pater>, paterɒ <paterua>, paterɒ <paterua>
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project IX

Post by Omzinesý » Sat 23 Jan 2016, 21:59

History of the declensions

The marker of 1st declension was u. The plural marker was u, as well.

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sg. u => ə (=> ø), u+a => ɒ <ua>, u+u => u
pl. u+u => u, u+u+a => uə => u, u+u+u => uru > ɨ˞
The marker of 2nd declension was /r/.

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sg. r => ø, r+a => ɑ˞, r+u => ɨ˞
pl. analoguious to 1st.
3st and 4 declensions are actually the same. The 4st one just had a stem ending in a palatal, /j/ mostly. They have gone through a process where those stems moved to the feminine gender and the others to the masculine. /a/ and /i/ were derivational endings. They were long vowels (when the lang had the length contrast). For some reason they had /er/ as their plural ending.

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sg. aa > a, aa+a => o (maybe just analogy), aa+u => o 
pl. er => ɚ, er+a => ərɒ, er+u => əru 
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project IX

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 02 Mar 2016, 22:21

Useage of the cases

Direct case
- subject of most structures
- direct object of all verbs (direct objects are defined so)
- vocative

Oblique
- stimulus of some verbs of perception and experience
- used with prepositions adverbally (The man was sitting in the prison.) including the ergative preposition used in some structures
- the theme argument of ditransitive verbs

Genitive
- all associative relations between two nouns (possession, part-whole etc.)
- Adjetives are a minimal class of 8 members so the genitive is used in structures like "man of honor".
- used with prepositions adnominally (The man in the prison was sitting.)
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Re: Omzinian Scrap-thread: Project X

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 27 Apr 2016, 18:35

A new project!

Consonant inventory
p <p/b>, t <t/d> t͡s <c>, t͡ʃ~t͡ʂ <č>, t͡ɕ <ć>, k <k/g>
s <s/z>, ʃ~ʂ <š/ž>, ɕ <ś/ź>
m <m>, n <n>, ŋ <ŋ>
r <r>, ʀ <r̂>
ʋ <v>, l <l>, j <j>

Phonemes have three lengths: short, long, ang over long. The lengths are of course relative. That resembles Estonian. Affricates do not have short variants.
Short consonants are written:
b, d, g
z, ž, ź
m, n, ŋ
r, r̂
v, l, j

Long obstruents are written:
p, t, c, č, ć, k
s, š, ś
I don't know yet how to write the long sonorants. Ideas?

Over long consonants are written:
pp, tt, cc, čč, čč, kk
ss, šš, śś
rr, r̂r̂
vv, ll, jj

I'm not sure about the vowel system. I'm trying to avoid making it too Finnic.
Short vowel is written <a>, long <á>, and over long <aa>.
I want to have Hungarian letters: <ő> and <ű>.

Some typology
- Language is quite agglutinative
- Verbs are perifrastic, line in Basque
- Many noun cases
- Many constructions can be expressed without lexical verb. The auxiliary codes TAM etc anyway. X Y-ILL AUX 'X goes to Y'
- Some ergativity
- I'll test egoforicity.
Last edited by Omzinesý on Wed 16 Aug 2017, 18:31, edited 1 time in total.
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