My hatelang: Omlűt

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
User avatar
Anwelda
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 24
Joined: Mon 20 Jun 2016, 21:52
Location: Europe

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Anwelda » Sat 14 Jan 2017, 23:16

shanoxilt wrote:Does anyone else have a similar project that consists of only features they despise?
I do. It's a language called tútarä that I decided to create as a challenge, to see if I would be able to create a language I would not like. Turned I actually like it, but only because I became attached to it (since it was my first conlang).

By the way, this is an interesting language we can see here. Well done, Creyeditor.
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Sat 14 Jan 2017, 23:54

Anwelda wrote:
shanoxilt wrote:Does anyone else have a similar project that consists of only features they despise?
I do. It's a language called tútarä that I decided to create as a challenge, to see if I would be able to create a language I would not like. Turned I actually like it, but only because I became attached to it (since it was my first conlang).
Nice, a brother in mind [:)]
Anwelda wrote:By the way, this is an interesting language we can see here. Well done, Creyeditor.
Thank you [:)]

19. Personal Pronouns

Omlueuet has a full set of pronouns, distinguishing person, number and clusivity. Since it is pro-drop for subject, these forms are not used that often. Another set of pronouns that is rarely used are the comitative forms, functioning as possessive forms. Typically nouns that are usually possessed are assumed to be possessed by the most prominent animate referent in the discourse, unless they stand with an indefinite article. Here is the list of the pronoun stems.

1.SG um
2.SG it
3.SG qa
1.DUI ja
1.DUE ati
2.DU tam
3.DU umit
1.PLI ani
1.PLE asitar
2.PL sitat
3.PL sat

Examples with pronouns:

Qahëtë spröpëm.
qa-ëtë sprap\iu-ëm
3.SG-MASC.SG.DAT see\-1.SG.IPFV
I see him.

Skups qöt spráp.
skups qa\iu-t sprap\a
NEG 3.SG\-N.SG.DAT percieve\3.SG.PFV
He does not hear it.

Qahëtë erdörmëm.
qa-ëtë er-darm\iu-ëm
3.SG-MASC.SG.DAT AUG-greet-1.SG.IPFV
I greet you loudly.

Omlűt ki qa.
omlűt ki qa
Omlűt COP 3SG
This is Omlűt.

Xa szokolötsrë ümëstë.
[ha ʂo.ko.ˈløt.srə ˈy.məs.tə]
xa szokolats\iu-rë um\i-ëstë
DEO chocolate\-COM.SG.M 1.SG\-NOM.SG.M
I need chocolate!


Examples without pronouns:

Trem knólfs.
trim\a knulf\au-s
disappear\3.SG.PFV courage\-NOM.SG.FEM
My courage vanished.

Qahëtë spröpëm.
qa-ëtë sprap\iu-ëm
3.SG-MASC.SG.DAT see\-1.SG.IPFV
I see him.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Anwelda
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 24
Joined: Mon 20 Jun 2016, 21:52
Location: Europe

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Anwelda » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 10:40

Creyeditor wrote:Omlueuet has a full set of pronouns, distinguishing person, number and clusivity.
What about reflexive pronouns? Does Omlueuet have some?
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 17 Jan 2017, 23:12

I hadn't thought about this before and now that I've been thinking some time about it, I think I've come to a solution.
Reflexive pronouns are used for different purposes in different languages. Here are three sentences where some languages use reflexive pronouns.
  • He washes his own hands.
  • He can do it himself.
  • They talk to each other.
  • I hit myself.
  • He hits himself.
1. In the first example, Omlueuet uses no possessive pronoun at all.

Wáusprë khand.
wasp\au-rë khand-0
hands\-F.ACC.DU wash-3SG
He washes (his own) hands.

If you use a comitative pronoun, you would hint at the fact, that the hands belong to someone else.

Wáusprë qatë khand.
wasp\au-rë qa-të khand-0
hands\-F.ACC.DU 3SG-M.COM.SG wash-3SG.IPFV
He washes (someone else's) hands.

2. In the second sentence, where the reflexive pronoun is used as an intensifier, in Omlueuet you would probably use an intensifying derivational prefix on the verb, e.g. er- as in:

Qa erstrast.
qa er-strast-0
3SG.ACC INT-be.able-3SG.IPFV
He can do it himself.

The exact interpretation of this sentence however does depend on the pragmatic context.

3. Reciprocal action is indicated, again, via verbal morphology. This time the prefix is om-.

Omlutë.
om-lut-të
RECIP-speak-3DU.IPFV
They (two) talk to each other.

4. Reflexive actions with the first or second person as an agent/patient use the normal object pronouns.

Um grűlbëm.
um-0 grulb/iu-ëm
1SG-ACC hit/-1SG.IPFV
I hit myself

5. In true reflexive actions with a third person, a reduplicated form of the third person pronoun is used as the reflexive pronoun. This is rarely used (see above) and only used in this very special occasion. In Haspelmaths term it is only used for extroverted reflexives, i.e. verbs that are not normally reflexiv.

Qaqa grulb.
qa~qa-0 grulb-0
3SG~REFL-ACC hit-3SG.IPFV
He hits himself

Qa grulb.
qa-0 grulb-0
3SG-ACC hit-3SG.IPFV
He hits him (someone else).

A lot of introverted reflexives (like wash oneself) are handled with constructions as in 1.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Mon 30 Jan 2017, 22:29

20. Derivational morphology
Purely derivational morphology is expressed by prefixes in Omlűt. Most of them occur on verbs. Interestingly these prefixes have vowels that are not found in roots, this hints at the fact that they once were multi-syllable words of their own.

Derivation on verb:
om- : forms reciprocal verbs
er- : verbal intensifier
czu- : transitivizer, applicative voice
sze- : indicates that an action happens before something else
fo- : indicates a volitional action
Spoiler: show
Examples:
lut
to speak

omlut

to speak to each other, to conversate

erlut
to call, to scream

plusp
to carry to somewhere, to carry to someone, to deliver, to give as a a present

erplusp
to carry something heavy; to to carry a child to term, to give birth (to a child)

snrups
to practice, to train, to cultivate, to exercise

ersnrups
to train harder

splurf
to be similar to something, to resemble, to look like something

omsplurf
to be the same

swalk
to wish, to hope

erswalk
to be desperate to, to pray

glubs
to run around in circles

czuglubs
to run around something

sprap
to feel, to percieve

fosprap
to look; to look something up

trim
to disappear

fotrim
to hide

erfotrim
to escape

ki
to be in a certain place or state


erki
to happen

szeherki
to happen before something else
Derivation from verb to nouns:
ug- : agent nominalization
an- : instrument nominalization

Examples:
Spoiler: show
lut
to speak, to talk

uglut
spokesman, boss

blun
shine

ugblun
light, a source of illumination (non-figurative)

snrans
to fasten securely; to lock, to tie, to makes something be bound to oneself

ansnrans
belt, strap, cord, rope

trim
to disappear

antrim
magic cap
Derivation on nouns:
fe- : collective prefix
en- : forms a transitive verb from a noun

Examples:
Spoiler: show
snru
predator; enemy, warrior, invader

fesnru
the axis of evil, an enemy nation

gnarz
rain, raindrops

fegnarz
rainstorm

zhabt
lunatic, madman, outcast, inhabitant of a mental home

enzhabt
to make s.o. mad, to annoy s.o., to bother s.o.


ilb

food, meal


enilb
to eat, to dine
Derivations from noun to adjectives:
cze- : forms an adjective, that describes the quality of a noun

Examples:
Spoiler: show
knulf
courage, toughness

czeknulf
brave

krulm
round stone, canonball, hard ball

czekrulm
spherical

skrurm
city, town, settlement

czeskrurm
urban, cosmopolitan
Derivations from adjectives to nouns:
sau- : forms a noun from an adjective, that has a certain property

Examples
Spoiler: show
svakt
round, circular

sausvakt
circle, disc

szurz
mature, adult; ripe; full grown

sauszurz
adult, a full grown animal; a ripe fruit
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Sat 03 Jun 2017, 20:57

21. Lexical metaphors
Several conceptual metaphors influence the lexicon and the meanings of words and phrases. The most common ones are listed here with some examples.


FRIENDS are RELATIVES
Kinship terms are often used for friends and acquaintance, but also for people that are in a different social relations with EGO. They encode distance as well as hierarchies. Because military and work is very important in Bólsks, such social relations are often coded the same way.
uln (n) can either mean cousin or friend or colleague.
kans (n) means brother as well as best friend or brother-in-arms. Note that the relation is closer than uln.
makt (n) - father, boss, immediate superior

ORDERLINESS is POSITIVE
The general terms for 'good' (adj) often also express a sense orderliness or harmony.
ims (adj) - friendly, harmonous, beloved, orderly
splurn (adj) - regular, orderly, good
khand (v) - to wash, to clean, to tidy up, to repair
szekhand to tidy up for an event, to prepare

INDIVIDUALITY is NEGATIVE
Individual, non-conforming behaviour is often used as a hyperonym for all unwanted or unusual behaviour. It always has a negative connotation.
rhupt (v) - to pursue one's dreams (pejorative)
ugrhupt (n) - someone who follows his dreams (pejorative)
zhabt (n) - lunatic, madman, outcast, inhabitant of a mental home

SOCIAL INTERACTION is VIOLENCE
This part might be NSFW.
Spoiler: show
swirk (v) - to stab so., to have sex with s.o. from a male POV
erswirk (v) - to stab so. to death, to rape so.o.
byamf (v) - to strangle s.o.., to have sex with s.o. from a female POV
szib (v) - to flog someone, to torture someone, to interrogate someone
LANGUAGES are CONTAINERS
Languages are thought of as containers, where you can take words out of to use them. Words might also be thought of as smaller containers that can be changed to fit into other containers/sentences.
am (adp) - out of a container, in a language
zhorfstrasp (f) - morphology, lit. word-bending
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 27 Jun 2017, 17:52

The next post will either be about dialects or about diachrony, btw.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
Nachtuil
sinic
sinic
Posts: 365
Joined: Wed 20 Jul 2016, 23:16

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Nachtuil » Tue 27 Jun 2017, 21:12

I like the metaphors of your previous post. I think it is awesome you've considered such things for this language. It may be a bit revealing about the mentality of the speakers. The orderliness=good thing is especially interesting and easy to visualise happening. Friends as relatives makes a lot of sense too.
User avatar
Vlürch
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 81
Joined: Wed 09 Mar 2016, 21:19
Location: Finland

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Vlürch » Wed 28 Jun 2017, 23:26

Creyeditor wrote:hands\-F.ACC.DU
I don't know why, but I started laughing when I saw this. Like, obviously it makes sense, but... I don't know, I wasn't thinking about a guy with three hands when I read it, but now I am. Do languages with a dual usually have hands and feet in the dual or plural? What about eyes, nostrils, ears and lips? Why am I even thinking about this?

Anyway, awesome language. Makes me want to try seriously doing something I'd hate, too.
Iyionaku
roman
roman
Posts: 1414
Joined: Sun 25 May 2014, 13:17

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Iyionaku » Thu 29 Jun 2017, 05:33

Vlürch wrote:
Creyeditor wrote:hands\-F.ACC.DU
I don't know why, but I started laughing when I saw this. Like, obviously it makes sense, but... I don't know, I wasn't thinking about a guy with three hands when I read it, but now I am. Do languages with a dual usually have hands and feet in the dual or plural? What about eyes, nostrils, ears and lips? Why am I even thinking about this?

Anyway, awesome language. Makes me want to try seriously doing something I'd hate, too.
Yep, most languages with dual number use it for pairs, many wouldn't use the dual for two arbitrary hands, for example (just for the pair).
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Thu 29 Jun 2017, 09:08

Nachtuil wrote:I like the metaphors of your previous post. I think it is awesome you've considered such things for this language. It may be a bit revealing about the mentality of the speakers. The orderliness=good thing is especially interesting and easy to visualise happening. Friends as relatives makes a lot of sense too.
Thank you [:)]
It is of course very telling about Bólks. And of course the order thing is a common trope.
Vlürch wrote:
Creyeditor wrote:hands\-F.ACC.DU
I don't know why, but I started laughing when I saw this. [...]
Anyway, awesome language. Makes me want to try seriously doing something I'd hate, too.
I just noticed it would make people laugh even more probably without the D in DUal. [}:D]
Also thank you a lot [:)]

Iyionaku wrote:[...] Yep, most languages with dual number use it for pairs, many wouldn't use the dual for two arbitrary hands, for example (just for the pair).
I wrote:11. Verbal agreement
[...] Dual is used more frequently in verbal conjugation than it is in nominal declension, which sometimes leads to situations where a plural noun might trigger dual agreement. [...]
So I actually used this idea in the language, I just didn't give an example. So you would say an accidental pair of two hands should use plural morphology on the noun and dual agreement on the verb?
Also, sorry for lying about this post.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
Iyionaku
roman
roman
Posts: 1414
Joined: Sun 25 May 2014, 13:17

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Iyionaku » Thu 29 Jun 2017, 10:36

Interestingly, all Arab dialects (except the Maroccan dialect) do it the other way round: The dual is fully productive for nouns, but extinct in verbal morphology.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Sat 08 Jul 2017, 21:42

22. Proto-Northern

Omlűt is a Northern language which means that it is derived from Proto-Northern. The only other Northern language that I made is Kobardon (no documentation on CBB available). I superimposed the language family later, so they are not very closely related. The languages where already distinct *there* before the Great War. Not much is known about Proto-Northern. The following sounds have definitely existed in Proto-Northern. Keep in mind that if a sound is not listed, this does not imply it did not exist. This simply means that it is not reconstructed yet.

*m *n
*b *t *d *k *q
*s *z
*r
*i *u
*ɛ *ə *o
*a

Syllable structure was probably (C)V(C)

Here is a list with the corresponding sounds in Kobardon and Omlűt.
Spoiler: show
PN=Proto-Northern, OO=Old Omlűt, OK=Kobardon
PN: *m > OO: m K: ?
PN: *n > OO: m,n,ə̃ K: n
PN: *b > OO: ∅ K: b
PN: *t > OO: t K: r
PN: *d > OO: ? K: d
PN: *k > OO: h K: k
PN: *q > OO: q K: ∅
PN: *s > OO: s,z K: s
PN: *h > OO: h K: ∅
PN: *r > OO: r,∅ K: r
PN: *i > OO: i K: i, u
PN: *u > OO: u K: u, i
PN: *ɛ > OO: ə, ə̃, ai K: ?
PN: *ə > OO: ə, ə̃ K: ∅
PN: *o > OO: iu, u K: o
PN: *a > OO: a K: a, o
And here is a list of sound changes to Old Omlűt (incomplete, SCA2 format). Note the simplification of the vowel system and the lenition of plosives.
Spoiler: show
N=mn
L=ɔɛʊ
R=ɔou
V=aeiouəɔɛ
C=bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxz

k/x/_
n/m/R_
r//N_V
x/h/_
o/eu/#(C)_(C)#
ɛ/ai/#(C)_(C)#
b/w/V_V
ə//_
L/ə/_
N/̃/ə_#
e/i/_
o/u/_
Grammatically the most intriguing fact about is that it had no agreement on verbs, only clitized pronouns. These developed into different agreement patterns in the daughter languages. The pronoun system was very rich, distinguishing several degrees of distance in the third person pronouns, as well as singular, dual and plural plus clusivity. It seems that second person pronouns also had a politeness distinction:

1.SG *kon
2.SG *am, *ra
3.SG.PROX *qa
3.SG.MED *da
3.SG.DIST *uni
1.DU.INCL *asi
1.DU.EXCL *atki
1.DU *sai
2.DU *tam
3.DU *umitɛ
1.PL.INCL *ani
1.PL.EXCL *ar
1.PL *əbi
2.PL *atə, sit
3.PL *satə

Here is the development of the pronoun system in Omlűt
Spoiler: show
1.SG *kon > OO: hium > O: \iu-ëm (1SG.IPFV), um (1SG)
2.SG *am > OO: amə > O: \a-ëmë (2SG.PFV)
2.SG.P *ra > ???
3.SG.PROX *qa > OO: qa (3SG) a-(3SG.PFV) > O: qa (3SG), \a (3SG.PFV)
3.SG.MED *da > ?
3.SG.DIST *uni > ?
1.DU.INCL *asi > azi > \ai-së (1DU.INCL.IPFV), ja (1PL.INCL)
1.DU.EXCL *atki > athi > ati (1DU.EXL)
1.DU *sai > sai > \ai-së (1DU.IPFV)
2.DU *tam > tam > tam (2DU)
3.DU *umitɛ > umit (3DU)
1.PL.INCL *ani > ani (1PL.INCL)
1.PL.EXCL *ar > -ar (1PL.EXCL.IPFV) > \a-ër
1.PL *əbi > -ui > \ui-ë (1PL.INCL.IPFV)
2.PL *atə > -at > \a-ët (2PL.IPFV)
3.PL.P: *sit > \i-st (2PL.PFV)
3.PL *satə > \a-st (3PL.PFV)
There is not much constructed nominal morphology for Proto-Northern. It is clear that the language had number marking on nouns and a possessive case. This gives us the following paradigm.

NOM, POSS
SG: *-ɔən, *-(hi)n
PL: *-isu, *-r(au)

That's it for the moment. Next post will probably about Old Omlűt. As always, feedback and questions are very welcome.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Sat 12 Aug 2017, 22:48

23. Old Omlűt: Part I: Phonology and Nominal Morphology
Old Omlűt is the first attested form of Omlűt. It was a mostly rather agglutinating language with a small vowel inventory, but the consonant inventory was already very similar to modern Omlűt. The most interesting sound changes between Old Omlűt and Omlűt were the Umlauts, that changed the language from being rather agglutinating to being totally introflectional.

Phonology

Old Omlűt contrasted four series of stops: voiceless, aspirated, voiced and breathy voiced. These came in labial, alveolar and velar flavours. Palatals were allophonic and the uvular stop only existed as a voiceless and aspirated one. Fricatives contrasted voiced vs. voiceless and occured with labiodental, alveolar, retroflex and velar POA. Again palatals were only allophonic. /h/ did not distinguish any phonations. The only phonemic sonorant consonants were /m/, /n/ and /r/. Some voiced fricatives acted like sonorant with regards to syllable structure constraints though. The orthography given below is based on the correspondences to modern phonemes.
Spoiler: show
Consonant inventory
/m/ /n/
/p/ /t/ [c] /k/ /q/
/pʰ/ <ᵽ> /tʰ/ <ŧ> [cʰ] /kʰ/ <ꝁ> /qʰ/ <ꝗ>
/b/ /d/ [ɟ] /g/
/bʰ/ <ƀ> /dʰ/ <đ> [ɟʰ] /gʰ/ <ǥ>
/f/ /s/ [ʃ] /ʂ/ <ṣ> /x/ <h> /h/ <'>
/v/ /z/ [ʒ] /ʐ/ <ẓ> /ɣ/ <w>
/r/
Before the Umlauts happened, Old Omlűt only showed four vowel positions /i u ə a/. All of these could occur in a nasalized and non-nasalized version. Nasalized vowels were relatively rare. The exact realization seems to already have been dependent on vowels in neighbouring syllables. The schwa is sometimes written as <e> in reconstructions. This can cause confusion with MO /e/ <e>
Spoiler: show
Vowel inventory
/i ĩ u ũ/
/ə ə̃ a ã/
Synchronic phonological processes probably included some kind of relatively local vowel assimilation and palatalization before /i/.

Syllable structure included pretty complex consonant clusters. Since there were more obstruents than sonorants a lot of triconsonantal clusters consisted only of obstruents.
Stress was predictabley on the root, but unpredictable in certain disyllabic particles.

Morphology

The most interesting thing about suffixation is that it included full vowels. These correspond to the umlauting suffxies in MO. Some suffixes were only differentiated by the relative position of vowels and consonants in the suffix. These distinctions were neutralized in MO. Another difference from MO is that in OO inflectional prefixes existed. They never included consonants, though, which is why they were lost.
The nominal declensions in OO had similar overall paradigms compared to MO.
Spoiler: show

Code: Select all

masculine
   nominative comitative dative accusative
sg  -iste      -te       -ete    -0 
du  -utu       -stua     ua- -t  -sthi
pl  -tu        -su       -hir    -aun 

Code: Select all

feminine
   nominative comitative dative accusative
sg au- -s     -hin       -stua  -0		
du au- -t     -ai        -hĩu   -rau		
pl au- -es    -rau       -stau  -ait		

Code: Select all

neuter
   nominative comitative dative accusative
sg -ẽ         -ste       iu- -t -0
du -ati       -ru        -utu	ai- -t	
pl -su	     -rui       -rau	iu- -s
Here is an example declension:
buzk (f) nation state

Code: Select all

NOM COM DAT ACC
SG  aubuzks  buzk(h)in buzkstua buzk
DU  aubuzkt  buzkai    buzkhĩu  buzkrau
PL  aubuzkes buzkrau   buzkstau buzkait
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 15 Aug 2017, 19:49

24. Old Omlűt: Part II: Verbal Morphology, Particles, Pronouns and Sound changes

The conjugations again already involved similar categories to MO. Note however that prefixes are involved. Also the nasalized a for 1PLI in OO became a placeless nasal in MO. The /h/ in 1SG.IPFV and 2SG.IPFV blocked palatalization.
Spoiler: show

Code: Select all

    perfective imperfective
1SG	-eme     -hium	
2SG	-ame     -hit			
3SG	a-       -0		

1DUI  -ese     -shia			
1DUE  -ta      -sai			
2DU   -te      -am		
3DU   -imu     -te	

1PLI  -ã        -ui		
1PLE  ia- -st   -ar		
2PL   i- -st    -at
3PL   a- -st    -sa
The derivational prefixes of MO were originally preverbal/prenominal particles in OO that had an possibly irregular stress pattern on their own. This explains why they have full vowels in MO even though they are prefixes.
Spoiler: show
úma - reciprocal activity
íra - verbal intensifier
tʰiu - verbal transitivizer
afí - nominal collectivizer
aʂí - verbal adverb meaning 'before'
ína - transitive verbalizer denominal
atʰí - denominal adjectivizer
usá - deadjectival nominalizer
afú - verbal volitional marker
ug - deverbal agent nominalization
ans - deverbal instrument nominalization
The pronouns in OO also were only phonologically different from MO.
Spoiler: show
1.SG um
2.SG it
3.SG qa
1.DUI azi
1.DUE athi
2.DU tam
3.DU umit
1.PLI ani
1.PLE ashitar
2.PL shitat
3.PL sat
But let's also look at the sound changes in some detail. These are traditionally divided into the sound changes before the Umlauts, the sound changes during the Umlauts and the sound changes after the Umlauts. Languages that split of during or after Umlauts are considered dialects of MO, those that split of before the Umlauts are considered separate languages.

The changes before the Umlauts included the loss of nasal vowels. They became placeless nasals in affixes after consonants, but became nV sequences in other contexts. Schwas were deleted in this position. Nasals also assimilated to a preceding consonant.
Spoiler: show
SCA2 format
N=
L=bpfvβ
K=kgɣxw
N=mnŋ

/*_N
̃/n/_
Vn/\\/_
n/m/L_
n/ŋ/K_
ə//N_
*//_
Umlauts are traditionally subdivided into primary and secondary Umlauts and progressive and regressive Umlauts. All of them affected the stressed vowel, which mostly just was a root vowel. Progressive Umlauts come from pretonic full vowels, regressive Umlauts from posttonic full vowels. Primary umlauts originally just produced a relatively simple vowel system. The secondary Umlauts complicated the system even more. The specific effects of the vowels on the root have already been mentioned in the first section of this thread, IIRC.

After the Umlauts pretonic vowels were deleted and posttonic vowel (sequences) were reduced to Schwa.
Spoiler: show
SCA2 format
V//_'(C)(C)(C)
V//_'(C)(C)(C)
V/ə/'(C)(C)(C)V(ː)(C)(C)(C)_
Palatalization and subsequent i-deletion yielded a set of palatal consonants.
Spoiler: show
SCA2 format
U=kgxɣ
P=cɟʃʒ
U/P/_(ʰ)i[V#]
i//P_
Lenition affected only some marked voiceless aspirated plosives. Voiced aspirated plosives were affected without exception. This increased the number of fricatives. The original voiced fricatives where pushed to become approximants in this chain shift. This explains the high number of approximants in MO. Notice that /z/ became /l/ instead of the maybe expected /ɹ/.
Spoiler: show
A=βlɹjw
B=bdɟg
W=vzʐʒɣ
Z=vzʒɣ

W/A/_
cʰ/tʃ/_
qʰ/χ/_
Bʰ/Z/_
Metathesis changed the order of glides and vowels, which leads to more complex onset clusters in MO.
Spoiler: show
Vj/\\/_[C#]
Vw/\\/_[C#]
The last change was the loss of laryngeals. This affected only OO /h/, but as a chain shift also pulled OO /χ/ to MO /h/.
Spoiler: show
h//_
χ/h/_

Next post will probably be about some closely related languages.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 3886
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: My hatelang: Omlűt

Post by Creyeditor » Mon 13 Nov 2017, 21:16

25. Addendum 1: The existential construction
I just noticed that there is actually a lot of stuff missing from this language description. So, surprise, I decided to postpone the post on related languages (I have worked on that a lot, but I am not yet satisfied). So I decided to add some sections about how to express certain basic semantical concepts. This post will be about the existential construction.
The existential construction is expressed by the third person form of the verb 'ki' followed by the thing that exists (I call it pivot). The pivot is always in the nominative and usually occurs without a indefinite article. It can plural, dual or singular. The verb can be in the perfective or imperfective formas well as in the singular or plural.

Ke yáuksës.
ki\a yaks\au-s
be\3.SG.PFV boom\-NOM.SG.F
There had been a boom.

Ki yáuksës.
ki yaks\au-s
be\3.SG.IPFV boom\-NOM.SG.F
There is a boom.

Kest yáukst.
ki\a-st yaks\au-t
be\3.PL.PFV boom\-NOM.DU.F
There had been two explosions.

Kesë yáukst.
ki\a-së yaks\au-t
be\3.PL.IPFV boom\-NOM.DU.F
There are two explosions

There is also another version, where the verb has an intensifier. This version is often used for very general statements or for non-referential noun phrases. The pivot is usually in the singular (as is the verb agreement), but the verb can take imperfective or perfective marking.

Erke yáuksës.
er-ki\a yaks\au-s
very-be\3.SG.PFV boom\-NOM.SG.F
There had been sound.

Erki yáuksës.
er-ki yaks\au-s
very-be\3.SG.IPFV boom\-NOM.SG.F
There is sound.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :fra: 4 :esp: 4 :ind:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
Post Reply