Cyrillization game

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GrandPiano
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Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Tue 27 Jan 2015, 02:54

Inspired by the Romanization game. Basically, it's just like the romanization game, except that you have to use the Cyrillic alphabet instead of the Latin alphabet. So, for example, one person could post a phonology like this:
/p pʲ t̪ tʲ k/
/b bʲ d̪ dʲ g/
/f fʲ s̪ sʲ ʂ ɕː~ɕt͡ɕ x/
/v vʲ z̪ zʲ ʐ ʑː~ʐː/
/t͡s t͡sʲ t͡ɕ/
/m mʲ n̪ nʲ/
/l̪ lʲ/
/r̪ rʲ/
/j/

/i ɨ u ɛ o a/ (Note: /ɨ/ does not occur after palatalized consonants, and /i/ does not occur after unpalatalized consonants; /ɨ/ is very rare word-initially)

/ij ɨj uj ɛj oj aj/

(Also note: /j/ can appear after unpalatalized consonants)
And the next person could post a cyrillization like this:
/p pʲ t̪ tʲ k/ <п пь т ть к>
/b bʲ d̪ dʲ g/ <б бь д дь г>
/f fʲ s̪ sʲ ʂ ɕː~ɕt͡ɕ x/ <ф фь с сь ш щ х>
/v vʲ z̪ zʲ ʐ ʑː~ʐː/ <в вь з зь ж жж~зж> (<жж> and <зж> are used variously and do not correspond to the two allophones)
/t͡s t͡sʲ t͡ɕ/ <ц ць ч>
/m mʲ n̪ nʲ/ <м мь н нь>
/l̪ lʲ/ <л ль>
/r̪ rʲ/ <р рь>
/j/ <й> (see below)

/i ɨ u ɛ o a/ <и ы у э о а>
/ij ɨj uj ɛj oj aj/ <ий ый уй ей ой ай>

When <у э о а> come after a palatalized consonant, the <ь> is omitted and the vowel is replaced with <ю е ё я>. When <и> comes after a palatalized consonant, the <ь> is omitted, but the <и> stays the same. <ю е ё я> are also used instead of <й> when it comes before a vowel; <й> is only used after a vowel to form a diphthong. <ъ> is used between a consonant and <и ю е ё я> to indicate that the preceding consonant is unpalatalized.

So, to begin:

/p t c k q ʔ/
/pʰ tʰ kʰ cʰ qʰ/
/b d ɟ g ɢ/
/ɓ ɗ ʄ/
/f s ʃ ç x χ/
/v z ʒ ʝ ɣ ʁ/
/t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x/
/d͡z d͡ʒ g͡ɣ/
/m n ɲ ŋ ɴ/
/l ʎ ʟ/
/j w ʕ/

/i ɨ u/
/e ə o/
/a ɑ/
Last edited by GrandPiano on Wed 28 Jan 2015, 02:01, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Tue 27 Jan 2015, 04:32

Well… this thread already exists, but… this one is more specific, and the other one seems to be on the way out as of now.

/p t c k q ʔ/ <п т ч к ҡ ӏ>
/pʰ tʰ kʰ cʰ qʰ/ <пһ тһ кһ чһ ҡһ>
/b d ɟ g ɢ/ <б д ђ г ғ>
/ɓ ɗ ʄ/ <бӏ дӏ ђӏ>
/f s ʃ ç x χ/ <ф с ш щ х ӽ>
/v z ʒ ʝ ɣ ʁ/ <в з ж җ ҕ ҏ>
/t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x/ <тс тш кх>
/d͡z d͡ʒ g͡ɣ/ <дз дж гҕ>
/m n ɲ ŋ ɴ/ <м н њ ҥ ӈ>
/l ʎ ʟ/ <л љ ӆ>
/j w ʕ/ <й ў ӑ>

/i ɨ u/ <и ы у>
/e ə o/ <е ъ о>
/a ɑ/ <я а>

Next:

/t̻~d̻ t~d k ʔ/
/s̻~z̻ s~z h/
/m n/
/j w ɰ/
/ⱱ ɽ/

/i e/
/u o ɑ/

/aɪ̯/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by Corphishy » Wed 28 Jan 2015, 02:16

/t̻~d̻ t~d k ʔ/ ҭ т к ӏ
/s̻~z̻ s~z h/ ҫ с һ
/m n/ м н
/j w ɰ/ и у ы
/ⱱ ɽ/ в р

/i e/ и е
/u o ɑ/ у о а

/aɪ̯/ аь

NEXT
/m n ɲ ŋ/
/b t d c ɟ k ʔ/
/v s z ɕ ʑ ç ʝ ɣ h/
/l̥ l j̊ j ʍ w/

/m̩ n̩ ɲ̩ ŋ̩/
/i u e̞ o̞ æ ɔ̞ a/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Wed 28 Jan 2015, 02:31

/m n ɲ ŋ/ <м н њ ҥ>
/b t d c ɟ k ʔ/ <п т д ч ѓ к ӏ>
/v s z ɕ ʑ ç ʝ ɣ h/ <б с з ш ж х щ г һ>
/l̥ l j̊ j ʍ w/ <л р ь й ф в>

/m̩ n̩ ɲ̩ ŋ̩/ <мм нн њњ ҥҥ>
/i u e̞ o̞ æ ɔ̞ a/ <и у е ё э о а>

Next:

/t k ʔ/
/s x h/
/t͡s k͡x/
/n/
/ɹ j ɰ/

/i œ/
/ə a/
/ɯ ɔ/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Wed 28 Jan 2015, 02:45

/t k ʔ/ <т к ӏ>
/s x h/ <с х ҳ>
/t͡s k͡x/ <ц кх>
/n/ <н>
/ɹ j ɰ/ <р й ў>

/i œ/ <и э>
/ə a/ <ы а>
/ɯ ɔ/ <у о>
Нэкст:
/p t k ʡ ʔ/
/b d g/
/ɸ f s ʃ h/
/β v z ʒ ɦ/
/t͡s t͡ʃ/
/d͡z d͡ʒ/
/ʙ r/
/j ʕ/

/i e ɛ a y œ/
/u o ɔ ʌ ɑ/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Wed 28 Jan 2015, 03:02

/p t k ʡ ʔ/ <п т к ҡ ӏ>
/b d g/ <б д г>
/ɸ f s ʃ h/ <пф ф с ш һ>
/β v z ʒ ɦ/ <бв в з ж х>
/t͡s t͡ʃ/ <ц ч>
/d͡z d͡ʒ/ <ѕ ђ>
/ʙ r/ <бр р>
/j ʕ/ <й ҕ>

/i e ɛ a y œ/ <и е э я ү ө>
/u o ɔ ʌ ɑ/ <у ё о ъ а>

Next:

/p~b bʱ t d dʱ kʲ gʲ gʲʱ k g gʱ q ɢ ɢʱ/
/s ħ h/
/m n ŋ/
/j w/
/ɽˠ/
/ɬ/
/lˠ/

/i y e ɛ a/
/ɯ u o ɔ ɑ/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by Squall » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 01:02

First, I need to understand cyrillic.
/m n ŋ/ <М Н Ң>
/p b t d k g/ <П Б Т Д К Г>
/f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ χ h/ <Ф В С З Ш Ж Х Ғ . Һ>
/r l/ <Р Л>
/w j/ <. Ј>
/ts tʃ dz dʒ/<ц Ч Ѕ Џ>
/ʎ ɲ/ <Љ Њ>

А /a/
ЕЭЄ /e/
И /i/
О /o/
У /u/
Ы /ɨ/

There is no good representation for /w/.

Previous:
/p~b bʱ t d dʱ kʲ gʲ gʲʱ k g gʱ q ɢ ɢʱ/ <Б БҺ Т Д ДҺ КЬ ГЬ ГҺЬ К Г ГҺ q ɢ ɢҺ>
/s ħ h/ <C ҺҺ Һ>
/m n ŋ/ <М Н Ң>
/j w/ <Ј У>
/ɽˠ/ <P>
/ɬ/ <Ш>
/lˠ/ <Л>

/i y e ɛ a/ <И Ӱ Э Є А>
/ɯ u o ɔ ɑ/ <Ы УУ О Ө Ӓ>

Next:
/m n ŋ/
/p t k q pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ/
/f θ s x ɣ χ h/
/w ʎ/
/pf ts tʃ dz dʒ kx/
/ɑ æ ɛ e i y o̞ ʊ u/
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 01:48

Squall wrote:First, I need to understand cyrillic.
What's there to "understand"? :wat:
Squall wrote:There is no good representation for /w/.
The people of Belarus, and some other groups, beg to differ.

I've also seen в used in languages without voiced labial fricatives, and у used as a vowel and semivowel.
Squall wrote:<q ɢ>
Not Cyrillic.
Squall wrote:/p~b bʱ t d dʱ kʲ gʲ gʲʱ k g gʱ q ɢ ɢʱ/ <Б БҺ Т Д ДҺ КЬ ГЬ ГҺЬ К Г ГҺ q ɢ ɢҺ>
/s ħ h/ <C ҺҺ Һ>
/m n ŋ/ <М Н Ң>
/j w/ <Ј У>
/ɽˠ/ <P>
/ɬ/ <Ш>
/lˠ/ <Л>

/i y e ɛ a/ <И Ӱ Э Є А>
/ɯ u o ɔ ɑ/ <Ы УУ О Ө Ӓ>
Why all caps?

/m n ŋ/ <м н ҥ>
/p t k q pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ/ <б д г ғ п т к ҡ>
/f θ s x ɣ χ h/ <ф ҫ с х ҕ ӽ һ>
/w ʎ/ <ў л>
/pf ts tʃ dz dʒ kx/ <пф ц ч ѕ ђ кх>

/ɑ æ ɛ e i y o̞ ʊ u/ <а я э е и ү о у ю>

Next:

/p b t d k g q ʔ/
/f s ɕ χ~ħ ʁ~ʕ h/
/t͡s t͡ɕ/
/m n/
/ʋ j/
/r/
/l/

/i iː e eː ø øː/
/u uː o oː ɑ ɑː/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 02:17

shimobaatar wrote:I've also seen в used in languages without voiced labial fricatives, and у used as a vowel and semivowel.
There's also ў, used in Belarusian for example.
shimobaatar wrote:
Squall wrote:<q ɢ>
Not Cyrillic.
Wikipedia begs to differ.
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by Sumelic » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 02:21

Squall’s:
/m n ŋ/ м н ҥ
/p t k q pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ/ б д ґ ґъ п т к къ
/f θ s x ɣ χ h/ ф ѳ с х г хъ һ
/w ʎ/ в љ
/pf ts tʃ dz dʒ kx/ пф ц ч ѕ џ кх
/ɑ æ ɛ e i y o̞ ʊ u/ а я е є і ю о ъ у

Shimobaatar’s:
/p b t d k g q ʔ/ п б т д к г қ ъ
/f s ɕ χ~ħ ʁ~ʕ h/ ф с щ х ғ һ
/t͡s t͡ɕ/ ц ч
/m n/ м н
/ʋ j/ в ј
/r/ р
/l/ л

/i iː e eː ø øː/ і и е ее ё ёё
/u uː o oː ɑ ɑː/ у уу о оо а аа


Next:
/m n/
/p~b t~d k~g kʷ~gʷ/
/ts~tʃ~dz~dʒ/
/tθ tɬ kx/
/s ʃ ɬ h/
/l j w/

/a ɔ ɛ i u/
/ɑ̃ ɔ̃ æ̃/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by Squall » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 02:56

shimobaatar wrote:What's there to "understand"? :wat:
I am not used to Cyrillic. I need to learn them.
shimobaatar wrote:
Squall wrote:<q ɢ>
Not Cyrillic.
I forgot to replace them. [xP]
GrandPiano wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:
Squall wrote:<q ɢ>
Not Cyrillic.
Wikipedia begs to differ.
Thank you. :mrgreen:
shimobaatar wrote:Why all caps?
My keyboard cannot type the symbols and I copied them from this table.
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 03:28

You can use russian.typeit.org to type any of the Cyrillic letters used in Russian. Other than that, the Wikipedia page on any Cyrillic letter will give you both capital and lowercase forms to copy/paste. This Wikipedia page should be useful in figuring out what letters are used for what sounds across different languages; it gives every Cyrillic letter and its usage in each language it's used for out of 19 languages; 7 of which are Slavic, 3 of which are Indo-European but not Slavic, 6 of which are Uralic, and 3 of which are Caucasian.
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 03:32

GrandPiano wrote:There's also ў, used in Belarusian for example.
There was another sentence right above the part you quoted:
GrandPiano wrote:Wikipedia begs to differ.
Well, I'll be… even though ԍ has a completely different value. I'm not surprised I haven't seen them before, though… both characters appear to be totally obsolete, except for q in the Kurdish Cyrillic alphabet, which doesn't appear to be widely used (or at least not as widely used as the Kurdish Latin and Arabic orthographies).

Although I figured they were harmless typos (as Squall confirmed), I was literally out the door when I was posting that, so I didn't have the time to make that clear. I certainly didn't mean it in a "you can't use those!!!!!!!!!!!" type of way.
Squall wrote:I forgot to replace them. [xP]
No worries. [:)]
Squall wrote:I am not used to Cyrillic. I need to learn them.
The letters/characters, you mean?
Squall wrote:My keyboard cannot type the symbols and I copied them from this table.
What web browser do you use? There may be an easier way than copying and pasting.

/m n/ <м н>
/p~b t~d k~g kʷ~gʷ/ <п т к кв>
/ts~tʃ~dz~dʒ/ <ц>
/tθ tɬ kx/ <тс тљ кх>
/s ʃ ɬ h/ <с ш љ х>
/l j w/ <л й в>

/a ɔ ɛ i u/ <а о э и у>
/ɑ̃ ɔ̃ æ̃/ <аӈ оӈ эӈ>

Next:

/p t k/
/ᵐp ⁿt ᵑk/
/ɸ θ s h/
/m n/
/β ð j/
/l/

/i iː y yː e eː ø øː/
/ʉ ʉː ɒ̈ ɒ̈ː/
/u uː o oː/

/ie̯ ie̯ː yø̯ yø̯ː/
/ʉɒ̯̈ ʉɒ̯̈ː/
/uo̯ uo̯ː/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 04:03

shimobaatar wrote:There was another sentence right above the part you quoted:
Whoops, missed that. [:$]
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Thu 29 Jan 2015, 04:56

GrandPiano wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:There was another sentence right above the part you quoted:
Whoops, missed that. [:$]
No worries. [:)]
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Fri 30 Jan 2015, 04:47

As for learning the Cyrillic alphabet, I would suggest learning to read Russian first, because it's by far the most widely-spoken language that uses Cyrillic, and then checking out the way other languages use Cyrillic from there. Cyrillic can be a pretty strange thing from a Latin-alphabet perspective. A lot of letters are similar in appearance and sound, such as Cyrillic <Аа> and Latin <Aa>, or Cyrillic <Тт> and Latin <Tt>, but other letters will surprise you by being similar in appearance but often completely different in sound, such as Cyrillic <Нн>, which looks similar to Latin <Hh> but usually represents /n/, or Cyrillic <Ии>, which looks similar to Latin <Nn> but usually represents /i/. Some letters will be easy if you already know the Greek alphabet, such as <Пп> representing [p] or <Рр> representing [r] (another Latin/Cyrillic trap to watch out for).

Anyway, continuing the game:

/p t k/ <п т к>
/ᵐp ⁿt ᵑk/ <мп нт нк> (Prenasalized voiceless stops? What?)
/ɸ θ s h/ <ф ҫ с х>
/m n/ <м н>
/β ð j/ <в з й> (Why is an approximant listed with two fricatives?)
/l/ <л>

/i iː y yː e eː ø øː/ <и ии уь ууь э ээ ӧ ӧӧ>
/ʉ ʉː ɒ̈ ɒ̈ː/ <ы ыы а аа>
/u uː o oː/ <у уу о оо>

/ie̯ ie̯ː yø̯ yø̯ː/ <иэ ииэ уьӧ ууьӧ> (Tetragraphs yay!)
/ʉɒ̯̈ ʉɒ̯̈ː/ <ыа ыыа>
/uo̯ uo̯ː/ <уо ууо>

Next:
/p t ʈ c k q ʡ ʔ/
/pʰ tʰ ʈʰ cʰ kʰ qʰ ʡʰ/
/b d ɟ g ɢ/
/bʱ dʱ ɖʱ ɟʱ gʱ ɢʱ/
/f s ʂ ʃ ɕ ç x χ ʜ/
/v z ʐ ʒ ʑ ʝ ɣ ʁ ʢ/
/t͡s t͡ʂ t͡ɕ/
/d͡z d͡ʐ d͡ʑ/
/r l/
/w ɥ j ʕ/

/i y e ø a/
/ɯ u ɤ o ɑ/
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Fri 30 Jan 2015, 05:10

GrandPiano wrote:As for learning the Cyrillic alphabet, I would suggest learning to read Russian first, because it's by far the most widely-spoken language that uses Cyrillic, and then checking out the way other languages use Cyrillic from there.
[+1]
GrandPiano wrote:Cyrillic can be a pretty strange thing from a Latin-alphabet perspective.
Really? I find it incredibly similar to Latin.

No need arguing about that, though… And I understand where you're coming from with things like <Н н> vs. <H h>.
GrandPiano wrote:/ᵐp ⁿt ᵑk/ <мп нт нк> (Prenasalized voiceless stops? What?)
What's wrong? [o.O]
GrandPiano wrote:/β ð j/ <в з й> (Why is an approximant listed with two fricatives?)
/β̞ ð̞/ = approximant symbols only

/β ð/ = fricative or approximant symbols (unless a language has, for example, both a voiced bilabial fricative and a voiced bilabial approximant, then these are used just for fricatives so there's no ambiguity)

When only the approximants are present, most people don't always expend the extra effort needed to add those little marks underneath the fricative symbols. [:)]
GrandPiano wrote:(Tetragraphs yay!)
[:)]

/p t ʈ c k q ʡ ʔ/ <п т ц ч к ҡ ҟ ӏ>
/pʰ tʰ ʈʰ cʰ kʰ qʰ ʡʰ/ <пһ тһ цһ чһ кһ ҡһ ҟһ>
/b d ɟ g ɢ/ <б д ђ г ѓ>
/bʱ dʱ ɖʱ ɟʱ gʱ ɢʱ/ <бһ дһ ѕһ ђһ гһ ѓһ>
/f s ʂ ʃ ɕ ç x χ ʜ/ <ф с ш шь щ хь х хъ һ>
/v z ʐ ʒ ʑ ʝ ɣ ʁ ʢ/ <в з ж жь җ ҕь ҕ ҕъ һһ>
/t͡s t͡ʂ t͡ɕ/ <тс цш тщ>
/d͡z d͡ʐ d͡ʑ/ <дз ѕж дҗ>
/r l/ <р л>
/w ɥ j ʕ/ <ў ұ й ӑ>

/i y e ø a/ <и ү э ө я>
/ɯ u ɤ o ɑ/ <ы у ё о а>

Next:

/p b pʲ bʲ t d c~c͡ç ɟ~ɟ͡ʝ k g kʷ~q gʷ~ɢ ʡ~ʔ ʡʷ~ʔʷ ʡʲ~ʔʲ/
/f v fʲ vʲ θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ɕ~ç ʑ~ʝ χ~ʜ~h/
/t͡s t͡ʃ t͡ɕ/
/m mʲ n nʷ ɲ ŋ/
/ɥ j̥ j ʍ w/
/ɽ̊~ʈ ɽ~ɖ/
/r̥~ʀ r rʲ/
/ɬ~t͡ɬ ɮ~d͡ɮ/
/ʎ l~lˠ~ʟ/

/i iː y e eː ø æ/
/a/
/u o/

/eʏ̯ eʊ̯ eœ̯ eɔ̯/
/aɪ̯ aæ̯ aʊ̯/
/oɪ̯/
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GrandPiano
mayan
mayan
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Location: Ohio, USA

Re: Cyrillization game

Post by GrandPiano » Fri 30 Jan 2015, 05:14

shimobaatar wrote:
GrandPiano wrote:/ᵐp ⁿt ᵑk/ <мп нт нк> (Prenasalized voiceless stops? What?)
What's wrong? [o.O]
I believe that prenasalized stops (prenasalized fricatives and affricates as well) are virtually always voiced. In fact, I'm not aware of any natlang with prenasalized voiceless stops.
shimobaatar wrote:/β̞ ð̞/ = approximant symbols only

/β ð/ = fricative or approximant symbols (unless a language has, for example, both a voiced bilabial fricative and a voiced bilabial approximant, then these are used just for fricatives so there's no ambiguity)

When only the approximants are present, most people don't always expend the extra effort needed to add those little marks underneath the fricative symbols. [:)]
Ah, yes, forgot about that.
:eng: - Native
:chn: - B2
:esp: - A2
:jpn: - A2
shimobaatar
darkness
darkness
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by shimobaatar » Fri 30 Jan 2015, 05:34

Spoiler:
GrandPiano wrote:I believe that prenasalized stops (prenasalized fricatives and affricates as well) are virtually always voiced. In fact, I'm not aware of any natlang with prenasalized voiceless stops.
Voiced prenasalized consonants are indeed much more common. I don't have the time to look for examples of languages with voiceless ones, but that's actually not even really relevant to my "argument":
  • /p t k ᵐp ⁿt ᵑk/ are the only stops. One set is prenasalized, one set isn't. Maybe the prenasalized stops are phonetically realized as voiced or something, but I don't see much of a reason to represent the phonemes as voiced if there are no non-prenasalized voiced stops.
  • Even if they're uncommon (or unattested, even though I don't believe that's the case), they're certainly not impossible. My conlangs aren't meant to be spoken by true humans, or on Earth, so as long as a phoneme is possible, I try not to let myself get caught up in its distribution on Earth too much. Pharyngeal stops aren't technically impossible to produce, but they're totally unattested on Earth. Yet they're an areal feature in one section of my conworld. I have no plans to speak or even pronounce any of my conlangs, so I try to focus on "having fun", so to speak.
TL;DR: Since there's no voicing distinction in stops, I don't think it matters if the prenasalized stop phonems are represented as voiced or voiceless (regardless of their phonetic realization). As long as a phoneme isn't anatomically impossible for humans, I consider it fair game for me to use in a conlang spoken outside of Earth.
Spoiler used since we're off-topic.
Birdlang
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Re: Cyrillization game

Post by Birdlang » Fri 30 Jan 2015, 13:57

/p b pʲ bʲ t d c~c͡ç ɟ~ɟ͡ʝ k g kʷ~q gʷ~ɢ ʡ~ʔ ʡʷ~ʔʷ ʡʲ~ʔʲ/ п б пь бь т д ть дь к г къ гъ ъ ъщ ъь
/f v fʲ vʲ θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ɕ~ç ʑ~ʝ χ~ʜ~h/ въ в ф вь ҭ ԁ с з ш ж ш̃ ж̃ һ
/t͡s t͡ʃ t͡ɕ/ ц ч ч ч̃
/m mʲ n nʷ ɲ ŋ/ м ӎ н н̊ ӈ н̃
/ɥ j̥ j ʍ w/ ҩҩ ҩ й ӯ ѵ
/ɽ̊~ʈ ɽ~ɖ/ тѯ ѵѯ
/r̥~ʀ r rʲ/ ҏҏ ҏ р
/ɬ~t͡ɬ ɮ~d͡ɮ/ ӆ ԝ
/ʎ l~lˠ~ʟ/ љ л

/i iː y e eː ø æ/ и j ӱ e э ö æ
/a/ a
/u o/ y o

Diphthongs written as two lettersn
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/p b t d k/
/f s h/
/l j w/
/i e æ/
L1: English.
L2: Spanish, Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Indonesia, Italian, Korean, Chinese, and many more.
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