Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

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Squall
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Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Squall » 03 Apr 2015 20:41

Let's make a version of this topic for conlangs.
Comparing to English, what words or concepts are distinguished or merged in your conlang?


Examples:
  • Superclasses and subclasses of colors, fruits and animals.
  • read (read the text, read the text of a book) vs. read (read a book, which contains text)
  • Some cases lead to more distinctions that do not have the original meaning: come, go, leave (get out), leave (do not prevent something from staying in the current state), keep (intentionally make something stay in the current state)
  • Related to transitiveness or causative: raise vs. rise
  • let (intentionally), accidentally let (fail to prevent)
  • Rules about how to choose words: watch TV vs. see performance
  • Modal verbs: can/may, should, must/have to
  • Others:
    • look, see, watch, observe -> look at (try to see), look at (point the eyes to), see (non intentionally), watch/observe (observe something while or until it changes), watch/see (TV, show, performance, concert, video, someone working), notice visually, aim
    • bring, take
    • speak, say, tell
    • hear (non-intentionally), listen to (intentionally)
    • create, produce, make, cause, do, act, execute, perform
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Ghoster » 03 Apr 2015 22:45

My main conlang, Padmaran, doesn't have proper words for "drinking" and "eating", there's only "Caneara" 'To consume'; what's more interesting there are actually very specified words such as "Sea'aha" 'To drink wine' or "Leaqeata" 'To drink beer'. It also has different words for Adam's apple depending on the gender of a person we speak about. If we'd talk about a man, we would call it "Rabbaj" 'Roar', if we'd talk about a woman, it'd be "Tih" 'Squeak'.

I my second conlang, Shangrei, there's distinction between "Oara" 'Sky during the day' and "Tamet" 'Sky during the night', there's no term bounding these two meanings. Also, just like in Italian, we can put definite or indefinite articles to describe a noun which is already connected to a possessive pronoun, which gives us structures such as "the my book" 'a particular book of mine' and "a my book" 'one of my books'.
[ [:D] :pol: :usa: :nld: ] - [ [B)] :chn: :esp: ] - [ [;)] :aut: :rus: :fra: ] - [ :wat: :arab: :jpn: ]
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Prinsessa » 04 Apr 2015 06:06

I know a lot of boys who really, really don't roar. :roll:

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Imralu
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Imralu » 04 Apr 2015 07:00

Ngolu:

More to come later:

All animate nominals (pronouns/articles) have two forms depening on 'accessibility'.
______________________________________
Not so unusual, three distances for demonstratives, corresponding to the three grammatical persons.

tie (NOM is this, near me)
tia (NOM is that, near you)
tio (NOM is that, over there)

Derivative words such as atie (NOM is here), atinie (NOM comes here), and tieie (NOM does this) follow the same pattern. When the place or object referred to is equally close to first and second person, the second person is used as the default polite form, except for when speaking in the dominant mode, in which case the first person form is used. As discourse demonstratives, tie refers to what I have said or am about to say, tia to second persons and tio to third persons.
___________________________________
There are a whole lot of motion verbs, conveying motion towards and away from different people, perfective and imperfective verbs indicating motion towards places associated with the grammatical persons, towards the compass directions (mostly used by the balu, the police/military/royal guard). However, there are also two very simple verbs which distinguish perfective from imperfective movement but do not distinguish come and go.

hu (NOM comes/goes/moves to ...) [perfective]
mia (NOM is on his/her/its way to ...) [imperfective]
___________________________________
Another distinction that English lacks but is very common cross linguistically ...

ma(h)u (DAT knows NOM = fact)
tuhu (DAT knows NOM = person, place)
___________________________________
Rather less common, I would say ...

Laba (NOM is thick) and tise (NOM is thin) describe thickness in one dimension, eg. of books, paper, blankets.
Javu (NOM is thick) and tuenu (NOM is thin) describe thickness in two dimensions, eg. stick, pencil, leg, person.
___________________________________
Thinking is divided into ...
  • muri (DAT thinks NOM of TOP)
    [non-intentional spontanous thought, eg. "When I saw this, I thought of you."]

    aiha (GEN has an idea; GEN thinks of NOM)
    [non-intentional, potentially useful thought, eg. "I thought we could put it in the corner and see if that's any better."]

    malo (NOM deliberately thinks about / ponders TOP)
    [intentional, probably protracted thinking process, eg. "Let me think about that."]

    ttu (DAT thinks/believes NOM; NOM seems to be true to DAT)
    [unintentional belief about a matter of fact, eg. "I think it's at home."]
To voice an opinion, there is no verb. You simply use the dative case and then the marker of topicalisation to, eg. ...
  • ene to hues omio xu tie
    DAT.1s.ACS thus be.SUPERLATIVE be.beautiful NOM.3s.INAN.DEF be.this
    I think this one's more beautiful.
___________________________________

tieui na = I'm sorry. I appologise. Excuse me. [indicates regret and responsibility]
xenu ene = I'm sorry to hear that. That saddens me indicates only regret]

____________________________________
Then there's a whole bunch of weird, rank based distinctions. Muja are initiated men. Kali are other citizens, women, children and men who failed or did not attempt the initiation ceremony.

miia (NOM wears clothes suitable for a kali, of a kali) [Of a muja: ko/hui miia]
uara (NOM wears clothes suitable for a muja, of a muja) [Of a kali: ko/hui uara]

laha (NOM sings in a manner suitable for a kali, of a kali) [Of a muja: ko/hui laha]
uoia (NOM sings in a manner suitable for a muja, of a muja) [Of a kali: ko/hui uoia]

lasa (NOM dances in a manner suitable for a kali, of a kali) [Of a muja: ko/hui lasa]
bata (NOM dances in a manner suitable for a muja, of a muja) [Of a kali: ko/hui batsa]

tu (NOM is the foot of muja) [Figuratively refers to physical violence.]
bego (NOM is the foot of a kali) [Avoids referring to violence, related to bi gau 'finishes being a leg']

bale (NOM is the fist of a muja) [Figuratively refers to physical violence.]
ko bale (NOM is the first of a kali) [Literally means 'NOM is like the fist of a muja']

bisa (NOM cooks ACC simply, heating it but not adding ingredients)
kela (NOM cooks ACC heating it and adding ingredients, of a kali) [of a muja, hui ~]
____________________________________
Fighting
gazau (NOM physically fights with weapons, of a muja) [Of a kali: ko/hui gazau]
zaha (NOM physically fights without weapons, of a muja) [Of a kali: ko/hui gazau]
hasa (NOM fights verbally)
____________________________________
Killing

moluzu (NOM (accidentally) kills ACC, of a muja) [Of a kali: hui ~]
hune (NOM deliberately kills ACC because ACC is dangerous, of a muja) [Of a kali: hui ~]
namo (NOM deliberately kills ACC in order to eat ACC, of a muja) [Of a kali: hui ~]
hune (NOM kills/murders ACC wantonly, simply so that ACC is dead, of a muja) [Of a kali: hui ~]
____________________________________
akuala (NOM is a knife for eating with)
kueta (NOM is a knife for hunting)
____________________________________
ali (NOM is, to DAT, a friend of the same rank, to GEN, a lover of the same rank)
alu (NOM is, to DAT a friend of a different rank, to GEN, a lover of a different rank, to POS a concubine) [default, used for mixed groups]
____________________________________

xe = 'and' (links clauses)
xue = 'and' / 'also' (links verbals within a verbal phrase, used as 'also' to refer to verbals)
jeu = 'also' (used as 'also' to refer to an argument) / NOM is the same
Last edited by Imralu on 19 Apr 2015 20:45, edited 1 time in total.
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
________
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Sasquatch » 04 Apr 2015 16:00

Squall wrote:
  • Superclasses and subclasses of colors, fruits and animals.
  • read (read the text, read the text of a book) vs. read (read a book, which contains text)
  • Some cases lead to more distinctions that do not have the original meaning: come, go, leave (get out), leave (do not prevent something from staying in the current state), keep (intentionally make something stay in the current state)
  • Related to transitiveness or causative: raise vs. rise
  • let (intentionally), accidentally let (fail to prevent)
  • Rules about how to choose words: watch TV vs. see performance
  • Modal verbs: can/may, should, must/have to
  • look, see, watch, observe -> look at (try to see), look at (point the eyes to), see (non intentionally), watch/observe (observe something while or until it changes), watch/see (TV, show, performance, concert, video, someone working), notice visually, aim
  • bring, take
  • speak, say, tell
  • hear (non-intentionally), listen to (intentionally)
  • create, produce, make, cause, do, act, execute, perform
There are some interesting ideas in that list. Thanks for suggesting them.

I make a distinction between domestic cats/dogs and their wild counterparts. But there's no such distinction for other "domesticated" animals.

I also don't have a 1st-person plural pronoun. All forms of "we" are compounds created by suffixing the appropriate 2nd and/or 3rd person pronoun to the 1st-person singular. That may be more of a philosophical distinction than a grammatical one. Also, 3rd person has different forms for sentient and non-sentient. In total, there are twelve possible 3rd-person pronouns;
  • neuter/female/male
  • sentient/non-sentient
  • distal/proximal
And we haven't accounted for the four levels of plurality. So 48 possible 3rd-person pronouns, 12 possible 2nd-person pronouns (no sentient/non-sentient or proximal/distal distinctions), and only one 1st-person pronoun. Figure up all the 1-2, 1-3, 2-3, and 1-2-3 combinations and you have quite a few odd pronouns that no natlang has. Although many of the potential combinations would probably not be useful. I'm not sure yet whether they would all be grammatical. Though some odd ones may be useful for special purposes. A distal 1st-person could be used in written works; a variant of the authorial "we" often used in English. It might also be used as a sign of humility when you want to acknowledge that unnamed others have played a role in what you are discussing. Also, a distal 2nd-person could be useful as an authorial "you". At any rate, there are bound to be quite a few interesting distinctions within that jumble.
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by k1234567890y » 04 Apr 2015 16:58

Some distinctions and mergers in Lonmai Luna:

In Lonmai Luna, there are several verbs for "become":

- cain - to become something(general, no distinction between suddenness or gradualness, used with nouns)
- mino - to become something gradually(not suddenly, used with nouns)
- daina - to become something suddenly(not gradually, used with nouns)

- kipe - to become(no distinction between suddenness or gradualness, used with adjectives)

there are two adjectives(stative verbs) for "changing":
- gifa - (to be) changing(in respect of quantity or quality), (to be) stochastic
- yain - (to be) changing(in respect of shape or form)

also, there are more than one word for "to move":

- posu/pos - to move(indicating the change of position)
- wosip - to move(not indicating the change of position, the position may not change)

there are three words for "random":
- tontus - (to be) random(general term)
- ondop - (to be) random(random but has a random probability distribution or pattern that may be analyzed statistically, though may not be predicted precisely)
- tepantus - (to be) random(random and has completely no way to be predicted)

In Lonmai Luna, several intransitive verbs have stative/adjective forms and dynamic forms, they are distinguised by the derivative suffix bai-:
- carat - to be asleep(stative)
- baicarat - to sleep/to fall asleep(dynamic)
- keye - to be mature/to be ripe
- baikeye - to become mature/to become ripe
- ko - to be big/to be large
- baiko - to become big/to become large/to expand(intransitive)

The distinction of transitivity is also stricter in Lonmai Luna than in English, many verbs have different intransitive and transitive forms while there are only one verb for their English counterparts, some of the forms are even suppletive:

- hulta - to blow(intransitive)
- howarit - to blow(transitive)
- ferki - to start(intransitive)
- gaiferki - to start(transitive)

also, there are three types of possession defined by alienable-ness:

- imon - ofinalienable possession)
- imai - of(alienable possession, not temporary)
- imer - of(temporary possession)

thus the sentence "ceklor ono on imer se, pedi ceklor modo ono on imai se"(this.PRON ball the of.TEMPORARY 1.SG, but this.PRON NEG ball the of.ALIENABLE 1.SG, meaning: "This is my (temporary owned) ball, but I don't own this ball") is acceptable in Lonmai Luna, while its directly English translation, "this is my ball, but this is not my ball" can be ridiculous semantically.

There are two copulae that are equivalent to English "to be":

- kol - to be(to be equal to)
- yot - to be(to be one instance of)

There are two words for "to be equal to":

- kol - to be, to be equal to(mathematically equivalent, like 1+1=2)
- koler - to be equal to(equal in some specific properties, can also be used for statistical equivalence)

however, both of them can be omitted, and they are not used.

There are also different words for "to be similar to":
- alke - to be similar to(in respect of property)
- felke - to be superficially similar to(they may have only superficial similarity and are completely different in other respects)

In respect of physical objects, Lonmai Luna has terms for specified forms of leafs:
- bawota - leaf(general term)
- kitip - needle(of conifers)
- pasta - fallen leaf

In Lonmai Luna, there are more degrees of deixes, and the pronominal form and attributive forms are different, but they don't have different plural forms as in English:

- ceklor - this/these(proximal deixis)(pronominal form)
- aitalor - that/those(medial deixis)(pronominal form)
- alor - that/those(neutral deixis)(pronominal form)
- oralor - that/those(distal deixis)(pronominal form)

- cek - this/these(proximal deixis)(attributive form)
- ait - that/those(medial deixis)(attributive form)
- al - that/those(neutral deixis)(attributive form)
- or - that/those(distal deixis)(attributive form)

There are dual forms of 1st and 2nd pronouns, and inclusiveness is distinguished in 1st person non-singular forms, but there are no case or gender distinctions:

- se/sel - 1st person singular(I/me/my)
- kat/kati - 2nd person singular(you/your)
- dala - 3rd person singular/plural(he/she/it/him/her/his/its/they/them/their)
- sefe - 1st person exclusive dual(we two but not you)
- seki - 1st person inclusive dual(you and me)
- kade - 2nd person dual(you two)
- sefa - 1st person exclusive plural(we(three or more) but not you)
- seka - 1st person inclusive dual(you and us(three or more))
- kada - 2nd person plural(you(three or more))
- dala-dala - 3rd person plural(they/them/their)(note: reduplication is a way to form plural for animate nouns in Lonmai Luna, however, in Lonmai Luna, although plural forms are distinguished from singular forms, they are only obliged in 1st and 2nd person pronouns)

conjunctions for words and sentences are usually different. For example:

conjunctions used for connecting two words:
- fo - and
- bok - or(including and)
- wok - or(excluding and), xor

conjunctions used for connecting two sentences:
- itok - and
- boki - or(including and)
- moki - or(excluding and), xor

there are different terms for "why" and "because":
- adawil - why(for the reason)
- atawil - why(for the cause)
- abewil - why(for the logic)
- kusiwil - why(for the motive)
- wil - why(general term)

- adale - because(for the reason)
- atale - because(for the cause)
- abele - because(for the logic)
- kusile - because(for the motive)
- ile/pole - because(general term)

- adalo - so, thus, therefore(for the reason)
- atalo - so, thus, therefore(for the cause)
- abelo - so, thus, therefore(for the logic)
- kusilo - so, thus, therefore(for the motive)
- polo - so, thus, therefore(general term)

The kinship terms are simpler than that of English, they are only divided by generations:

- alcel/yalcel - father, mother, parent, uncle, aunt, etc.
- kolcel/celo - brother, sister, sibling, cousin, etc.
- ilacel - son. daughter. child(of a parent), nephew, niece, etc.

Also, as Lonmai Luna was originally not a human language, there are virtually no native words that indicate the gender of a person(be human or not), and Lonmai Luna has no grammatical gender.

Moreover, there are only one native word for the concept of "like" and "love":
- dalta - to like, to love(usually translated as "to like")
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Squall » 18 Apr 2015 18:44

These are some concepts in my conlang.
Since I prefer creating concepts and it is boring to invent words, I will put xx while I do not have the word.

xx - test, examine, probe, explore, try (action in order to find out something)
xx - learn (generic way to receive some info)
xx - discover (learn something that other people do not know)
xx - research, study (look for info that other people know (for instance, from a book))
xx - search (look for something)

xx - find accidentally, unexpectedly
xx - find intentionally

xx - recognize (can identify, knows the name or image, but has not learned about it)
xx - know

xx - to worry, to care about
xx - to mind, to object

xx - speak, say, tell (with the mouth)
xx - say, tell (by any means, including mouth and text)
xx - tell, report (info, story)
xx - talk, chat (conversation)
In the conlang, one speaks 'in a language', not 'the language'.

xx - see
xx - look at (effort to see)
xx - watch/see (TV, performance)
xx - observe (keep seeing while something changes or until it changes. Guard and biologist do it.)

xx - listen to
xx - hear (effort to listen)

xx - notice (see, hear, smell)

xx - move from the current place, walk
xx - move the body

xx - meet for the first time
xx - meet (reunion)

xx - have an opinion, believe (sure)
xx - presume or have an opinion without proof (unsure)
xx - think (make the brain work)
xx - think, recall (when the memory brings something up)
xx - remember (when a forgotten remembrance returns)

xx - suppose; imagine a hypothetical case or scenario in order to talk about the consequences
xx - assume, presume; consider a doubtful affirmation as true despite the lack of proof in order to continue something or take a decision

xx - receive intentionally
xx - receive, take unintentionally

xx - cause, make something happen
xx - transform something into another thing, make something become another thing
xx - execute a job, task, action or concept (do, act, perform, execute)
xx - invent something that was previously unknown (invent)
xx - create, build or produce a new instance of something known (produce, build)

xx - play (play for fun, play a game)
xx - play (run or execute a machine program: play movie, play song, run app)
xx - behave like (play a role)

xx - sing (with lyrics)
xx - emit musical sound (generic; with the mouth, the nose or a musical instrument, or whistling)
In the conlang, one plays 'with the instrument', not 'the instrument'.

xx - handle, control (ability to use a tool or machine: car (drive), musical instrument (play), spear (handle))
xx - touch (simple touch)
xx - touch, put the hands, use a little

xx - work on, work with
xx - work, use, interact, be in the presence (It is not a job. It includes hobby.)

xx - internal wish (The true wish: I like chocolate and I would want to eat it, but I do not want to eat it, because I do not want to become fatter.)
xx - external wish (The actual decision: I want to drink the medicine, but I prefer to not drink it, because its taste is terrible.)

xx - come, go, leave (get out)
xx - bring, take

xx - accidentally fail to prevent something from happening
xx - allow
xx - make something possible
xx - leave (do not prevent something from staying in the current state)
xx - keep (intentionally make something stay in the current state)

xx - after
xx - immediately after

xx - fortunately in the perspective of the subject
xx - fortunately in my opinion

xx - new/old (the age)
xx - recent (appeared recently regardless the age) / former

xx - horizontal left-right
xx - vertical up-down
xx - horizontal front-behind
xx - vertical in paper perspective (wall or table)
xx - absolute directions: north, south, west, east
Compounds are used for: upper-left, northeast, etc.

xx - large / small (generic size)
xx - long / short (distance, longest dimension)
xx - tall / short, low-height (vertical distance)
xx - broad / narrow (shortest dimension)
xx - slim / thin (thickness in one dimension)
xx - slim / thin (thickness in two dimensions)
xx - high / low (level, intensity)
xx - high / low (distance from the ground below)
xx - deep / shallow (distance from the surface above)
xx - deep / near (horizontal depth, depth of a cave for instance)

xx - loud / quiet
xx - high-pitch / low-pitch

xx - strong / weak (ability to force, active)
xx - resistant / fragile (ability to survive, passive)

Biology (which is not taxonomic in the conlang)
xx - things that have roots (plants, mushroom, sponges)
xx - insect-like (insects, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, slugs, worms, and, of course, geckos that are less than 10 cm long and can climb walls)
xx - microscopic things (any unicellular things and viruses)
xx - fish-like (including whale and dolphin)
xx - mammal-like (they have hair, but breasts are not required)

xx - animalia (including humans)
xx - non-sapient animal
xx - sapient anthropomorphic (including elves and dwarves)
xx - homo sapiens


Mergers:
xx - female boss, wife (it is almost a merger in my natlang [:D])


Others:
* correctly/wrongly replace well/badly.
* 'like' and 'love' are distinguished with the intensifier particle.
* Distinction in the possessive: mine (I am the owner), in my use (temporary in my possession)
Last edited by Squall on 25 Apr 2015 01:50, edited 1 time in total.
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Sasquatch » 19 Apr 2015 12:36

Squall wrote:Since I prefer creating concepts and it is boring to invent words

xx - watch/see (TV, performance)
xx - observe (keep seeing while something changes or until it changes. Guard and biologist do it.)

xx - meet for the first time
xx - meet (reunion)
I also dislike lexigenesis.

I really like the subtle distinctions in the two samples I quoted above.
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by gestaltist » 19 Apr 2015 14:34

This is a great thread! Very inspiring.

The two languages I am currently working on (Lirsh and Halldean) don’t have that much vocabulary yet, so I can talk about some distinctions/mergers in the grammar. I will let you judge for yourselves if they are interesting.

Lirsh verbs all take an agglutinative suffix showing their valency. The same verb can mean different things based on that one suffix alone:

yirt (general meaning: to throw) has the following meaning depending on the valency suffix:

impersonal: „to rain“
intransitive: „to fall“
(di)transitive: „to throw something (at someone)“

aah (general meaning: to be mature) can mean:

impersonal: haven’t decided yet if it will be used but it could mean something like „panta rhei"
intransitive: "to be mature/old"
transitive: "to bestow one’s knowledge/wisdom upon someone"
ditransitive: "to train someone in something"

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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Runomso » 22 Apr 2015 19:35

Ukiku has not any voices so it usually uses the causative to create passive-like constructions. Here is an example:

dárende "to die": darénvu "he/she dies" (intransitive verb)
The causative is expressed by turning one of the lexem's monophtong (usually the one which contains a high pitch accent) into a diphtong by adding /i/:
irende "to cause dying", "to kill": dairénvu yatame "he/she kills someone"
If you remove the object from the sentence/phrase you'll get something like a passive:
Dáirenvu. "He/she is/gets killed"
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Ahzoh » 22 Apr 2015 20:11

I mention in this post that Vrkhazh has two words for survival:
viewtopic.php?f=6&t=960&start=6300#p187482
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Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Imralu » 25 Apr 2015 10:38

More from Ngolu:

volu/volo is both "give" and "take" and depends on the cases of the arguments used. Basically it means to "transfer ownership" of the ACC argument from the ABL to the DAT
  • volu nu xi eui I give it to you
    volu nu xi jui I take it from him.
    volu nu xi jui eui I take it from him and give it to you.
moe a single head hair
moige head hair collectively
talu body hair / fur collectively
autalu a single body hair / fur hair (?)

moho old (not young)
vire old (not new)

mola just, only, merely (indicates insignificance)
zola just, only, solely (does not indicate insignificiance)

munu water (general word)
hunia potable water

uaki street, road (inside settlement)
zulu road (between settlements)

zatu urinate (while standing)
kele urinate (while sitting)

zumu feel (detect, eg. vibration)
ielo feel (an emotion)
miva feel (deliberately touch in order to feel)

bozu find (unintentionally)
uaizue find (search for and be successful)

leka meet (for the first time)
ligo meet (by arrangement)
gehuo meet, bump into (accidental meetings)

atai good, kind, benevolent
hoia good, moral
tazu good, skilled (good at)
te good, beneficial

lai love (romantically, sexually)
hualo love, care about
migo love (familial bond or similar)
mula like

mio the same, self (self-same individual, opposite of 'other')
jeu the same (same in type or characteristics, opposite of 'different')
muo the same, equal, as ... as (same in degree)

itio short (in height), shallow (of water) (small in vertical extent)
jagi tall, deep (great in vertical extent)

akku blood (general)
akujuo blood (external to a body, bled blood)

lima woman, wife (married woman)
vela woman (unmarried woman)

muja man (who has passed the initiation ceremony)
karia/karuia man (who has not passed the initiation)
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
________
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idov
sinic
sinic
Posts: 390
Joined: 13 Apr 2015 20:02

Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by idov » 29 Apr 2015 23:17

Squall wrote: In the conlang, one plays 'with the instrument', not 'the instrument'.
Was that just the stealthiest linguistic pun of all time?
The accusative of <emo> is <eminem>. :lat:

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Jackk
greek
greek
Posts: 644
Joined: 04 Aug 2012 12:08
Location: tamed.speaks.points

Re: Distinctions and mergers in your conlang

Post by Jackk » 30 Apr 2015 15:46

idov wrote:
Squall wrote: In the conlang, one plays 'with the instrument', not 'the instrument'.
Was that just the stealthiest linguistic pun of all time?
Me, 10 seconds later... [xD] [+1]
Eresse anga paris cur neduc, a san teonga.
The only thing more dangerous than doubt is certainty.

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