Silvish

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Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Tue 25 Aug 2015, 22:02

Silvish (sivauch) is spoken in the small Principality of Silvia (Sivaussa), in the French Alps. It has been known throughout history by a large number of names, including Oëstan and Saint-Mauritian, and while several are still in use, "Silvish" has been designated as the official name for over 150 years. The history and current status of Silvia are still topics of much debate among researchers. Even its exact borders are unknown, which has troubled many European officials for decades. No doubt greater clarity on these issues will emerge in time. (more info on Silvish borders)

I thought I'd finally write down the information I have on Silvish. I hadn't realized how much of its inner workings I was simply remembering, so I'm a bit shocked by how much space it all takes up (and how little I've worked on allophony [:$] ). Here is a post on Silvish phonology, orthography and "orthophonology" (places where phonology and orthography are too tangled up to be neatly separated).

Comments, questions and suggestions are welcome.

I. Directory (links to the other big posts)
this post for 1 - 3.3 (Phonology, Orthography, Orthophonology)
click here for 3.4 - 6 (Ablaut, Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives)
click here for 7 (Verbs)
click here for 8 (Determiners)
click here for 9 (Negation)
click here for 10 (Numbers)


II. Abbreviations
C = all consonants
V = all syllabic vowels
S = semivowels
U = syllabic vowels and semivowels

1. Phonology

1.1 Consonants
/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p b t d k g/
/tɕ dʑ/
/f v s z ɕ/
/ɾ r/
/l ʎ/

1.2 Vowels
1.2.1 Oral
/i u/
/e o/
/ə*/
/ɛ ɔ/
/a/
* restricted to unstressed syllables

1.2.2 Nasal
/ẽ õ/
/ã/

Nasalization is phonemic before oral consonants and word finally. Theoretically, nasalization is also phonemic before nasal consonants. I haven't discovered minimal pairs yet, but there is no reason why they couldn't turn up.

1.2.3 Semivowels
/e̯ o̯/

1.2.4 Diphthongs
/VS/ except */ue̯ uo̯ ie̯/
/SV/
/o̯ɑ/ (this has merged into /o̯ɔ/ among young people)

Vowel length is phonemic in stressed syllables. All monophthongs and diphthongs have long counterparts.

1.3 Allophony
/e o/ > [ɪ ʊ], _[-stress]
/e̯ o̯/ > [ɪ̯ ʊ̯], _[-stress]
/e̯/ > [ɪ̯], e_ or _e
/o̯/ > [ʊ̯], o_ or _o
U[+back] > U[+front, +round], _U[+front]

The following changes are dialect-specific. The dialects do not have names yet. I will call them Dialect A and Dialect B.

Dialect A:
dʑ > ʑ, V_V

Dialect B:
dʑ > dz, _U[-front]

1.4 Syllable Structure
(s)(C)(ɾ/l)(S)V(S)(C)

Inherited Silvish words only allow /ɾ/ or /l/ in syllable codas, and these are often elided in unstressed syllables. Borrowed words can contain other coda consonants, but these are often elided as well.

Most /CC/ combinations are split over a syllable boundary. For instance, /ˈpasta/ is syllabified /ˈpas.ta/. But /Cɾ/ and /Cl/ combinations are considered to be part of the onset of a syllable, so /ˈmɛːdɾə/ is syllabified as /ˈmɛː.dɾə/, not /ˈmɛːd.ɾə/


2. Orthography

2.1 Alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Zz

2.2 Sound-Letter Correspondence
The orthography is quite morphophonemic, with most letters having more than one reading, so these correspondences are merely trends.

/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n~nn** gn n>
/p b t d k g/ <p b t d c~ch* g~gh*>
/tɕ dʑ/ <ch gz~g*>
/f v s z ɕ/ <f v s~ss z~s cz~c*>
/ɾ r/ <r~d†† r~rr>
/l ʎ/ <l gl>
* used before <i e>
** used between vowel letters
word-medial
†† When word final and preceded a vowel letter, <d> is pronounced /ɾ/, both in liaison and when a suffix is added to an inherited word or suffix

Note that <ch> can represent both /k/ and /tɕ/. It usually represents /k/ before <i e> and /tɕ/ before <a o u>, but exceptions are common (e.g. visitochi /vezeˈtɔe/, not */vezeˈtɔke/)

/i u/ <ie~í uo~ú>
/e o/ <i~é u~ó>
/ə/ <e>
/ɛ ɔ/ <e~á o>
/a/ <a>

/ẽ õ/ <i(n/m/gn)~é(n/m/gn) o(n/m/gn)~uo(n/m/gn)>
/ã/ <a(n/m/gn)>

/e̯ o̯/ <i u>

/o̯ɛ o̯ã/ <ue ue(n/m/gn)>
/o̯ɑ e̯a/ <uó ia~ié>

2.3 Diacritics and the Interpunct
Silvish uses four diacritics: grave accent (`), accute accent (´), circumflex (ˆ) and trema (¨). It also uses the interpunct (·).

Grave: Marks stress. See 3.3.1 for more information.
Acute: Marks ablaut (<a e o i u ie uo> /a ɛ ɔ e o i u/ > <á é ó í ú ié uó> /ɛ e o i u e̯a o̯ɑ/) and stress. Silvish ablaut will be explained in a later post.
Circumflex: Lengthens the vowel and marks ablaut, if possible (ablauting: <â ê ô î û iê uô> /ɛː eː oː iː uː e̯aː o̯ɑː/; non-ablauting: <ie uo> /i u/ > <îe ûo> /iː uː/).
Trema: Marks when two vowel letters that are normally pronounced as a diphthong are pronounced as two syllables or when two vowel letters that are normally pronounced as a monophthong are pronounced as a diphthong. (<ai> /ae̯/ > <aï> /a.e/, <uo> /u/ > <uö> /o̯ɔ/)
Interpunct: Differentiates a nasal vowel + /n/ sequence from an oral vowel + /n/ sequence (<an·na> /õ.na/, <anna> /a.na/). When representing the pronunciation of a prefix-root sequence would otherwise require changing the spelling of the root, the interpunct is placed between the two elements and the root isn't respelled (co- + ródre = /kɔˈroː.dɾə/ = *<corródre> = <co·ródre>.

2.4 Silent Letters
All consonant letters except <gl gn l m n r> are unpronounced word finally. If a string of these consonant letters appears finally, the full string is silent. For example, both <gzat> and <gzats> are pronounced /ˈdʑa/.
<l r> are silent when they appear alone word-finally. If other consonants besides <s> follow them, they are pronounced. For example, <col> = /ˈkɔː/, <cold> = /ˈkɔːl/.
<n m gn> are not pronounced when they appear word-finally or are followed by a consonant, but the preceding vowel becomes nasalized. While the vowel letter doesn't change, the quality/quantity may (<ta> = /ta/, <tan> = /tõː/). Exceptions are the personal pronouns <son san> and the negative particle <nen>, which are liaison forms pronounced /sə.ŋ‿ sa.ŋ‿/ and /nə.ŋ‿/.

2.5 Exceptions
An exception exists to the rules for determining pronunciation. It is possible for certain phonemes to remain pronounced and for vowel length (see 3.1) to not change from one form to the next, even if a spelling change suggests the opposite. Example: <salsa> /ˈsalsa/ > <sáls> /ˈsɛl/. The normal orthography rules suggest that <sáls> should be */ˈsɛː/, but because it's the oblique form of <salsa>, it inherits the short vowel and /l/ from the nominative.

If there were a second-declension noun <sal> /ˈsaː/, its nominative plural form would also be spelled <sáls>, but it would be pronounced /ˈsɛː/.


3. "Orthophonology"
Following are descriptions of vowel length, liaison and stress. These concepts are rather unpredictable when viewing Silvish from a purely phonological angle, but are normally indicated in writing. As a result, it is easiest to discuss them and the corresponding orthography rules at the same time.

3.1 Vowel Length
Silvish has developed phonemic vowel length. However, it has a rather convoluted way of representing this in writing. When a vowel letter represents a stressed vowel, its length is indicated by the letters that follow it.

3.1.1 Dark and Light Letters
In terms of their role in showing vowel length, the letters of the alphabet are conventionally divided into three groups:

Dark Letters
a b d e g gh gz i l m n o r u v z

Light Letters
c ch cz f p q t

Letter S
s

3.1.2 Vowel Length Rules
Rules for determining vowel length from orthography:

1) All stressed vowels are long.
2) If a stressed vowel has a circumflex (<â ê î ô û>), it is unaffected by the following rules.
3) If a stressed vowel ends a word, or is followed only by plural-marking <s>, the vowel becomes short.
4) If the coda of the stressed syllable - including silent consonants - contains a light letter, the stressed vowel becomes short.
5) If the onset of the syllable following a stressed vowel contains a light letter or <s>, the vowel becomes short.

3.1.3 Examples of the Rules
2) <alô> - After applying 1), we have /aˈloː/. Because the stressed vowel has a circumflex, the rules after 2) aren't considered. If it didn't have a circumflex, 3) would apply and shorten the vowel.
3) <ò> and <or> - After 1), both words are /ˈɔː/. Because <ò> ends in just a stressed vowel it is shortened to /ˈɔ/. In contrast, <or> ends with a consonant other than plural <s>, so it does not shorten. To sum up, <ò> = /ˈɔ/, <or> = /ˈɔː/.
4) <vert> and <verr> - After 1), both are /ˈvɛːɾ/. Because the coda of <vert> - including silent letters - contains a light letter, <t>, the vowel shortens. The coda of <verr> contains no light letters, so it remains long. <vert> = /ˈvɛɾ/, verr = /ˈvɛːɾ/.
5) <czata> and <czara> - After 1), <czata> = /ˈtɕaː.ta/ and <czara> = /ˈtɕaː.ɾa/. Because the onset of the syllable following the stressed vowel in <czata> contains the light letter <t>, the vowel shortens. The onset of the syllable following the stressed vowel in <czara> does not contain a light letter or <s>, so it remains long. <czata> = /ˈtɕa.ta/, <czara> = /ˈtɕaː.ɾa/.

3.1.4 Exceptions
The major exception to these rules is un (and its derivatives, like chicun). Even though its spelling suggests it should, no form of un contains a long vowel. They should all be pronounced short, so un is pronounced /ˈõ/ not */ˈõː/.

3.2 Liaison
Liaison (or liazun in Silvish) operates much like in French, in that underlying consonants emerge at word boundaries in certain environments, often where two vowels would have come in contact. The difference is that Silvish liaison is much more extensive, even appearing before consonants.

3.2.1 Liaison Sounds
Most consonant letters can represent liaison. When they do, most represent their usual value. Here are the less predictable ones:

<d> - /d/ (after a consonant letter) /ɾ/ (after a vowel letter)
<ch> - /k/, regardless of whether it means /k/ or /tɕ/ elsewhere
<g> - ∅
<s> - /z/ (before vowel) /s/ (before consonant)

3.2.2 Liaison Conditions
3.2.2.1 Phonological Conditions
Liaison only occurs at word boundaries. The first word must end in a silent consonant and the second word must begin with a vowel or /l/. If the grammatical situation is correct (see 3.2.2.2), the silent consonant will become pronounced, according to 3.2.1. Examples: <és> /ˈe/ + <ét> /ˈe/ = <és ét> /eˈz‿e/; <ents> /ˈã/ + <le> /lə/ = <ents le> /ˈã.s‿lə/

3.2.2.2 Grammatical Conditions (and Complexes)
Liaison is limited grammatically, so that it only occurs within certain groupings of constituents and never between them. These groupings are traditionally called "complexes". They are as follows:

Verb complex - Comprises the subject, verb, direct object and indirect (≈dative) object of a clause as well as any clitic pronouns.
Adverb complex - Comprises the adverbs modifying a verb.
Complement complex - Comprises an adverbial/prepositional phrase modifying a verb, excluding that containing the indirect object.

Conjunctions are considered part of the smallest complex containing them and so experience liaison like any other word in that complex.

A complex can be interrupted by another. It is common to see the adverb complex interrupt the verb complex.

3.2.2.3 Example
Gzo t'ò maut lenta-mint donad le scérp quela nuet a Parizi.
/dʑɔ tɔ ˈmao̯ˈt‿lã.ta ˈmẽ dɔˈŋaː.ɾ‿lə ˈɕeɾ ˈko̯ɛː.la ˈno̯ɛ a paˈɾeː.ze/
I very slowly gave you the scarf that night in Paris.

Verb complex: "Gzo t'ò … donad le scérp" (I gave you the scarf)
Adverb complex: "maut lenta-mint" (very slowly)
Complement complexes: "quela nuet" (that night), "a Parizi" (in Paris)

In the sentence above, liaison (indicated by a tie bar) occurs twice. Since "maut" and "lenta-mint" are both within the adverb complex, they can experience liaison. Since "donad" and "le" are both in the verb complex, they can experience liaison. There is one spot where liaison is blocked by complex boundaries - between "nuet" and "a". Were these words in the same complex, they would be pronounced /ˈno̯ɛ.t‿a/.

3.3 Stress
3.3.1 Word Level
Word-level stress usually falls on the penult or the ult in Silvish. The orthography often indicates this. To start, grave accents and acute accents always mark the stressed syllable in a word, and circumflexes almost always do. In a word with no diacritics that ends in a vowel letter or <s>, stress is penultimate. If a word with no diacritics ends in a consonant other than <s>, stress is final. Monosyllables may be stressed or unstressed (e.g. "a" /a/ is unstressed, while "à" /ˈa/ is stressed), though this often isn't indicated.

3.3.1.1 Interaction with Vowel Quality
<e> represents /ɛ/ in stressed syllables and /ə/ in unstressed ones. This can set up stress-based vowel alternations, like in these two forms of "amâ" (to like): <amessi> /aˈmɛse/ > <amessions> /aməˈse̯õː/. This only applies at the word level; <e> is does not change pronunciation if its stress is changed at the phrase level.

3.3.2 Phrase Level
At the phrase level, stressed monosyllabic words are liable to lose stress based on their environment. When a word loses stress, this has certain phonological effects. 1) Long vowels shorten, 2) codas are deleted 3) /e o/ reduce (allophonically). Stress loss can only occur within complexes, just like liaison, so if you are determining the stress of a verb, only words from the verb complex can have an effect on it.

For the rest of 3.3, I will be switching to a phonetic transcription to show the allophonic variation of /e o/.

3.3.2.1 Long Monosyllables
A long monosyllable loses stress if it is both immediately preceded by a long syllable and immediately followed by one. Ex. <vird-blau chen> goes from *[ˈveːɾ ˈblaːo̯ ˈtɕãː] to [ˈveːɾ blaʊ̯ ˈtɕãː]

3.3.2.2 Short Monosyllables
A short stressed monosyllable loses stress if it is immediately followed by a stressed syllable of any length or preceded by a long syllable. Ex. "Ét furt" goes from *[ˈe ˈfoɾ] to [ɪ ˈfoɾ], "ét" de-stressing in contact with a following stressed syllable. As another example, "chen furt" goes from *[ˈtɕãː ˈfoɾ] to [ˈtɕãː ], "furt" de-stressing because a long syllable precedes it.

3.3.2.3 Applying the Rules
These rules operate based on the underlying stressed or unstressed status of a syllable, not on its surface realization. As a result, it is common to see whole strings of short monosyllables de-stress, each reacting to the underlyingly stressed syllable that follows it. Take "És ét maut furt", which goes from *[ˈeˈz‿e ˈmao̯ ˈfoɾ] to [ɪ.z‿ɪ maʊ̯ ˈfoɾ]. "És" loses stress because it is followed by "ét", which in turn loses stress because it is followed by "maut", which itself loses stress because it is followed by "furt".

3.3.2.4 Exceptions
While most words follow these rules, there are several common exceptions, words that remain stressed at all times or lose stress where others wouldn't.

Noun phrase heads are always stressed. Ex. "viau chen gren", which means "big old dog", is pronounced [ˈve̯aːo̯ ˈtɕãː ˈgɾãː], even though the rules for long syllables point toward *[ˈve̯aːo̯ tɕã ˈgɾãː]. "Chen" (dog) is the head of the noun phrase, so it keeps its stress.

As mentioned above, there are also words that lose stress where others don't. They are demonstratives and possessive determiners. All of these words lose stress when in contact with a stressed syllable of any length. As examples of both:

quél fén·ne > *[ˈko̯eː ˈfẽː.nə] > [kʊ̯ɪ ˈfẽː.nə]
miév gzát > *[ˈme̯aː ˈdʑɛ] > [mɪ̯a ˈdʑɛ]

Both of these words - quél and miév - are underlyingly long, stressed syllables, meaning they "shouldn't" lose stress in these environments, but they do anyway.
Edit:  
28-8-15 (1.2.2) Clarifying phonemicity of nasal vowels
30-8-15 (I) Adding directory, (II) Adding U, (1.3) Incorporating new allophony from here, (2.2, 2.5) Incorporating pronunciation info from here
5-9-15 (1.2) Clarifying phonemicity of long vowels, (2.2) changing pronunciation of <gl>
6-9-15 (intro) Clarifying that Silvia is a principality
6-1-16 (all sections) General updates to phonology, orthography and examples
18-1-16 (1.1) removed /ts/, (2.2) <z> = /s/
4-2-16 (2.2) added <·n>, <z> = /z/, (3.1.1) made <z> a dark letter, (3.1.2) rule #3: plural-marking and non-plural-marking <s> behave differently
12-4-16 (all sections) General updates, (2.2) Replacing <·n> w/ <nn>, <oi> w/ <ue>
12-6-16 (2.3) Adding interpunct
12-8-16 (3.1.4) Added
Last edited by Dormouse559 on Wed 24 Aug 2016, 02:19, edited 28 times in total.
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Re: Silvish

Post by clawgrip » Wed 26 Aug 2015, 07:39

I like this one. I like how your orthography is based on the complexity of French yet is totally its own thing.
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Wed 26 Aug 2015, 20:56

That's great! That French-like quality's exactly what I was going for. [:)]
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Re: Silvish

Post by Egerius » Wed 26 Aug 2015, 21:54

This is the first conlang I'd like know more about after having seen some samples (beside kanejam's Modern Oscan – but his was a revival). [:D]
The digraph <cz> actually has historical grounds: In the Occitan Cançó de Santa Fé (last line, first word).
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Conlang embryo of TELES: Proto-Avesto-Umbric ~> Proto-Umbric
New blog: http://argentiusbonavalensis.tumblr.com
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Wed 26 Aug 2015, 22:32

Oh wow! I had no idea about that. I knew that <ç> originated as some kind of ligature between <c> and cursive <z>, which was how I justified the choice with Silvish, but I'd never gone looking for the digraph form. I don't believe <gz> is attested anywhere. It's supposed to be a Silvish innovation based on <cz>.
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Thu 27 Aug 2015, 00:09

I forgot to elaborate on ablaut, so here's a secton on that, followed by sections on nouns, personal pronouns and adjectives.

3.4 Ablaut/Iotation
Silvish has a form of ablaut that speakers call "iotation" (not to be confused with the phenomenon of the same name among Slavic languages). It was historically represented by placing <i> after the affected vowel, hence the name. The <i> was gradually reduced and shifted in writing until it was identical to an acute accent.

Multiple parts of speech experience variations of ablaut. When to apply it will be explained in the individual part-of-speech sections (4-6 so far).

3.4.1 Vowel Shift and Representation
Ablaut is represented by putting an acute accent over the vowel that shifts.
<a e o i u ie uo> = /a ɛ ɔ e o i u/
<á é ó í ú ié uó> = /ɛ e o i u e̯a o̯ɑ/

A corresponding shift can be seen in some nasalized vowels as well.
<an en ien uon> = /õ ã ẽ õ/
<án én ién uón> = /ã ẽ e̯õ o̯õ/

The ablauting syllable of certain words alternates between oral and nasal realizations, which can create widely varying forms. Take the following forms of "italian" (Italian)

no ablaut, nasal - italian /etaˈle̯õː/
no ablaut, oral - italiana /etaˈle̯ŋa/
ablaut, nasal - italián /etaˈle̯ãː/
ablaut, oral - italiánis /etaˈle̯ɛːŋe/

3.4.2 Orthography Note
Some words that do not experience ablaut contain an acute accent anyway (míl "thousand", for example). This is pronounced as indicated above and is simply an etymological quirk of Silvish spelling.

3.4.3 Secondary Ablaut
A secondary kind of ablaut occurs in the (often) unstressed final syllable of certain plural words. Affected word classes include: nouns, adjectives, determiners, the pronouns nos and vos. For example, a word ending in unstressed /a/ (like fema /fɛːma/) is pronounced the same in the plural, while in isolation or when followed by a vowel (plural femas /fɛːma/). But when followed by a consonant, /a/ shifts to /ɔ/ (femas furtas /ˈfɛːmɔ ˈfoɾta/). The vowels affected are listed below:

Orthography > Isolated/Prevocalic > Preconsonantal
<as> > /a/ > /ɔ/
<os> > /ɔ/ > /o/
<is> > /e/ > /o/
<es> > /ə/ > /ɔ/


4. Nouns

4.1 Morphological Distinctions
4.1.1 Gender
Silvish has two genders: masculine and feminine. In their citation form - nominative singular - feminine nouns tend to end in unstressed /a/, while masculine nouns tend not to. The main confirmation of a noun's gender is how other parts of speech agree with it.

Gender tends to correspond with physical sex, where it is apparent (uöme "man" - masculine, fema "woman" - feminine)

When physical sex is not apparent or not applicable, a noun's gender is less predictable (puczun "fish", ambre "tree" - masculine; but eghla "eagle" and porta "door" - feminine)

4.1.2 Number
There are two numbers: singular and plural. Singular is used when there is one of something. It is also used when there is zero of something. Plural is used in all other instances.

Plural is marked orthographically by suffixing an <s> to the word. No <s> is added if the word ends in <s> or <z>. The <s> is only pronounced when allowed by liaison and ablaut. As a result, plural is inconsistently marked on nouns in speech.

4.1.3 Case
There are two cases: nominative and oblique.

Nominative is used for the subject of a transitive verb and the agent of an intransitive verb. It is also used on the object of "de" (of, from), when "de" marks possession, and in certain adverbial phrases indicating time.

Oblique is used for the direct object of a verb and objects of prepositions other than possessive "de".

4.2 Declensions
There are two declensions in Silvish governing mainly how case and number are marked on a noun, but they also correlate somewhat with different genders.

4.2.1 First Declension
The first declension descends from the Latin first declension. Nouns of this type are distinguished by ending in unstressed /a/ in nominative singular, and most of them are feminine. Below is an example of a regular first-declension noun

gzata f. female cat

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG gzata     gzát
PL gzatas    gzátis
In first-declension nouns, the oblique case triggers ablaut (NOM: gzata /ˈdʑata/ > OBL: gzát /ˈdʑɛ/)

Some of these nouns suffix <e> in the oblique singular. In all cases, it was once epenthetic, but in many, the elision of consonants over time has obscured that fact. These latter cases simply have to be memorized.

verra f. glass (vessel)

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG verra     vérre
PL verras    vérris
Another subtype of this declension, mainly masculine Greek loans, does not simply delete the final <a> in the oblique singular, but also suffixes an <i>.

problema m. problem

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG problema  problémi
PL problemas problémis
4.2.2 Second Declension
The second declension descends from the Latin second and third declensions. These nouns are typically masculine, but there are a large number of feminine nouns in their ranks as well.

gzat m. male cat

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG gzat      gzati
PL gzáts     gzátis
In second-declension nouns, plural triggers ablaut (SG: gzat /ˈdʑa/ > PL: gzáts /ˈdʑɛ/)

When a second-declension noun ending in a schwa takes a suffix beginning with a vowel, the schwa is removed.

ambre m. tree

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG ambre     ambri
PL ámbres    ámbris
A subtype of the second declension, mainly certain feminine Greek loans, ends in <i> in the nominative forms, neutralizing case distinctions.

oasi f. oasis

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG oasi      oasi
PL oásis     oásis
4.2.3 Selected Irregular Nouns
The following nouns have unpredictable alternations that don't fit the normal ablaut patterns, though the suffixes they take usually fit one of the regular declensions. "Obriër" and "soliug" represent larger groups that all experience the same alternation.

obrier mf. worker

Code: Select all

M
   NOM       OBL
SG obrier    obreri
PL obriérs   obréris

F
   NOM       OBL
SG obrera    obrér
PL obreras   obréris
soliug m. sun

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG soliug    solegli
PL soliúgs   soléglis
fieg m. son

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG fieg      fiegli
PL fiégs     fiéglis
vuau m. eye

Code: Select all

   NOM       OBL
SG vuau      uogli
PL vuáus     uóglis

5. Personal Pronouns

5.1 Morphological Distinctions
5.1.1 Person and Number
Pronouns encode first, second and third person. They agree with the nouns they replace in number.

5.1.1.1 T-V Distinction
The second-person plural pronoun can be used as a singular pronoun for formal situations. This most often occurs with a person the speaker doesn't know or doesn't know well, with a superior like a boss, and with elders not related to the speaker.

The second-person singular pronoun is used with friends, family members, close co-workers and addressees significantly younger than the speaker (usually children). When addressing a specific person on the Internet, this pronoun is used almost exclusively. Finally, it is also used when addressing a god or other supernatural entity, a vestige of older usage when the pronouns had no connotation of formality.

5.1.2 Gender
Pronouns agree with nouns in gender in the third person. First- and second-person pronouns do not mark gender. There is also a genderless pronoun, on, which usually translates as "someone" or "people".

5.1.3 Case
Pronouns - particularly third person - encode several more cases than nouns: nominative, accusative, dative, locative and ablative. All pronouns additionally have a reflexive form and a stressed form called "disjunctive". Pronouns are unstressed in all cases except nominative and the disjunctive forms.

5.1.3.1 Nominative
Used with subjects of transitive verbs and agents of intransitive verbs. Examples: Gzo córghi "I run", Essa m'agzova "She helps me"

5.1.3.2 Accusative
Used with the object of a transitive verb. Examples: Essa m'agzova "She helps me"

5.1.3.3 Dative
Used with the indirect object of a ditransitive verb. Examples: Gzo su donni le scérp "I give the scarf to him/her"

5.1.3.4 Locative
Used to replace prepositional phrases headed by "a" (to, at) that aren't the indirect object. Only third person. Example: Gzo vo a Parizi "I go to Paris" > Gzo i vo "I go there"

This case only replaces non-human nouns. Human nouns are replaced with "a" and a disjunctive (5.1.3.7) pronoun. Example: Gzo vo au féme "I go to the woman" > Gzo vo a sé "I go to her"

5.1.3.5 Ablative
Also called "genitive". Replaces many prepositional phrases headed by "de" (of, from). Only third person. Example: Gzo viénghi de Parizi "I come from Paris" > Gzo'n viénghi "I come from there"

"En" can replace some prepositional phrases based around human nouns, but only when the head "de" expresses alienable possession (e.g. the girl's hat, the teacher's pen). Example: Quel'ét u colon da figleta "That is the girl's hat" > Quel'en ét u colon ≈ "That is her hat"

5.1.3.6 Reflexive
Also called "reciprocal". Used when the subject of the verb is doing something to itself, or when the subjects are doing something to each other. Examples: Essa ci vés "She sees herself", Essas ci vésonna "They see themselves" or "They see each other".

5.1.3.7 Imperative
Imperative pronouns are used in affirmative imperative constructions. They are suffixes that can affect the pronunciation of the verb. Case-wise, they are analyzed as belonging to the oblique case, since they are used for both direct and indirect objects.

5.1.3.8 Disjunctive
This form does not correspond to a single case and in fact can appear in environments matching most pronoun cases. Disjunctive pronouns are used in coordinated arguments (Tè e mè i annons "You and I go there"), in imperatives (Agzova- "Help me"), after prepositions (Tu es venud con "You came with me"), and in isolation.

5.2 Pronoun Table

Code: Select all

          NOM    RFL    ACC    DAT    LOC    ABL    IMP    DSJ
SG  1     gzo    me     me     me     ---    ---    -me    mè
    2     tu     te     te     te     ---    ---    -te    tè
    3  M  és     ci     se(n)  su     i      in     -se    suè
       F  essa   ci     sa(n)  su     i      in     -sa    sé
       -  on     ci     se(n)  su     i      in     -se    sè
PL  1     nòs    nos    nos    nos    ---    ---    -ne    nòs
    2     vòs    vos    vos    vos    ---    ---    -ve    vòs
    3  M  éssis  ci     ses    sor    i      in     -tre   sòr
       F  essas  ci     sas    sor    i      in     -tre   sòr
5.3 Indefinite Pronouns
Click here to read about indefinite pronouns.


6. Adjectives

6.1 Agreement
Adjectives agree with nouns in number, case and gender. No distinction is made between attributive and predicative uses.

6.1.1 Regular Adjectives
amad, beloved

Code: Select all

M
   NOM       OBL
SG amad      amadi
PL amáds     amádis

F
   NOM       OBL
SG amada     amád
PL amadas    amádis
The masculine plural and feminine oblique forms undergo ablaut. If the masculine plural ends in a schwa, the feminine oblique does as well.

6.1.2 Selected Irregular Adjectives
finau, final

Code: Select all

M
   NOM       OBL
SG finau     fineli
PL fináus    finélis

F
   NOM       OBL
SG finela    finél
PL finelas   finélis
"Finau" becomes "finel" before a vowel.

basiche /baˈzekə/, final

Code: Select all

M
   NOM       OBL
SG basiche   basici
PL basiches  basicis

F
   NOM       OBL
SG basica    basíche
PL basicas   basicis
viau, old

Code: Select all

M
   NOM       OBL
SG viau      viegli
PL viáus     viéglis

F
   NOM       OBL
SG viegla    viégl
PL vieglas   viéglis
"Viau" becomes "viegl" before a vowel.
Edit:  
28-8-15 (5.1.1.1) More on usage of second-person pronouns
31-8-15 (5.2) Changed 3SG disjunctive pronoun soi > soì to differentiate from 1SG of étre; all disjunctive pronouns now contain an accent
6-1-16 (all sections) General updates to examples, (4.2, 4.2.3) removed, (6.1.2) replaced with irregular adjectives
7-1-16 (5.2) end -> en
12-4-16 (all sections) General updates, (3.4.3) added, (4.2.1) adding "cuta" subtype, (4.2.3) removing "uonm" declension, adding "fieg"
13-4-16 (4.2.2) adding "oasi" subtype
2-5-16 (5.2) Added on, se -> ci, to remedy ambiguity with so
30-6-16 (5.3) Added
24-8-16 (5.1.3.7) > 5.1.3.8, (5.1.3.7) Added, (5.2) Added imperative forms
Last edited by Dormouse559 on Thu 25 Aug 2016, 07:47, edited 21 times in total.
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Re: Silvish

Post by shimobaatar » Thu 27 Aug 2015, 07:21

Dormouse559 wrote:
Spoiler:
Silvish (sivés) is spoken in the small country of Silvia (Siveia) in the French Alps. It has been known throughout history by a large number of names, including Oëstan and Saint-Mauritian, and while several are still in use, "Silvish" has been designated as the official name for over 150 years. The history and current status of Silvia are still topics of much debate among researchers. Even its exact borders are unknown, which has troubled many European officials for decades. No doubt greater clarity on these issues will emerge in time.

I thought I'd finally write down the information I have on Silvish. I hadn't realized how much of its inner workings I was simply remembering, so I'm a bit shocked by how much space it all takes up (and how little I've worked on allophony [:$] ). Here is a post on Silvish phonology, orthography and "orthophonology" (places where phonology and orthography are too tangled up to be neatly separated).
:!: [:D]
Dormouse559 wrote:/l/ has a long counterpart /ll/. Length distinctions on nasals and /r/ were only recently lost.
Were the long nasals and /r/ simply degeminated, or were they lost in some other way?
Dormouse559 wrote:Theoretically, nasalization is phonemic before nasal consonants. I haven't discovered minimal pairs yet, but there is no reason why they couldn't turn up.
Sorry, I'm sure the answer should be obvious to me, but do you mean that nasalization is phonemic only before nasal consonants, or before nasal consonants as well as other consonants? Or something else entirely?
Dormouse559 wrote:/e o/ > [ɪ ʊ], _[-stress]
/e̯ o̯/ > [ɪ̯ ʊ̯]
My apologies again, since I get the feeling the answer to this should be obvious to me as well, but is the condition of "_[-stress]" applied to "/e̯ o̯/ > [ɪ̯ ʊ̯]" as well as "/e o/ > [ɪ ʊ]"?
Dormouse559 wrote:/ɾ r/ <r~d rr>

[…]

/e o/ <i~é u~ó>

[…]

/ɛ ɔ/ <e~á o>

[…]

/ẽ õ/ <i(n/m/gn)~é(n/m/gn) o(n/m/gn)~uo(n/m/gn)>
/ã/ <a(n/m/gn)>

/e̯ o̯/ <i~gl u>

/o̯ɛ o̯ã/ <ue~oi ue(n/m/gn)~oi(n/m/gn)>
/o̯ɑ e̯a/ <uó ia~ié>
Would it be safe to assume that variations like these are mostly based on etymology, liaison, ablaut, and such?
Dormouse559 wrote:Following are descriptions of vowel length, liaison and stress. These concepts are rather unpredictable when viewing Silvish from a purely phonological angle, but are normally indicated in writing. As a result, it is easiest to discuss them and the corresponding orthography rules at the same time.
[+1] This entire "orthophonology" section is incredibly fascinating and very well-done! I quite like what you've shown in terms of morphosyntax so far, as well; hopefully we get to see even more of the language soon!
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Thu 27 Aug 2015, 08:35

shimobaatar wrote: :!: [:D]
[B)]
shimobaatar wrote:Were the long nasals and /r/ simply degeminated, or were they lost in some other way?
Long /r/ did simply degeminate. Look at the answer below for the nasals.
shimobaatar wrote:Sorry, I'm sure the answer should be obvious to me, but do you mean that nasalization is phonemic only before nasal consonants, or before nasal consonants as well as other consonants? Or something else entirely?
Ask away, ask away. I need people to point out where I make too many assumptions. [:)] As for the long nasals, they also shortened but not before nasalizing the preceding vowel, which is where the potential for phonemic nasality before nasal consonants comes from. Nasalization is also phonemic before oral consonants and word finally; the difference is I know minimal pairs exist in those cases.
shimobaatar wrote:My apologies again, since I get the feeling the answer to this should be obvious to me as well, but is the condition of "_[-stress]" applied to "/e̯ o̯/ > [ɪ̯ ʊ̯]" as well as "/e o/ > [ɪ ʊ]"?
I haven't decided yet, though that is certainly likely.
shimobaatar wrote:Would it be safe to assume that variations like these are mostly based on etymology, liaison, ablaut, and such?
Yep. I believe if you comb through the two big posts so far, most of those variations are accounted for in one way or another.
Dormouse559 wrote: [+1] This entire "orthophonology" section is incredibly fascinating and very well-done! I quite like what you've shown in terms of morphosyntax so far, as well; hopefully we get to see even more of the language soon!
Yay! I'm glad you like it.
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Fri 28 Aug 2015, 21:09

Here are some translations. First is the UDHR. Below that you'll find some basic phrasebook sentences ("Hello", "How are you", etc.)


La Decclarachò universelle deu-ddrèt d'l'Ò
Touz le-z-ettre umànt nesse libèrt e evvòt pa çou qui en l'e-ddeuvi dignetæyi e deu-ddræti. Li-z-on d'ræzò e de conchanche e don-t-ajî, le-z-en-i avè le-z-ötri, avè en-i eppriti de fraternetæ.

[la.dɛk.kla.ʁəˈɕo y.nivɛˈsɛl.lə dœˈdʁɛt ˈdlo]
[tu.zləˈzɛt.tʁə yˈmɑ̃t ˈnɛs.sə liˈbɛʁt e.ɛˈvɔt pa.su.kjɛ̃.lɛd.dø.vi.di.ɲəˈtɛː.ji e.dœˈdʁɛː.ti | li.zɔ̃.dʁɛˈzo e.de.kɔ̃ˈɕɑ.ɕə e.dɔ̃.təˈʑiː | ləˈzẽ.i əˈvøː ləˈzøː.tʁi | əˈvøː ẽ.jɛˈpʁi.ti de.fʁa.tɛʁ.nəˈtɛː]
DEF-F declaration universal-F of-DEF.PL right-PL of=DEF=man
all-PL.M.C DEF-PL being human-PL.M.C be_born-3PL free-PL.M.C and equal-PL.M.C for PRO REL-NOM PRO be.3SG of-DEF-OBL dignity-OBL and of-DEF-PL.OBL right-PL.OBL. 3PL.NOM have.3PL PART=reason and PART conscience and must-3PL act-INF DEF-PL one-PL.OBL with DEF-PL other-PL.OBL with INDEF-OBL.M.C spirit-OBL of brotherhood
* C = "common" or non-human-associated gender

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood.



Hello.
Bon joùr.
[bɔ̃ˈʑuʁ]
good day

How are you?

informal:
Come tu vàt ?
[ˈko.mə tyˈvat]
how 2SG-NOM go-2SG

formal:
Come vou-z-allèt ?
[ˈko.mə vu.zaˈlɛt]
how 2PL go-2PL

What is your name?

informal:
Come tu t'appelle ?
[ˈko.mə ty.taˈpɛl.lə]
how 2SG-NOM 2SG.REFL=call

formal:
Come vou-vvou-z-appellèt ?
[ˈko.mə vuv.vu.zap.pɛˈlɛt]
how 2PL 2PL call-2PL

My name is …
Jou m'appèl …
[ʑu.maˈpɛl]
1SG.NOM 1SG.REFL=call.1SG

Nice to meet you.

informal:
Enhantàt. / Enhantâ.
[ɛ̃.hɑ̃ˈtat | ɛ̃.hɑ̃ˈtɑː]
enchant-PST_PTCP-M.N* / enchant-PST_PTCP-F

formal:
Jou soue-y-enhantàt/enhantâ de vou-ccognettre.
[ʑu.swe.jɛ̃.hɑ̃ˈtat | jɛ̃.hɑ̃ˈtɑː de.vuk.koˈɲɛt.tʁə]
1SG.NOM be.1SG enchant-PST_PTCP-M.N / enchant -PST_PTCP-F of 2PL know-INF

Please

informal:
Si li te plì
[si.li.təˈpliː]
if 3SG-NOM 2SG please

formal:
Si li vou-pplì
[si.li.vuˈpli]
if 3SG-NOM 2PL please

Thank you
Marchî
[maˈɕiː]
thank_you

Good bye
Arrevezæ
[aʁ.ʁe.vəˈzɛː]
to-again-see

* N = "noble" or human-associated gender

Edit: Original Text:
Spoiler:
Here are some translations. First is the UDHR. I did a recording, too; the long vowels are super-exaggerated because that's the only way I can remember them all. Below that you'll find some basic phrasebook sentences ("Hello", "How are you", etc.)

La Declarassión universel dellis drétis dell uom
Tods les étres umans nácot libres ed evals en dintedi ed en drétis. Sont dotads de regzóni e de consciénz e sor tregs c'agìczat les uns enverz lis áltris con ni sprit de fraleza.

Recording

[la də.kla.ɾaˈsɪ̯õː.ŋ‿ʊ.nɪ.vəˈsɛː ˈdɛːl.lɪ ˈdɾetɪ dəˈl‿õː]
[ˈtɔː.s‿ləˈz‿e.tɾə.z‿ʊˈmõː ˈnɛ.kɔˈt‿leː.bɾə.z‿ɛ.ɾ‿əˈvaː ã dẽˈtɛː.ɾɪ ɛ.ɾ‿ã ˈdɾetɪ | ˈsõ dɔˈtaː də rəˈdʑoː.nɪ̯‿ɛ kõˈɕõ ɛ sɔ ˈtɾɛː kaˈdʑe.tɕa ləˈz‿õː ãˈvɛɾ.s‿lɪˈz‿ɛl.tɾɪ kõ nɪ ˈspɾe də fɾaˈlɛ.tsa]
DEF-F declaration universal of-DEF-OBL{PL} right-OBL{PL} of-DEF man
all-PL DEF-PL being-PL human{PL}* be_born-3PL free-PL and equal{PL} in dignity-OBL and in right-OBL{PL}. be.3PL endow-PST_PTCP{PL} of reason-OBL and of concience[OBL] and 3PL.DAT be_necessary SBRD_CNJ=act-SBJV{3PL} DEF-NOM-PL one{PL} toward DEF-OBL-PL other-OBL{PL} INS INDEF-OBL.M spirit of brotherhood
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


* {curly brackets} = grammatical information written but not pronounced


Hello.
Buon-gzorr.
[ˈbõː ˈdʑɔːɾ]
good=day

How are you?
Comi vas?
[ˈkɔː.mɪ ˈva]
how go-2SG

What is your name?

informal:
Comi tu t'apellas?
[ˈkɔː.mɪ ˈto taˈpɛːl.la]
how 2SG-NOM 2SG.REFL=call{2SG}

formal:
Comi vos us apellez?
[ˈkɔː.mɪ ˈvɔ.z‿ʊ.z‿a.pəˈlɛ]
how 2PL-NOM 2PL-REFL call-2PL

My name is …
Gzo m'apelli …
[ˈdʑɔ maˈpɛːl.lɪ]
1SG 1SG.REFL=call-1SG

Nice to meet you.

informal:
Enczantad(a).
[ã.tɕõˈtaː(.ɾa)]
enchant-PST_PTCP(-F)

formal:
Soi enczantad(a) us canoitre.
[ˈsʊ̯ɛ ã.tɕõˈtaː.ɾ(a)‿ʊ kaˈnʊ̯ɛ.tɾə]
be.1SG enchant-PST_PTCP(-F) 2PL.ACC know-INF

Please

informal:
Sì te plegs
[ˈse tə ˈplɛː]
if 2SG-DAT please

formal:
Sì us plegs
[ˈse‿ʊ̯ ˈplɛː]
if 2PL.DAT please

Thank you
macî
[maˈtɕeː]
thank_you

Good bye
Arrevesê
[arəvəˈzeː]
to-again-see
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Sun 30 Aug 2015, 05:15

I've been thinking about allophony some more and I've come up with a few additions. To start, I've decided to go with shimobaatar's suggestion that /e̯ o̯/ become [ɪ̯ ʊ̯] in unstressed syllables. So here are three others:

(U = syllabic vowels and semi-vowels)

1)
U[+back] > U[+front, +round], _U[+front]

Examples:
Greguói
/gɾəˈgo̯ɑːɪ̯/ or /gɾəˈgo̯ɔːɪ̯/
[gɾəˈgo̯ɶːɪ̯] or [gɾəˈgo̯œːɪ̯]

foigla
/ˈfɛː.e̯a/
[ˈfø̯ɛː.ɪ̯a]


2) This change is the first sign of dialects I have. One dialect does 2a) and the other does 2b)

2a)
dʑ > ʑ, V_V

2b)
dʑ > dz, _U[-front]

Examples:
gzugi - /ˈɪ/ > 2a) [ˈʑɪ], 2b) [ˈdzɪ]
gzugza - /ˈa/ > 2a) [ˈʑa], 2b) [ˈdzdza]


What do you all think?
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Re: Silvish

Post by shimobaatar » Sun 30 Aug 2015, 05:36

Dormouse559 wrote: What do you all think?
[+1] I'd say definitely go for these ideas!

And I also quite enjoyed getting to see the UDHR and the phrasebook sentences above! [:D]

This is kind of out of the blue, but something I've been meaning to ask is whether or not you'd group Silvish with any of the proposed "branches" of the Romance languages?
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Sun 30 Aug 2015, 05:56

shimobaatar wrote:This is kind of out of the blue, but something I've been meaning to ask is whether or not you'd group Silvish with any of the proposed "branches" of the Romance languages?
I hadn't thought too hard about that before. But looking at it now, with its most recent overhaul, I think Silvish might qualify as its own branch of the Gallo-Romance family. A really weird branch that emerged quite early. But failing that, it's at least Western Romance.
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Sun 30 Aug 2015, 21:30

All right, another big post, this time all about verbs. But before I start, there are a few orthography things I haven't covered.

1) <e> on its own represents /ə/ in an underlyingly unstressed syllable. If a syllable is underlyingly stressed and contains lone <e>, it is still pronounced with /ɛ/ after losing stress.

2) <gi> and <ci> are pronounced /dʑ/ and /tɕ/ before vowel letters, unless <i> is part of <ie>. But the trema or acute accent can break up <ie>. So <gia> = /dʑa/; but <gie> = /dʑi/; but <gië> = /dʑɛ/ or /dʑə/, and <gié> = /dʑa/

3) When <d> appears word-finally in an inherited word or suffix, and a suffix beginning with a vowel is appended to it, it is pronounced /ɾ/. So <amad> /aˈmaː/ > <amada> /aˈmaːɾa/

4) An exception exists to the rules for determining pronunciation. It is possible for certain phonemes to remain pronounced and for vowel length to not change from one form to the next, even if a spelling change suggests the opposite. Example: <salsa> /ˈsalsa/ > <sáls> /ˈsɛl/. The normal orthography rules suggest that <sáls> should be */ˈsɛː/, but because it's the oblique form of <salsa>, it inherits the short vowel and /l/ from the nominative.

If there were a second-declension noun <sal> /ˈsaː/, its nominative plural form would also be spelled <sáls>, but it would be pronounced /ˈsɛː/.


Okay, now on to the verbs. I plan to fill in some sections further as time goes on.

7. Verbs

7.1 Morphological Distinctions
7.1.1 Person and Number
Besides the two numbers, Silvish distinguishes first, second and third person.

7.1.2 Mood
Silvish distinguishes four moods: indicative, conditional, subjunctive and imperative.

7.1.2.1 Indicative
The indicative most often expresses facts and things the speaker knows to be true. It is the most common mood in clauses of all kinds. All tenses have an indicative form.

7.1.2.2 Conditional
The conditional expresses events that depend on another to occur. It has a present and a compound past form. It formed from the infinitive of the content verb followed by the preterite forms of "avê" (have). Example: "amâ" (to like, from older "amar") + "é" (I had) = amaré (I would like)

7.1.2.3 Subjunctive
The subjunctive almost exclusively appears after "ca" (that, subordinating conjunction) and words containing it, meaning it almost always appears in subordinate clauses. It expresses uncertainty, emotions and counterfactuals among other things. It is said to have two simple tenses: present and imperfect. But these have lost their tense meaning. The present subjunctive indicates that an event did, will or is likely to occur. The imperfect subjunctive indicates that an event did not, will not or might not to occur. See 7.2 for a much more in-depth discussion.

Examples:

present subjunctive - Gzo su annè parca parta "I asked him to leave (and he did)"
imperfect subjunctive - Gzo su annè parca partessia "I asked him to leave (and he didn't)"

present subjunctive - Modinc' ess' arrívi "Until she arrives (which she will)"
imperfect subjunctive - Modinc' ess' arrivassia "Until she arrives (if she arrives)"

7.1.2.4 Imperative
This is used to give commands. It has only the present form and is always pro-drop.

7.1.3 Voice

7.1.3.1 Active
This is the unmarked voice for all verbs.

7.1.3.2 Passive
This voice is formed with an active-voice form of "étre" (to be) followed by a past participle. Example: U botaul fuau mangzad "The cake was eaten"

7.1.4 Tense and Aspect
Following are Silvish's synthetic tenses/aspects. It can form several periphrastic ones by combining auxiliary verbs and non-finite forms. The periphrastic tenses will be described later. Like most Romance languages, Silvish doesn't have a neat separation between tense and aspect. When I say "tense" in reference to Silvish, I usually mean "tense-aspect combination".

7.1.4.1 Present
This has both a habitual and a continuous meaning. As a result, Gzo mangi bonmélis, with the present tense of "mangzâ" (to eat), can mean either "I eat apples" or "I am eating apples".

7.1.4.2 Simple Past / Preterite
The simple past has a past perfective meaning. It is normally used to describe events that occurred more than a few days ago. This contrasts with the compound past, a periphrastic tense, which describes what happened more recently.

7.1.4.3 Imperfect
The imperfect has a wide variety of uses, most of them in the past. They include:

1) habitual actions in the past. Example: Nos annavons au pláge choc' oted "We went / would go to the beach every summer"

2) descriptions in the past. Example: L'erb' iera virda ed us ozáus chantave "The grass was green, and the birds were singing"

3) past actions ongoing when another action occurs. Example: Gzo lizevi uni libri canc'ess' entrò. "I was reading a book when she came in"

7.1.4.4 Future
The future expresses events that will occur after the present, specifically ones that are more than a few days away or at an indefinite point in the future. The periphrastic future describes closer future events. The synthetic future formed from the infinitive of the content verb followed by the present indicative forms of "avê" (to have). Example: "amâ" (to like, from older "amar") + "ò" (I have) = amarò (I will like)

7.1.5 Compound Tense and Aspect
Click here to read about the compound tenses.

7.1.6 Non-Finite Forms

7.1.6.1 Infinitive
This is a noun-like form that can act like a subject or object of a verb. The English gerund can often be translated with an infinitive.

7.1.6.2 Past Participle
The past participle is an adjective-like form that usually imparts a passive meaning. It is used to form the passive voice and can also directly modify nouns. Example: la czuted ruinada "the ruined city"

7.1.6.3 Present Participle
The present participle is another adjective-like form, with a present, active meaning. It can directly modify nouns or be used adverbially.

Examples:

adjective - un martad amánt "a loving husband"
adverb - Vesént quo ca ci fuau possad, gzo telefonnè au polissî "Seeing what had happened, I called the police"


7.2 Subjunctive Mood

Click here to read about the subjunctive mood.


7.3 Conjugation
The three most common verb types are first-, second- and third-conjugations, also known as the Â, RE and Î verbs, so named for their endings in the infinitive.

7.3.1 First Conjugation - Â Verbs
These verbs experience ablaut in the present subjunctive, specifically the singular and third-person plural forms.

amâ, to like

Code: Select all

infinitive:         amâ
past participle:    amad
present participle: amánt

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS ami                 amas                ama                 amons               amès               ame
    IPF amavi               amavas              amava               amavons             amavès             amave
    PST amè                 amòs                amò                 amerons             amerès             amere
    FUT amarò               amaràs              amará               amarons             amarès             amaront

CND     amaré               amaraus             amarau              amarrons            amarrès            amarere

SBJ PRS ámi                 ámis                ámi                 amions              amiès              áme 
    IPF amassi              amassias            amassia             amassions           amassiès           amassië 

IMP     --                  ama                 --                  amions              amès               --
7.3.2 Second Conjugation - RE Verbs
These verbs are the most unpredictable group because the stem often changes during conjugation, with a final consonant either changing (gzuéndre /dʑo̯ẽː.dɾə/ > gzuéni /ˈdʑo̯eː.ŋe/) or emerging (enciúre /ãˈɕe̯uː.ɾə/ > enciúvi /ãˈɕe̯uː.ve/). Some also insert a "velar infix", /g/, in certain forms. RE verbs also have two patterns for forming the past participle.

RE verbs additionally undergo ablaut 1) in the infinitive, 2) in the present indicative, singular and third-person plural, and 3) in the second-person singular imperative.

Here is a RE verb with no velar infix. The past participle is formed by suffixing -ud to the stem.

pérdre, to lose

Code: Select all

infinitive:         pérdre
past participle:    perdud
present participle: perdént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                   3
IND PRS pérdi               pérds               pérd                perdons             perdès              pérde
    IPF perdevi             perdevas            perdeva             perdevons           perdevès            perdeve
    PST perdé               perdaus             perdau              perderons           perderès            perdere
    FUT perdrò              perdràs             perdrá              perdrons            perdrès             perdront

CND     perdré              perdraus            perdrau             perdrerons          perdrerès           perdrere

SBJ PRS perda               perdas              perda               perdions            perdiès             perde
    IPF perdessi            perdessias          perdessia           perdessions         perdessiès          perdessië

IMP     --                  pérd                --                  perdions            perdès              --
Here is a RE verb with the velar infix. The past participle, which always has final stress, is formed by suffixing -s to a reduced form of the stem.

péndre, to hang

Code: Select all

infinitive:         péndre
past participle:    pes
present participle: penént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS pénghi              péns                pén                 penons              penès              pénghe
    IPF penevi              penevas             peneva              penevons            penevès            peneve
    PST pené                penaus              penau               penerons            penerès            penere
    FUT pendrò              pendràs             pendrá              pendrons            pendrès            pendront

CND     pendré              pendraus            pendrau             pendrerons          pendrerès          pendrere

SBJ PRS penga               pengas              penga               penions             peniès             penghe
    IPF penessi             penessias           penessia            penessions          penessiès          penessië

IMP     --                  pén                 --                  penions             penès              --
7.3.3 Third Conjugation - Î Verbs
Most Î verbs take an infix in certain tenses. The first example is one of those. But a significant number do not take the infix and conjugate like the second example. Some Î verbs - both with and without the infix - have an irregular past participle (e.g. ovrî, complî -> overt, compaut).

Following are two third-conjugation verbs with regular past participles. The first takes the infix. The second does not.

finî, to finish

Code: Select all

infinitive:         finî
past participle:    finid
present participle: finént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS finíchi             finícs              finícs              finons              finès              finíche
    IPF finevi              finevas             fineva              finevons            finevès            fineve
    PST finé                finaus              finau               finerons            finerès            finere
    FUT finirò              finiràs             finirá              finirons            finirès            finiront

CND     finiré              finiraus            finirau             finirrons           finirrès           finirere

SBJ PRS finicha             finichas            finicha             finions             finiès             finiche
    IPF finessi             finessias           finessia            finessions          finessiès          finessië

IMP     --                  finícs              --                  finions             finès              --
bolî, to boil

Code: Select all

infinitive:         bolî
past participle:    bolid
present participle: bolént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS bóli                bóls                ból                 bolons              bolès              bóle
    IPF bolevi              bolevas             boleva              bolevons            bolevès            boleve
    PST bolé                bolaus              bolau               bolerons            bolerès            bolere
    FUT bolirò              boliràs             bolirá              bolirons            bolirès            boliront

CND     boliré              boliraus            bolirau             bolirrons           bolirrès           bolirere

SBJ PRS bola                bolas               bola                bolions             boliès             bole
    IPF bolessi             bolessias           bolessia            bolessions          bolessiès          bolessië

IMP     --                  ból                 --                  bolions             bolès              --
7.3.4 Selected Irregular Verbs

étre, to be

Code: Select all

infinitive:         étre
past participle:    otad
present participle: otánt

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS sue                 es                  ét                  sons                étes               sont
    IPF ieri                ieras               iera                erons               erès               iere
    PST fue                 fuaus               fuau                fuerons             fuerès             fuere
    FUT serò                seràs               será                serons              serès              seront

CND     seré                seraus              serau               serrons             serrès             serere

SBJ PRS séia                séias               séia                sions               siès               séië
    IPF fussi               fussias             fussia              fussions            fussiès            fussië

IMP     --                  séia                --                  sions               siès               --
avê, to have

Code: Select all

infinitive:         avê
past participle:    avud
present participle: avént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS ò                   as                  á                   avons               avès               ont
    IPF avevi               avevas              aveva               avevons             avevès             aveve
    PST é                   avaus               au                  averons             averès             avere
    FUT orò                 oràs                orá                 orons               orès               oront

CND     oré                 oraus               orau                orrons              orrès              orere

SBJ PRS augza               augzas              augza               avions              aviès              auge
    IPF avessi              avessias            avessia             avessions           avessiès           avessië

IMP     --                  augza               --                  avions              aviès              --
fíre, to do, to make

Code: Select all

infinitive:         fíre
past participle:    fet
present participle: fezént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS féssi               fíz                 fíz                 fezons              fezès              fésse
    IPF fezevi              fezevas             fezeva              fezevons            fezevès            fezeve
    PST fiézi               fiéz                fiéz                fezerons            fezerès            fezere
    FUT ferò                feràs               ferá                ferons              ferès              feront

CND     feré                feraus              ferau               ferrons             ferrès             ferere

SBJ PRS fessa               fessas              fessa               fezions             feziès             fesse
    IPF fezessi             fezessias           fezessia            fezessions          fezessiès          fezessië

IMP     --                  fíz                 --                  fezions             fezès              --
annâ, to go

Code: Select all

infinitive:         annâ
past participle:    annad
present participle: annánt

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                  3
IND PRS vo                  vas                 vá                  annons              annès              vont
    IPF annavi              annavas             annava              annavons            annavès            annave
    PST annè                annòs               annò                annerons            annerès            annere
    FUT irò                 iràs                irá                 irons               irès               iront

CND     iré                 iraus               irau                irrons              irrès              irere

SBJ PRS ánni                ánnis               ánni                annions             anniès             ánne 
    IPF annassi             annassias           annassia            annassions          annassiès          annassië 

IMP     --                  vá                  --                  annions             annès              --
poê, to be able to

Code: Select all

infinitive:         poê
past participle:    poüd
present participle: porént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                   3
IND PRS pússi               puórs               puór                porons              porès               pússe
    IPF porevi              porevas             poreva              porevons            porevès             poreve
    PST poré                poraus              porau               porerons            porerès             porere
    FUT porrò               porràs              porrá               porrons             porrès              porront

CND     porré               porraus             porrau              porrerons           porrerès            porrere

SBJ PRS pussa               pussas              pussa               porions             poriès              pusse
    IPF poressi             poressias           poressia            poressions          poressiès           poressië

IMP     --                  --                 --                   --                  --                  --
volê, to want

Code: Select all

infinitive:         volê
past participle:    volud
present participle: volént

        SG                                                          PL
        1                   2                   3                   1                   2                   3
IND PRS vúghi               vuös                vuö                 volons              volès               vúghe
    IPF volevi              volevas             voleva              volevons            volevès             voleve
    PST volé                volaus              volau               volerons            volerès             volere
    FUT vuodrò              vuodràs             vuodrá              vuodrons            vuodrès             vuodront

CND     vuodré              vuodraus            vuodrau             vuodrerons          vuodrerès           vuodrere

SBJ PRS vuga                vugas               vuga                volions             voliès              vughe
    IPF volessi             volessias           volessia            volessions          volessiès           volessië

IMP     --                  --                  --                  --                  --                  --
Edit:  
2-10-15 (7.1.5, 7.1.6) 7.1.5 > 7.1.6, added new 7.1.5
6-1-16 (all sections) general updates to examples, conjugations, (7.2.3) added velar-infix conjugation, (7.2.4) added poê
11-1-16 (7.2.2) added no-suffix Î verb, mentioned irregular past participles
12-1-16 (7.2, 7.3) 7.2 > 7.3, added new 7.2, (7.3.4) stressed subjunctive stem of avê, ág- > aug-
12-4-16 (all sections) general updates, (7.3) updating conjugations
2-6-16 (7.3) updating third-person plural and present subjunctive conjugations
12-6-16 (7.3) updating verb tables, adding volê conjugation
17-8-16 (7.3) updating verb tables, sortî > sórtre, replaced with bolî
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Re: Silvish

Post by shimobaatar » Mon 31 Aug 2015, 19:55

Very interesting! I'm particularly fond of how connected the subjunctive is to "ca", the way the conditional and future are formed, the semantic differences between the two subjunctive "tenses", and the fact that the preterite and future tenses tend to refer to events taking place more than a few days in the past or future, respectively. Thanks for the charts, and I look forward to hearing about the compound/periphrastic/etc. tenses whenever you get a chance to write about them!
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Mon 31 Aug 2015, 21:24

shimobaatar wrote:Very interesting! I'm particularly fond of how connected the subjunctive is to "ca", … the semantic differences between the two subjunctive "tenses"
Linking the subjunctive to "ca" is definitely influenced by French. And as far as I can tell, Occitan does the same thing. Since Silvish is swimming in a sea of both languages, it makes sense for it to do it, too. I'm still working out the exact usage of the subjunctive tenses, what the consequences of such a change in meaning are. So I'll certainly elaborate on that later.
shimobaatar wrote:the way the conditional and future are formed
I've always been fascinated by how the Romance future and conditional emerged. Silvish skews a little Italian by forming the conditional with preterite endings; French and Occitan both used imperfect endings.
shimobaatar wrote:and the fact that the preterite and future tenses tend to refer to events taking place more than a few days in the past or future, respectively.
That's good. I have the simple past work the way it does because I like how French doesn't have a perfect distinction, but I also wanted to use the simple past more often in Silvish. So I made the simple past kick in a lot sooner than it does in French.
shimobaatar wrote:Thanks for the charts, and I look forward to hearing about the compound/periphrastic/etc. tenses whenever you get a chance to write about them!
Great! I'm looking at the subjunctive at the moment, but I might post about the rest of the tenses before I finish that. Since the compound tenses can be combined and recombined so easily, it's tough to know how big a task it'll be.
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Re: Silvish

Post by Lao Kou » Tue 01 Sep 2015, 00:49

Dormouse559 wrote:7.1.2.3 Subjunctive
The subjunctive almost exclusively appears after "ca" (that, subordinating conjunction) and words containing it, meaning it almost always appears in subordinate clauses.
Does "almost" mean some errant hortatives like "Ainsi soit-t-il", "Ta volonté soit faite", and "Vive la reine!" will make it in, or will they also get the "ca" treatment: "Qu'il soit ainsi.", etc.? Or both?
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Tue 01 Sep 2015, 00:57

Lao Kou wrote:Does "almost" mean some errant hortatives like "Ainsi soit-t-il", "Ta volonté soit faite", and "Vive la reine!" will make it in, or will they also get the "ca" treatment: "Qu'il soit ainsi.", etc.? Or both?
Or both. I'm thinking "sì" (if) and "cand" (when) may also trigger the subjunctive in some cases, but I've yet to decide if they'll get special "ca" forms. ("Canca" does sound quite nice [:)] )
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Wed 02 Sep 2015, 18:34

Now for the compound tenses. This section files in right after 7.1.4. As always questions and comments are welcome. [:)]

7.1.5 Compound Tense and Aspect

7.1.5.1 "Perfect" Tenses
These are the compound tenses formed with conjugations of "avê" or "étre" followed by a past participle. Most verbs form these tenses with "avê", but several, especially verbs of motion, take "étre". Reflexive constructions also require "étre".

1) Compound past
This uses the present tense form of the auxiliary verb (avê or étre). It describes a completed event in the recent past. It doesn't imply anything about an event's relevance in the present, so it can translate in English as either the simple past or the present perfect. This tense has indicative, conditional and subjunctive forms. In the subjunctive, it is the past counterpart of the "present" subjunctive. It describes an event that occurred before the reference point in time; the reference point may be present, past or future.

Gzo ò vesud(present of "avê" + past participle)
I saw / I have seen …

Gzo sue annad(present of "étre" + past participle)
I went / I have gone …

2) Recent Pluperfect
This uses the imperfect form of the auxiliary. It describes a completed event that occurred before events in the compound past. This tense has indicative and subjunctive forms. Like the compound past, in the subjunctive, it describes an event that occurred before the reference point. However, it is the past counterpart of the "imperfect" subjunctive.

Gzo avevi vesud(IPF of "avê" + PST_PTCP)
I had seen …

Gzo ieri annad(IPF of "étre" + PST_PTCP)
I had gone …

3) Remote Pluperfect
This uses the simple past form of the auxiliary. It describes a completed event that occurred before events in the simple past. This tense only exists in the indicative.

Gzo au vesud(PST of "avê" + PST_PTCP)
I had seen …

Gzo fue annad(PST of "étre" + PST_PTCP)
I had gone …

4) Future Perfect
This uses the simple future form of the auxiliary. It describes an event that is past in the future. This tense only exists in the indicative.

Gzo orò vesud(FUT of "avê" + PST_PTCP)
I will have seen

Gzo serò annad(FUT of "étre" + PST_PTCP)
I will have gone

7.1.5.2 Agreement
When one of the above compound tenses is used, the past participle may agree in gender and number with an argument of the clause it is in.

avê - When a tense is formed with "avê", the past participle agrees with the direct object of the verb, if there is a direct object and it precedes the verb. The direct object may precede in the form of a pronoun or be the antecedent of the relative clause the compound tense is in.

Gzo ò vesud un fén·ne. (no agreement, object [un fén·ne] doesn't precede verb)
I saw a woman.

Gzo san ò vesuda. (agreement, object [san] precedes verb)
I saw her.

la fen·na ca gzo ò vesuda. (agreement, object [la fen·na] precedes verb as antecedent)
the woman who I saw


étre - When a tense is formed with "étre", the past participle agrees with the subject of the verb.

La fen·na ét partida. (agreement between subject [la fen·na] and participle)
The woman left.

La fen·na ci ét vesuda. (REFL, agreement between subject [la fen·na] and participle)
The woman saw herself.

When a reflexive construction takes a direct object different from the subject, formal usage holds that the past participle agrees with the subject, unless the direct object precedes the verb, in which case the participle agrees with the direct object. Informal usage only makes the participle agree with the direct object, again only when it precedes the verb.

Us pagéts ci sont laváds lis mánis. (formal, participle agrees with subject [us pagéts], direct object [lis mánis] does not precede verb)
The boys washed their hands.

Us pagéts ci sont lavad lis mánis. (informal, no agreement, direct object does not precede verb)
The boys washed their hands.

Us pagéts ci sas sont lavadas. (all registers, participle agrees with direct object [sas] since it precedes the verb)
The boys washed them (their hands).

7.1.5.3 Periphrastic Future
This tense expresses events in the near future, normally the next few days. It is formed with a conjugated form of "annâ" followed by the infinitive of the content verb. This tense only exists in the indicative.

Gzo vo fére queli.
I will do that.

To describe an event that is future in the past, put "annâ" in the imperfect.

Gzo annavi fére queli.
I was going to do that.

Click here to return to the rest of section 7.
Edit:  
6-1-16 (all sections) General updates to examples
12-4-16 (all sections) General updates
12-6-16 (all sections) Updating wordforms
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Re: Silvish

Post by shimobaatar » Wed 02 Sep 2015, 20:55

Dormouse559 wrote:Now for the compound tenses. This section files in right after 7.1.4.
Kind of off-topic, I suppose, but I really like how organized this thread is!
Dormouse559 wrote:These are the compound tenses formed with conjugations of "avê" or "étre" followed by a past participle. Most verbs form these tenses with "avê", but several, especially verbs of motion, take "étre". Reflexive constructions also require "étre".


Cool! Was this idea inspired by anything in particular, if you don't mind my asking?
Dormouse559 wrote:7.1.5 Compound Tense and Aspect
I really like the (at least relative) complexity of your TAM system, particularly the relationships between the recent and remote tenses, the aspectual distinctions present amongst those relationships, the restriction of many moods from occurring with certain tenses, and, as I said before, the differences between the subjunctive "tenses".
Dormouse559 wrote:This uses the simple future form of the participle. It describes an event that is past in the future. This tense only exists in the indicative.
Sorry to nitpick, but I think the last word of the first sentence here is meant to be "auxiliary", although I may be wrong?
Dormouse559 wrote:7.1.5.2 Agreement
Lovely! Very interesting, and clearly very well thought-out! [:D]
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Re: Silvish

Post by Dormouse559 » Wed 02 Sep 2015, 22:50

shimobaatar wrote:Kind of off-topic, I suppose, but I really like how organized this thread is!
I'm hoping that makes it easier for people to navigate, but also easier for me if I ever want to expand it into a full grammar.
shimobaatar wrote:Cool! Was this idea inspired by anything in particular, if you don't mind my asking?
It comes from French mainly, which does the same thing. I want to mix things up some more (I need to get back into Gallo-Italic langs), but for now I just really like the French system.
shimobaatar wrote:I really like the (at least relative) complexity of your TAM system, particularly the relationships between the recent and remote tenses, the aspectual distinctions present amongst those relationships, the restriction of many moods from occurring with certain tenses, and, as I said before, the differences between the subjunctive "tenses".
You'll find it's rather similar to surrounding Romance languages, like French and Italian. I've tried pushing and prying things here and there, but their tenses really fit together like puzzle pieces. Thankfully, the changes in the subjunctive and simple past kept things from being exactly the same. For instance, the French equivalent of the remote pluperfect is moribund, mainly reserved for literature, but in Silvish, it's potentially much more useful, since it can describe events that happened as little as a week ago.
shimobaatar wrote:Sorry to nitpick, but I think the last word of the first sentence here is meant to be "auxiliary", although I may be wrong?
You're exactly right. Thanks for pointing it out! Let me fix that.
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