Mayato MK2

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Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 14 Oct 2016, 18:21

Out of fiction Introduction
Mayato is an a priori language, the name "Mayato" is recycled from an old conlang of mine, thus "MK2".

The language is still under construction, many parts have not been finished yet

In-world Introduction
Mayato is the lingua franca of the earth of the 31th world, it is used as the language of virtually every area, the status of Mayato language in the 31th world is similar to English of the 7th world(our world) today.

Phonology

Below is the phonemic inventory of Mayato and the transcriptions(I have posted this in the phonology thread, however, there are some modifications):

/m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ/<m n ny ng ngw>
/(p) ɓ t ts tɬ ɗ tʃ dʒ k kʷ/<p b t ts tl d c j k qu>(<c> and <j> were originally /c/ and /ʄ/ respectively)
/f v s z ɬ ʃ x ɣ xʷ/<f v s z lh x h g hw>
/w r l ʎ j/<w r l ly y>

/p/ is the syllable-final allophoneme of /f/

/ŋʷ/ is merged with /m/ and /ʎ/ is merged with /j/ by some speakers.

/ɛ e i ɑ o u/<ae e i a o u>

syllable: (C)(C)V(C), the second consonant in the cluster can be /w r l ʎ j/, but only /r l/ after palatals and labialized velars, /l/ does not occur after /t/ and /ɗ/, /r/ does not not occur after /s/ and /z/.

root structure:

roots are mostly monosyllabic or contains no vowels at all, they can be in the following forms:

- C
- CC
- VC
- CV
- CVC
- CCV
- CCVC

Grammar

Syntax:

Word Order:

The word order of Mayato is like below:
- Basic Word Order: SOV(Subject-Object-Verb)
- Adpositions are postpositions
- Adjectives, Demonstratives, Numerals, Possessors, Relative clauses precede the nouns they modify; adverbs and adverbial phrases precede he verbs they modify

Relative Clause:

In Mayato, the most common way to form a relative clause is to put it before the antecedent, especially when the relative clause is short. Verbs in the present continuous/stative tense or the past tenses(whether imperfective or perfective) can be used attributively:

- lhak na sevesu van sin - lhak na se-v-es-u va-n s-in - sky LOC 3.PL.A-fly-PL-CONT bird-PL 3.PL.A-be.PL - there are birds flying on the sky.

As adjectives are effectively stative verbs in Mayato, attributive adjectives are actually relativized stative verbs:

- beku lhak - bek-u lhak - be.dark-CONT sky - dark sky

Morphology:

Verb:

Mayato has an elaborate verbal affix system, which can be pretty complex to some extent.

order: preverbs-agreements-incorporation-manners-negation-voice-root-pluractional-TAM-dative

agreements:

instransitive:

- 1sg: k-/ke-
- 2sg: v-/u-
- 3sg: 0-/e-
- 1pl: c-/ci-
- 2pl: y-/vi-/i-
- 3pl: s-/se-

transitive:

The agent and the patient of the transitive affixes have been fused together, forming an elaborate system:

- 1sg>2sg: ku-/qu-
- 2sg>1sg: ko-

- 1pl>2sg: cu-
- 2sg>1pl: ca-

- 1sg>2pl: qui-
- 2pl>1sg: ke-

- 1pl>2pl: cu-
- 2pl>1pl: co-

- 1sg>3sg: ke-/k-
- 3sg>1sg: ka-

- 2sg>3sg: u-/v-
- 3sg>2sg: o-

- 1pl>3sg: ci-/c-
- 3sg>1pl: ce-

- 2pl>3sg: i-/y-
- 3sg>2pl: e-

- 1sg>3pl: he-
- 3pl>1sg: ha-

- 2sg>3pl: su-
- 3pl>2sg: so-

- 1pl>3pl: xe-
- 3pl>1pl: xa-

- 2pl>3pl: si-
- 3pl>2pl: se-

- 3sg>3sg: 0-
- 3sg>3pl: ne-/n-
- 3pl>3sg: sa-/s-
- 3pl>3pl: san-

Indirect object agreements

Indirect object agreements are suffixes rather than prefixes:

- 1sg: -k/-ek
- 2sg: -vu/-u/-p
- 3sg: -0
- 1pl: -ci
- 2pl: -i
- 3pl: -se

manners

manners prefixes indicate how and/or where the verb is done:

- with hand: ma-/m-
- by foot: fa-/f-/p-
- with eyes: za-/z-
- with ears: ga-/g-
- with nose: ne-/ny-
- with mouth/through a hole: ho-/hw-
- with body: lha-/lh-

voices:

- passive/causative: da-
- reflexive: bi-
- reciprocal: me-
- applicative:
-- benefactive/ablative: sa-
-- locative: ta-
-- instrumental: na-

negation: mi-

pluractional: -s/-es

tense-aspect-mood(TAM):
- present: -0
- present continuous/stative: -u
- past imperfective: -o
- past perfective: -a
- imperative: -i
- conditional(only used in counterfactual statements): -ova
- potential(can/able): -ut
- desiderative(want): -ci

preverbs:

(work in progress)

Nouns:

Nouns don't have gender or case distinctions, however, nouns are inflected for numbers and possessives.

plural: -(e)n/(most nouns)/-ok(few nouns)

possessive prefix:

1sg: k-/ke-
2sg: v-/u-
3sg: n-/na-
1pl: c-/ci-
2pl: y-/vi-/i-
3pl: s-/se-
3.indef: a-/ar-

adpositions:

adpositions are inflectd for persons, below are adpositional prefixes:

1sg: k-/ke-
2sg: v-/u-
3sg: n-/na-
1pl: c-/ci-
2pl: y-/vi-/i-
3pl: s-/se-

Some Words

Pronouns:

Personal pronouns:
- 1.sg: ka
- 2.sg: va
- 3.sg: na
- 1.pl: ci
- 2.pl: vi
- 3.pl: ni

Demonstrative pronouns:
- this: ti
- that: ya

Interrogative pronouns:
- who: da
- what: dae

Numerals(especially for Janko, thanks him for caring for conlangs for a long time by collecting their numerals!):

- one: sip
- two: o
- three: osip
- four: sibama
- five: ma(also means "hand")
- six: masip
- seven: matok
- eight: omok
- nine: sibamok
- ten: mok
- twenty: hatlo
- hundred: mekto

postpositions:
- at/to: na
- from: em
- (topic marker): ya(not inflected for adpositional prefixes)

Some Examples

- lan ke-za-n - sun 1.SG>3.SG-eye-perceive - I see the sun

- mek - m-ek - give-1.SG.DAT - he/she give it to me

- mik - m-i-k - give-IMP-1.SG.DAT - give it to me!

- Mayato keyut - Mayato ke-y-ut - Mayato 1.SG>3.SG-speak-be.able - I speak Mayato

- kemingklecise - ke-mi-ngkle-ci-se - 1.SG>3.SG-NEG-talk-DES-3.PL.DAT - I don't want to speak to them

- kezmina - ke-z-mi-n-a - 1.SG>3.SG-eye-NEG-perceive-PFV - I don't want to see him

- kek - ke-k - 1.SG-go.SG - I go
- uk - u-k - 2.SG-go.SG - you go
- ek - e-k - 3.SG-go.SG - he/she/it goes
- ciken - ci-ken - 1.PL-go.PL - we go
- viken - vi-ken - 2.PL-go.PL - you(plural) go
- seken - se-ken - 3.PL-go.PL - they go

- keka - ke-k-a - 1.SG-go.SG-PFV - I went
- uka - u-k-a - 2.SG-go.SG-PFV - you went
- ka - k-a - go.SG-PFV - he/she/it went
- cikna - ci-kn-a - 1.PL-go.PL-PFV - we went
- vikna - vi-kn-a - 2.PL-go.PL-PFV - you(plural) went
- sekna - se-kn-a - 3.PL-go.PL-PFV - they went

- kektu - ke-kt-u - 1sg>3sg-send-2.SG.DAT - I send it to you
- uktek - u-kt-ek - 2sg>3sg-send-1.SG.DAT - you send it to me
- keket - ke-ket - 1sg>3sg-send - I send it to him/her
- ketek - ket-ek - send-1.SG.DAT - he/she send it to me

- kektavu - ke-kt-a-u - 1sg>3sg-send-PFV-2.SG.DAT - I sent it to you
- uktak - u-kt-a-k - 2sg>3sg-send-PFV-1.SG.DAT - you sent it to me
- kekta - ke-kt-a - 1sg>3sg-send-PFV - I sent it to him/her
- ketak - ket-a-k - send-PFV-1.SG.DAT - he/she sent it to me
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by Wario Toad 32 » Fri 18 Nov 2016, 04:53

Cool
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 18 Nov 2016, 15:12

Wario Toad 32 wrote:Cool
thanks (: maybe I need to work on it more though
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by Wario Toad 32 » Sat 19 Nov 2016, 04:50

Maybe I should send Janko Faloch numerals
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Sat 19 Nov 2016, 19:44

Nouns of body parts, kinship terms, and several other nouns are obliged to be used with possessive prefixes, forms like *kep "child", *doto "son, boy", *son "daughter, girl" are ungrammatical, one must say a-kep "someone's child", a-doto "someone's son", a-son "someone's daughter" to indicate "child", "boy", "girl" respectively, and like other langauges with obliged possessions, nouns with obliged possessions have differences between natural possessions and property possessions:

- Jon na-za - John 3.SG-eye - John's eye(as a body part of John)
- Jon na-r-a-za - John3.SG-EPEN-3.INDIF-eye - John's eye(the eye is not a body part of John, but a property of John, and the eye was once a body part of someone else)

In Mayato, initial consonant clusters are not allowed, when a root is not prefixed and starts with two consonants, the epenthetic vowel /e/ is used to break initial clusters. For example:

- -kle - to tell
- ku-kle - I tell to him/her
- kele - he/she/it tells to him/her

- -krot - knife
- ke-krot - my knife
- kerot - a knife(not possessed by anyone)

--------

Some kinship terms in Mayato(the a-prefix is the possessive prefix):
- a-ma - father
- a-pa - mother
- a-sis - brother
- a-bro - sister
- a-dota - son, boy
- a-son - daughter, girl
- a-kep - child
Wario Toad 32 wrote:Maybe I should send Janko Faloch numerals
ok (:
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by Wario Toad 32 » Sat 19 Nov 2016, 20:20

k1234567890y wrote:Nouns of body parts, kinship terms, and several other nouns are obliged to be used with possessive prefixes, forms like *kep "child", *doto "son, boy", *son "daughter, girl" are ungrammatical, one must say a-kep "someone's child", a-doto "someone's son", a-son "someone's daughter" to indicate "child", "boy", "girl" respectively, and like other langauges with obliged possessions, nouns with obliged possessions have differences between natural possessions and property possessions:

- Jon na-za - John 3.SG-eye - John's eye(as a body part of John)
- Jon na-r-a-za - John3.SG-EPEN-3.INDIF-eye - John's eye(the eye is not a body part of John, but a property of John, and the eye was once a body part of someone else)

In Mayato, initial consonant clusters are not allowed, when a root is not prefixed and starts with two consonants, the epenthetic vowel /e/ is used to break initial clusters. For example:

- -kle - to tell
- ku-kle - I tell to him/her
- kele - he/she/it tells to him/her

- -krot - knife
- ke-krot - my knife
- kerot - a knife(not possessed by anyone)

--------

Some kinship terms in Mayato(the a-prefix is the possessive prefix):
- a-ma - father
- a-pa - mother
- a-sis - brother
- a-bro - sister
- a-dota - son, boy
- a-son - daughter, girl
- a-kep - child
Wario Toad 32 wrote:Maybe I should send Janko Faloch numerals
ok (:
Why is brother (a-sis) and sister (a-bro)? It seems like it should be the other way around lol. :)
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by Nachtuil » Sat 19 Nov 2016, 21:04

All the kinship terms seem switched from English. It seems deliberate.
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Sat 19 Nov 2016, 21:21

Nachtuil wrote:All the kinship terms seem switched from English. It seems deliberate.
yes you got it XD
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Sat 04 Aug 2018, 18:04

Revival of this thread

Nouns

Mayato's noun declines for numbers and possessors, some nouns have obliged possessions. There are no distinctions between the subject and the direct object of a sentence except for their relative order.

The plural form of a noun ends in -n or -en, below are the possessor prefixes of a noun:

- 1st singular: k-/ke-
- 1st plural: c-/ci-
- 2nd singular: v-/u-
- 2nd plural: y-/vi-/i-
- 3rd singular: n-/na-
- 3rd plural: s-/se-
- 3rd indefinite: a-/ar-

For example:

- dok - house
- ke-dok - my house
- ci-dok - our house
- u-dok - your(singular) house
- vi-dok - your(plural) house
- na-dok - his/her/its house
- se-dok - their house
- a-dok - someone's house

When the possessor is a noun and a proper noun, the possessed noun takes the 3rd singular or plural prefix. For example:

- na-dok - his/her/its house
- tlo na-dok - the person's house
- Mok-Omok-Zon na-dok - "Eighteen Rabbit" 's house(Mok-Omok-Zon is a person name meaning "eighteen rabbit")

As nouns of body parts, kinship terms, and several other nouns are obliged to be used with possessive prefixes, forms like *kep "child", *doto "son, boy", *son "daughter, girl" are ungrammatical, one must say a-kep "someone's child", a-doto "someone's son", a-son "someone's daughter" to indicate "child", "boy", "girl" respectively.

Nouns with obliged possessions have differences between natural possessions and property possessions:

- Mok-Omok-Zon na-za - Eighteen.Rabbit 3.SG-eye - "Eighteen Rabbit" 's eye(as a body part of "Eighteen Rabbit")
- Mok-Omok-Zon na-r-a-za - Eighteen.Rabbit 3.SG-EPEN-3.INDIF-eye - "Eighteen Rabbit" 's eye(the eye is not a body part of "Eighteen Rabbit", but a property of "Eighteen Rabbit", and the eye was once a body part of someone else)

Adpositions
Adpositions are postpositions, and adpositions take inflections according to persons.

Below are the personal prefixes for simple adpositions:
- 1st singular: k-/ke-
- 1st plural: c-/ci-
- 2nd singular: v-/u-
- 2nd plural: y-/vi-/i-
- 3rd singular: Ø-
- 3rd plural: s-/se-

The prefixes of complex adpositions are the same to possessor prefixes of a noun, this is because complex adpositions are compounds of a noun indicating spatial relations and a simple adposition:

- 1st singular: k-/ke-
- 1st plural: c-/ci-
- 2nd singular: v-/u-
- 2nd plural: y-/vi-/i-
- 3rd singular: n-/na-
- 3rd plural: s-/se-
- 3rd indefinite: a-/ar-

For example:

Simple adpositions:
- to me: ke-za
- to us: ci-za
- to you(singular): u-za
- to you(plural): vi-za
- to him/her/it/someone/something: za
- to them: se-za

Complex adpositions:
- into me: k-im za
- into us: c-im za
- into you(singular): v-im za
- into you(plural): y-im za
- into he/she/it: n-im za
- into them: s-im za
- into something: ar-im za
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by eldin raigmore » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 22:28

k1234567890y wrote:
Sat 19 Nov 2016, 21:21
Nachtuil wrote:All the kinship terms seem switched from English. It seems deliberate.
yes you got it XD
Is there any reason for that, other than to confuse Anglophone learners?
(There doesn’t have to be!)

Maybe there’s an in-world or in-story explanation; maybe not.
Independently: maybe there’s a real-world motive; maybe not!

———

Interesting, even impressive, conlang!
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 22:57

eldin raigmore wrote:
Sun 05 Aug 2018, 22:28
k1234567890y wrote:
Sat 19 Nov 2016, 21:21
Nachtuil wrote:All the kinship terms seem switched from English. It seems deliberate.
yes you got it XD
Is there any reason for that, other than to confuse Anglophone learners?
(There doesn’t have to be!)

Maybe there’s an in-world or in-story explanation; maybe not.
Independently: maybe there’s a real-world motive; maybe not!

———

Interesting, even impressive, conlang!
out-of-world explanation: I intended to make a pun XD

and thanks OuO
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Wed 08 Aug 2018, 16:27

Numerals

Numerals in Mayato are listed below:

- 1: sib
- 2: tok(when modifying nouns or other numerals)/o-(when forming compounds with the meaning "two", "bi-", "di-", etc.)
- 3: osib
- 4: sibamo
- 5: mo(coincides with "hand")
- 6: mosib
- 7: motok
- 8: omok
- 9: sibamok
- 10: mok
- 20: hatlo
- 100: mekto
- 1000: manta

30-90 have two ways of formation: base-20 and base-10, with the base-20 formation being more common and the base-10 formation being standard.

Below is the base-10 formation for 30-90:
- 30: osib mok
- 40: sibamo mok
- 50: mo mok
- 60: mosib mok
- 70: motok mok
- 80: omok mok
- 90: sibamok mok

Below is the base-20 formation for 30-90:
- 30: hatlo mok
- 40: tok hatlo(lit. 2x20)
- 50: tok hatlo mok(lit. 2x20+10)
- 60: osib hatlo(lit. 3x20)
- 70: osib hatlo mok(lit. 3x20+10)
- 80: sibamo hatlo(lit. 4x20)
- 90: sibamo hatlo mok(lit. 4x20+10)

Numbers above 100 are always decimal.

To form all other numerals, one places the larger number before the smaller number, with numeral bases 100 and above always having a preceding numeral. For example:

- 36: osib mok mosib or hatlo mok mosib
- 188: sib mekto omok mok omok or sib mekto sibamo hatlo omok
- 2,341: tok manta osib mekto sibamo mok sib or tok manta osib mekto tok hatlo sib
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Re: Mayato MK2

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 19 Aug 2018, 15:20

Expressions equivalent to English "too ADJ to V"

There are no exact equivalents to English "too ADJ to V" in Mayato, one may yo ADJ, ja V, with the verb after ja taking appropriate conjunctions and/or aux verbs. For example:

- ya dang yo agoru, ja tlo midtut.
- Pronunciation(IPA): /jɑ dɑŋ jo̞ ɑɣo̞ru d͡ʒɑ t͡ɬo̞ mittut/
- Interlinear: ya dang yo a-go-u, ja tlo 0-mi-det-ut(that stone too 3.SG.P-heavy-CONT so one 3.SG>3.SG-NEG-lift-POT)
- English translation: the stone is too heavy to lift(literal translation: that stone is too heavy, so one can't lift it)

Expressions equivalent to English "so ADJ that V"

Again, there are no exact equivalents to English "so ADJ that V" in Mayato, one may say ja ADJ, ja V, with the verb after ja taking appropriate conjunctions and/or aux verbs. For example:

- ya dang ja agoru, ja cimidtut.
- Pronunciation(IPA): /jɑ dɑŋ d͡ʒɑ ɑɣo̞ru d͡ʒɑ t͡ʃimittut/
- Interlinear: ya dang ja a-go-u, ja ci-mi-det-ut(that stone too 3.SG.P-heavy-CONT so 1.PL>3.SG-NEG-lift-POT)
- English translation: the stone is so heavy that we can't lift it.(literal translation: the stone is so heavy, so we can't lift it)
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