Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

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Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 20 Nov 2016, 03:54

Urban Basanawa

Urban Basanawa is a west Germanic language, but its speakers are ethnic East Asian people. The speakers of Urban Basanawa had a history similar to Ashkenazi Jews in the past, it is heavily influenced by Japanese and is written in a writing system derived from Japanese, and loanwords from other languages can also be seen.

Its basic word order is SVO, and it uses prepositions.

I am not going to revive the old thread, so I made a new thread now.

Phonology:

Consonants:

Nasals: /m n (ŋ)*/
Plosives: /p b t d k g/
Fricatives: /f (v)* s z* ʃ h~x~ç*/
Affricates*: /t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/
Liquids: /ɹ l/
Glides: /w j/

Note:
1. [v] is an allophone of /f/ between vowels
2. [z] is an allophone of /s/ between vowels in native words, but due to the large amount of Slavic-origin words and Sino-Xenic words from Japanese, it has become an independent phoneme.
3. /t͡s/ and /d͡ʒ/ only exist in Sino-Xenic words and loanwords, and /t͡ʃ/ only exist in a handful of native words.
4. [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before velars
5. /h/ is pronunced as [ç] if it is in coda position and is preceded by a front vowel; [x] if it is in a coda position and is preceded by other vowels; [h] if it is followed by a vowel.
6. /b d g/ are devoiced in coda position, in some words, /g/ devoiced as [ç] if it is preceded by a front vowels, and to [x] if it is preceded by other vowels.

Vowels:

Short: /ɪ ɛ a ə ɔ ʊ/
Long: /i: e: ɑ: o: u:/
Diphthongs: /aɪ aʊ ɔɪ ɪʊ/

Sample Sentences:

無ん人いす生ん邪る゚
Keen man is geborn evel(romanization)
/ki:n man ɪs gəbɔrn e:vəɫ/
No man is born evil.

だ良すといすだ敵ふぉんだ良ど
De best is de fiend von de good(romanization)
/də bɛst ɪs də fi:nt fɔn də gu:t/
The best is the enemy of the good.

ねん、吾びんね寂む、吾持う゚我
Nen, ik bin ne eensame, ik have me(romanization)
/nɛn ɪk bɪn nɛ i:nsɑ:m ɪk hɑ:f mɪ/
No, I'm not lonely, I have me.

邪る゚なっす始いんとゑん汝始いんすとと扱ら゚ん人ど如す物す
Evelness beginnt when du beginnst to behandelen lide as dinges(romanization)
/e:vəɫnəs bəgɪnt wɛn dʊ bəgɪnst tə bəhandələn laɪt as dɪŋgəs/
Evil begins when you begin to treat people as things.

汝能んすと決まる解あんだん一語とぅうと汝解あんだすとあん少すと二語ん
Du kannst nimmer verstanden een spraak toot du verstandest an minst twee spraaken(romanization)
/dʊ kanst nɪmmər fərstandən i:n sprɑ:k tu:t dʊ fərstandəst anmɪnst twi: sprɑ:kən/
You can never understand one language until you understand at least two.

吾欲いる゚ねどぅうん此
Ik will ne doon dis(romanization)
/ɪk wɪɫ nɛ du:n dɪs/
I don't want to do this
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 20 Nov 2016, 20:16

Being a Low German language, native words in Urban Basanawa ultimately evolved from Old Saxon.

Sound Changes from Old Saxon to Urban Basanawa. These sound changes might be incomplete or wrong:
Spoiler:
Stage I

- ei, o:i > ai / !_V
- VwwV2, VuwV2 > VwV2
- e:V, i:V > e:
- V[-stressed](especially when V is a high vowel) > Ø / R_(R is an resonant /m n l r/)
- wu > wo
- a > o / _ld (before final consonant devoicing)

- Open syllable lengthening:
-- a > ɑ: / Old Saxon open stressed syllables
-- o,u,au > ɔ: / Old Saxon open stressed syllables
-- e,i > ɛ: / Old Saxon open stressed syllables
-- ø,y > œ: / Old Saxon open stressed syllables

- V[-stressed] > ə
- V:[-stressed] > V

- θ,(ð) > d (before final consonant devoicing)

- C > C[-voice] / _#(final consonant devoicing)

- Unronding of front rounded vowels(this sound change probably occured much later, but it certainly occurred before the earliest writing record):
-- y: > i:
-- ø: > e:
-- y > i
-- ø > e
-- œ: > ɛ:

Stage II

a vowel change comparable to the trisyllabic laxing in English.(happened and ceased to be productive sometime before the diphthongization of vowels)

- ai > ɛ:
- au > ɔ:

- diphthongization of vowels:
-- i: > ai
-- u: > au

- raising of long vowels:
-- ɑ:,a: > a:
-- e: (>ei) > i:
-- o: (>ou) > u:
-- ɛ(:) > e(:)
-- ɔ(:) > o(:)

- z > s / #_

- h > Ø / V_V(this sound change probably occured much earlier)

- ə > Ø / _#
-- ew > iu
-- a:w > au
-- a:j > ai
-- o:j > oi
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Thu 24 Nov 2016, 06:43

Nouns

Cases and Genders have disappeared completely for nouns in Urban Basanawa, nouns only decline according to number, however, the declension patterns of nouns are slightly more complex than in English.

There are several noun classes: s-nouns, n-nouns, r-nouns, root nouns, and irregular nouns. Below are the introductions of the classes:

s-nouns

The class of s-nouns is the largest noun class, most nouns, including all countable non-native nouns, belong to this class.

One adds -s to the end of an s-noun to make the plural form, and an epenthetic /ə/ might be used in some cases.

n-nouns

The class of n-nouns is the second largest noun class, it is mostly composed of the old weak nouns.

One adds -n to the end of an n-noun to make the plural form, and an epenthetic /ə/ might be used in some cases.

r-nouns

The class of r-nouns is a small class, not many words belong to this class.

One adds -r to the end of an r-noun to make the plural form, an epenthetic /ə/ might be used in some cases, and the stem vowel changes like root nouns.

Root Nouns

The class of root nouns is a small class, only few words belong to this class.

One changes the stem vowel of a root noun to make the plural form, no affixes are used.

The pattern of the change of the stem vowel is shown below:

/a/ > /ɛ/
/ɔ/ > /ɛ/
/ʊ/ > /ɪ/
/ɑ:/ > /e:/
/o:/ > /e:/
/u:/ > /i:/
/aʊ/ > /aɪ/

Irregular nouns

Few words belong to this class, the plural forms of nouns in this class are highly irregular and suppletive.

--------

Example of each noun classes:

s-nouns:

日("day"):

Singular: 日 [dax] (romanization: dag)
Plural: 日がす/日す [dagəs] (romanization: dages)

民("folk):

Singular: 民 [fɔɫk] (romanization: folk)
Plural: 民す [fɔɫks] (romanization: folks)

n-nouns:

名("name"):

Singular: 名 [nɑ:m] (romanization: name)
Plural: 名まん/名ん [nɑ:mən] (romanization: namen)

心("heart"):

Singular: 心 [haɹt] (romanization: hart)
Plural: 心たん/心ん [haɹtən] (romanization: harten)

r-nouns:

子("child"):

Singular: 子 [kɪnt]
Plural: 子だる/子る [kɪndər]

卵("egg"):

Singular: 卵 [e:] (romanization: ei)
Plural: 卵やる/卵る [e:jəɹ] (romanization: eier)

子羊("lamb"):

Singular: 子羊 [lam] (romanization: lamb)
Plural: 子羊る/子羊えんまる/子羊えんまる [lɛmməɹ] (romanization: lember)

root nouns:

鼠("mouse"):

Singular: 鼠 [maʊs] (romanization: maus)
Plural: 鼠あいす [maɪs] (romanization: mys/mais/mise)

Irregular nouns:

人("person"):

Singular: 人 [man] (romanization: man)
Plural: 衆 [laɪt] (romanization: lide)
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Thu 01 Dec 2016, 03:29

Demonstratives and Articles

Below are the demonstrative forms:

- this: (romanization: dis) [dɪs]
- that: (romanization: dat) [dat]
- these: 此す(romanization: dese) [de:s]
- those: 彼い(romanization: die) [di:]
- the(definite article): (romanization: de) [də]

The definite article can also be used as the relativizer, it does not change according to the role of the head noun in the relative clause, and can't take prepositions, either. For example:

- だ人だ食えいたと魚いす老ど(romanization: de man, de etet de fish) [də man də e:tət də fɪʃ ɪs ɔɫt] - the person that eats the fish is old.

Place deixis:
- here: 此る(romanization: hier) [hi:ɹ]
- there: 彼る(romanization: daar) [dɑ:ɹ]
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Mon 05 Dec 2016, 19:02

Adjectives, indefinite article and possessive pronouns

Adjectives, articles and possessive pronouns don't decline in the modern standard language, however, traces of adjective declines can still be seen in certain fixed expressions. For example:

- 良だん朝 [gu:dən mɔɹgən] - good morning
- 良だん日 [gu:dən dax] - good day
- 良だん夕 [gu:dən ɑ:vənt] - good evening

Below are the possessive pronouns:

- 1st sg: 我い [maɪ]*
- 2nd sg: 爾い [daɪ]*
- 3rd sg: さい [saɪ]* (stressed) / さ [sə] (unstressed)
- 1st du: 我二人る [ʊŋkəɹ]
- 2nd du: 爾二人る [ɪŋkəɹ]
- 1st pl: 我等る [aʊzəɹ]
- 2nd pl: 爾等る [jʊɹ]
- 3rd pl: いいる [i:ɹ]

* Note: the singular possessive forms might receive an -ん(pronounciation: [n]) ending in some cases
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by Iyionaku » Mon 05 Dec 2016, 20:01

This is a very interesting language, and it really gives the feel of Germanic. (I am into Germanic conlanging anyway, mostly because I can read most of it. However, so far I did not dare make one of my own [:D]

The dual forms are only used for the possessive, did I see this right?
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by Sḿtuval » Tue 06 Dec 2016, 02:02

If it's heavily influenced by Japan, why does the thread title say Sinosphere? Is there Chinese influence as well?
I have absolutely no idea what I'm doing.
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Tue 06 Dec 2016, 15:54

Sḿtuval wrote:If it's heavily influenced by Japan, why does the thread title say Sinosphere? Is there Chinese influence as well?
Japanese itself is a part of Sinosphere, as Japanese people was influenced by Chinese a lot. Sinosphere indicates a cultural sphere where people use or once used Hanzi/Kanji to write their languages. accept and follow confucianism, use chopsticks to eat, etc. In a nutshell, a cultural sphere being influenced by Imperial China in the past.

Urban Basanawa speakers were mainly influenced by Japanese both linguistically and culturally, although there are several Chinese loanwords that were not borrowed through Japanese in Urban Basanawa.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Asia ... ral_sphere
Iyionaku wrote:This is a very interesting language, and it really gives the feel of Germanic. (I am into Germanic conlanging anyway, mostly because I can read most of it. However, so far I did not dare make one of my own [:D]
thanks (:

You can just try, Iyionaku, even they are only con-dialects like my Koulesch, or you can try other a posterioris like Romlangs(Romance and Germanic conlangs are probably the eaziest a posteriori conlangs as Romance and Germanic languages are widespread, and Latin and Proto-Germanic are pretty well-known languages.), other Indo-European conlangs, Altaic conlangs(but please specify you are making a Mongolic, Turkic or Tungusic, Korean or Japonic conlang), etc. or even conlangs based on less used language families like Bantu conlangs, Tai-Kadai conlangs, Dene-Yeniseian conlangs, Rotokas conlang, etc. first. (:
Iyionaku wrote:The dual forms are only used for the possessive, did I see this right?
Actually, not only used for possessive, I have actually imported the whole 1st and 2nd dual pronoun forms...
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 27 Jan 2017, 14:44

Note:

The English name of the language is now officially changed into Town Speech.

Verbs

The romanization will be used in this section.

Like most other Germanic languages, verbs in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa do conjugate according to the persons of the subject and tenses, and verbs are divided into strong verbs and weak verbs, besides, there are modal verbs and irregular verbs.

In Town Speech/Urban Basanawa, strong verbs are exclusively of Germanic origin and they form a closed class. In general, the conjugation patterns of verbs in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa are similar to that of English, Dutch, Low German and Standard German.

Strong verbs(used with corresponding stem vowel changes):

Infinitive: -en

Present:
- 1st sg: -
- 2nd sg(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -st/-est
- 3rd sg(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -t/-et
- pl(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -t/-et

Preterite/past tense:
- 1st sg: -
- 2nd sg(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -st/-est
- 3rd sg: -
- pl: -en

present participle: infinitive+-d

past participle: -en

stem vowel change(shown in IPA):

Class I: /aɪ/-/i:/-/ɛ/

Class II: /i:/(/aʊ/ in some cases)-/u:/-/o:/

Class IIIa: /ɪ/-/a/-/ʊ/

Class IIIb: /ɛ/-/a/-/ɔ/

Class IV: /e:/-/ɑ:/-/o:/

Class V: /e:/-/ɑ:/-/e:/

Class VIa: /ɑ:/-/u:/-/ɑ:/

Class VIb: /a/-/u:/-/a/

Class VIIa1: /a/-/ɛ/-/a/

Class VIIa2: /ɔ/-/ɛ/-/ɔ/

Class VIIb1: /ɑ:/-/i:/-/ɑ:/

Class VIIb2: /u:/-/i:/-/u:/

Weak Verbs:

Infinitive: -en

Present:
- 1st sg: -
- 2nd sg(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -st/-est
- 3rd sg(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -t/-et
- pl(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -t/-et

Preterite/past tense(the schwa insertion rule is applied):
- 1st sg: -d/-ed/-t
- 2nd sg: -dest/-edest/-test
- 3rd sg: -d/-ed/-t
- pl: -den/-eden/-ten

present participle: infinitive+-d

past participle(the schwa insertion rule is applied): -d/-ed/-t
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 16:43

Let's revive this thread

This language is now renamed Town Speech, but the original name will continue to be used.

Numerals

Unlike most other Sinosphere languages but similar to Vietnamese, Town Speech/Urban Basanawa tends to use native numerals rather than Sino-Xenic numerals, Sino-Xenic numerals are used in compounds involving Sino-Xenic morphemes and large numerals.

The numerals in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa are listed below:
- 0 - 〇 /nɪçt/ (romanization: nicht) or /kɹi:t/(romanization: kreet)
- 1 - 一 /i:n/ (romanization: een)
- 2 - 二 /twi:/ (romanization: twee)
- 3 - 三 /dɹi:/ (romanization: dree)
- 4 - 四 /fi:ɹ/ (romanization: fier)
- 5 - 五 /faɪf/ (romanization: five)
- 6 - 六 /sɛks/ (romanization: sex)
- 7 - 七 /se:vən/ (romanization: seven)
- 8 - 八 /axt/ (romanization: acht)
- 9 - 九 /ne:gən/ (romanization: negen)
- 10 - 十 /tɛn/ (romanization: ten)
- 11 - 十一 /ɛɫvən/ (romanization: elven)
- 12 - 十二 /twɛɫf/ (romanization: twelf)
- 13 - 十三 /dɹaɪtɪn/ (romanization: drytin)
- 14 - 十四 /fi:ɹtɪn/ (romanization: fiertin)
- 15 - 十五 /faɪftɪn/ (romanization: fyftin)
- 16 - 十六 /sɛkstɪn/ (romanization: sextin)
- 17 - 十七 /se:vəntɪn/ (romanization: seventin)
- 18 - 十八 /axtɪn/ (romanization: achtin)
- 19 - 十九 /ne:gəntɪn/ (romanization: negentin)
- 20 - 二十 /twɛntɪç/ (romanization: twentig)
- 30 - 三十 /dɹi:tɪç/ (romanization: dreetig)
- 40 - 四十 /fi:ɹtɪç/ (romanization: fiertig)
- 50 - 五十 /faɪftɪç/ (romanization: fyftig)
- 60 - 六十 /sɛkstɪç/ (romanization: sextig)
- 70 - 七十 /se:vəntɪç/ (romanization: seventig)
- 80 - 八十 /axtɪç/ (romanization: achtig)
- 90 - 九十 /ne:gəntɪç/ (romanization: negentig)
- 100 - 百 /hʊndəɹt/ (romanization: hunderd)
- 1,000 - 千 /daʊzənt/ (romanization: dausend)

There are also Sino-Xenic readings for numerals, however, in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa, they are only used with other Sino-Xenic morphemes in compounds and numerals larger than 10,000, and in reporting times of a day:

- 0 - 〇 /ɹe:/
- 1 - 一 /ɪt͡ʃɪ̥/
- 2 - 二 /nɪ/
- 3 - 三 /san/
- 4 - 四 /ʃɪ/
- 5 - 五 /gɔ/
- 6 - 六 /ɹɔkʊ̥/
- 7 - 七 /ʃɪ̥t͡ʃɪ/
- 8 - 八 /hatʃɪ̥/
- 9 - 九 /kʊ/(go-on) / /kɪju:/(kan-on)
- 10 - 十 /d͡ʒu:/
- 100 - 百 /hɪjakʊ̥/
- 1,000 - 千 /sɛn/

Note: besides the native /nɪçt/ and /kɹi:t/ and the Sino-Xenic /ɹe:/, one may also use the English derived pronunciation /zɛɹɔ/ for 0, and some people might also use the Arabic-derived pronunciation /sɪfəɹ/, but the /sɪfəɹ/ pronunciation is now rarely used.

The actual pattern is somewhat complex: for numbers smaller than 10,000, native readings are used exclusively; for numbers larger than 10,000, one applies Sino-Xenic readings, for and the parts smaller than 10,000, one applies native readings.

for example:

36/三十六 - /draɪtɪç sɛks/(older style: /sɛks ʊn draɪtɪç/)

188/一百八十八 - /i:n hʊndərt axtɪç axt/(old style: /i:n hʊndərt axt ʊn axtɪç/)

2,341/二千三百四十一 - /twi: daʊzənt dri: hʊndərt fi:rtɪç i:n/(old style: /twi: daʊzənt dri: hʊndərt i:n ʊn fi:rtɪç/)

131,072/十三万一千七十二 - /dʒu:samman i:n daʊzənt se:vəntɪç twi:/(the part in red is the part following the Sino-Xenic reading of numerals.

In colloquial speech, however, there's a tendency to replace all Sino-Xenic readings in numerals except for the units, so the 131,072/十三万一千七十二 example might be read as /dɹaɪtɪn man i:n daʊzənt se:vəntɪç twi:/ instead.

Larger numerals are listed below, Note that Town Speech/Urban Basanawa follows the myriads as most East Asian languages rather than the Western thousands; however, most of them(those larger than 億 or 兆) are rarely used in practice and are unknown to most speakers:

- 10^4 - 万 /man/
- 10^8 - 億 /ɔkʊ̥/
- 10^12 - 兆 /t͡ʃo:/
- 10^16 - 京 /ke:/
- 10^20 - 垓 /gaɪ/
- 10^24 - 𥝱 /d͡ʒɔ/ or 秭 /ʃɪ/
- 10^28 - 穣 /d͡ʒo:/
- 10^32 - 溝 /ko:/
- 10^36 - 澗 /kan/
- 10^40 - 正 /se:/
- 10^44 - 載 /saɪ/
- 10^48 - 極 /gɔkʊ̥/
- 10^52(or 10^56) - 恒河沙 /go:gaʃa/
- 10^56(or 10^64) - 阿僧祇 /aso:gɪ/
- 10^60(or 10^72) - 那由他 /najʊta/(also written as 那由多)
- 10^64(or 10^80) - 不可思議 /fʊkaʃɪgɪ/
- 10^68(or 10^88) - 無量大数 /mʊɹɪjo:taɪsu:/

Ordinal numbers are formed by "numeral + -番"(-番 is pronunced as /t/(as /d/ when preceding a vowel within a word) for numerals smaller than 20, pronunced as /st/ for numerals larger than 20):

- 5th - 五番 /faɪft/ (romanization: fived)
- 9th - 九番 /ne:gənt/ (romanization: negend)
- 15th - 十五番 /faɪftɪnt/ (romanization: fyftind)
- 20th - 二十番 /twɛntɪgəst/(or /twɛntɪçt/) (romanization: twentigest or twentigt)
- 36th - 三十六番 /dɹi:tɪç sɛkst/(romanization: dreetig sext) (older style: /sɛks ʊn draɪtɪgəst/)
- 100th - 一百番 /i:n hʊndəɹdəst/(romanization: een hunderdest)

The forms of 1st is irregualar:

- 1st - 一番 /ɛɹst/(romanization: erst)

In older formations, 二番 and 三番 also have irregular formations and were once pronunced as /ɔdəɹ/ and /dɹɪt/ respectively.

The suffixes for ordinal numbers can also be used to indicate fractions, in this case, it is written as -ど(pronunced as /t/, as /d/ when preceding a vowel within a word) for numerals smaller than 20, as -すと(pronunced as /st/) for numerals larger than 20. This formation is more common in colloquial speech than in writing. For example:

- 2/3 - 二三ど /twi: dɹi:t/
- 1/5 - 一五ど /i:n faɪft/
- 13/30 - 十三三十すと /dɹaɪtɪn dɹaɪtɪgəst/

it is also possible to use the possessive pronoun 之 /sə/ and put the denominator before the numerator, In this case, the word 分 is used with the denominator and is read as /di:ɫ/ regardless of the preceding number. This formation is more common in writing than in colloquial speech. For example:

- 2/3 - 三分之二 /dɹi: di:ɫ sə twi:/
- 1/5 - 五分之一 /faɪf di:ɫ sə i:n/
- 3/10 - 十分之三 /tɛn di:ɫ sə dɹi:/
- 13/30 - 三十分之十三 /dɹaɪtɪç di:ɫ sə dɹaɪtɪn/

The unit for "tenth" is special, it is written as 割 and pronunced as /te:gət/, and this usage is quite common in colloquial speech:

- 3/10 - 三割 /dɹi: te:gət/

Besides the unit for "tenth", there are also units for other decimal fractions, but they are not commonly used:

- 10^-2 - 分 /bʊn/
- 10^-3 - 厘 /ɹɪn/
- 10^-4 - 毛 /mo:/
- 10^-5 - 糸 /ʃɪ/
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Wed 08 Aug 2018, 16:05

Relative Clauses and Noun Clauses

Relative Clauses in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa is simpler than most Germanic languages, in relative clauses with a head noun(or say, antecedent), the invariant relativizer (pronounciation: /də/), which appears the same to the definite article, is used in all circumstances. For example:

1.
だ娘、だ習わ゚とバスケットボール゚毎だる日、いす可愛い。
/də me:d̥ də i:vət baskɛtbo:ɫ jɛdəɹ dax ɪs kawaji:/
だ 娘 だ 習わ゚-と バスケットボール゚ 毎だる 日 いす 可愛い
the girl REL practise-3.SG.PRES basketball every day be.3.SG.PRES cute
English translation: The girl who practises basketball everyday is cute

2.
ひ見ああだ娘、だ習わ゚とバスケットボール゚毎だる日
/hɪ sɑ: də me:d̥ də i:vət baskɛtbo:ɫ jɛdəɹ dax/
ひ 見ああ だ 娘 だ 習わ゚-と バスケットボール゚ 毎だる 日
3.SG.HUMAN.NOM see.PST.1/3.SG the girl REL practise-3.SG.PRES basketball every day
English translation: she saw the girl who practises basketball everyday

3.
魚骨泳いむと在んだ所、だネプギアうんユニ手切いいだん。
/fɪʃbi:ns swɪmt an də ste:d̥ də nɛpgɪa ʊn jʊnɪ hant.sni:dən/
魚骨 泳いむ-と 在ん だ 所 だ ネプギア うん ユニ 手切いいだん
fishbone swim.PRES-PL at the place REL Nepgear and Uni break.up.PST-PL
English translation: Fishbones swim in the place where Nepgear and Uni broke up.

can always be replaced with だと(pronounciation: /dat/). For example:

1.
だ娘、だと習わ゚とバスケットボール゚毎だる日、いす可愛い。
/də me:d̥ dat i:vət baskɛtbo:ɫ jɛdəɹ dax ɪs kawaji:/
だ 娘 だと 習わ゚-と バスケットボール゚ 毎だる 日 いす 可愛い
the girl REL practise-3.SG.PRES basketball every day be.3.SG.PRES cute
English translation: The girl who practises basketball everyday is cute

2.
ひ見ああだ娘、だと習わ゚とバスケットボール゚毎だる日
/hɪ sɑ: də me:d̥ dat i:vət baskɛtbo:ɫ jɛdəɹ dax/
ひ 見ああ だ 娘 だと 習わ゚-と バスケットボール゚ 毎だる 日
3.SG.HUMAN.NOM see.PST.1/3.SG the girl REL practise-3.SG.PRES basketball every day
English translation: she saw the girl who practises basketball everyday

3.
魚骨泳いむと在んだ所、だとネプギアうんユニ手切いいだん。
/fɪʃbi:ns swɪmt an də ste:d̥ dat nɛpgɪa ʊn jʊnɪ hant.sni:dən/
魚骨 泳いむ-と 在ん だ 所 だと ネプギア うん ユニ 手切いいだん
fishbone swim.PRES-PL at the place REL Nepgear and Uni break.up.PST-PL
English translation: Fishbones swim in the place where Nepgear and Uni broke up.

Noun clauses are always formed with the complementizer だと(pronounciation: /dat/). For example:

1.
吾知いいとだと吾びん悪とといん
/ɪk wi:t dat ɪk bɪn slɪçt tə ɪn/
吾 知いいと だと 吾 びん 悪と と いん
1.SG.NOM know.PRES.1.SG C 1.SG.NOM be.PRES.1.SG bad to 3.SG.HUMAN.ACC
English translation: I know that I am bad to him.

However, free relative clause, that is, relative clauses without antecedents, still start with interrogative pronouns:

1.
吾ね知いいと誰ひいす
/ɪk nɛ wi:t wi: hɪ ɪs/
吾 ね 知いいと 誰 ひ いす
1.SG.NOM NEG know.PRES.1.SG who 3.SG.HUMAN.NOM be.3.SG.PRES

吾ね知いいと何といっといす
/ɪk nɛ wi:t wat ɪt ɪs/
吾 ね 知いいと 何と いっと いす
1.SG.NOM NEG know.PRES.1.SG what 3.SG.NONHUMAN.NOM be.3.SG.PRES
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Re: Town Speech-Plattdytch

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 19 Aug 2018, 10:05

Note: as Town Speech/Urban Baasanawa and Plattdytch are the same language with different writing system, they are now given a single entity called Town Speech-Plattdytch, kinda like Hindi-Urdu and Serbo-Croatian, and I will also introduce something about Plattdytch too.

Among Town Speech-Plattdytch varieties, Town Speech/Urban Basanawa is the only standardized variety, and it is said that Plattdytch is more an umbrella term for all other Town Speech-Plattdytch varieties.

Some Differences Between Town Speech and Plattdytch

Town Speech/Urban Basanawa and Plattdytch are basically different variants of the same language; nonetheless, there are some minor differences between them, some of them are listed below:

Phonology:
- In most varieties of Plattdytch, /r/ is [ɹ]] initially and after long vowels or reduced vowels(unstressed vowels including [ə]), but a trilled [r] between a short stressed vowel and another vowel.
- /s/ is pronounced as [z] initially in some(maybe most) varieties of Plattdytch.
- /w/ is pronounced as [ʋ] in many varieties of Plattdytch.
- in some(maybe most) varieties of Plattdytch, short /ʊ/ and /ɔ/ are merged into [o], and thus /ʊp/ "up, upon" would be [op] in these varieties.
- /ai/ and /au/ is pronounced as [əi] and [əu] or even [i:] and [u:] respectively in some(but not most) varieties of Plattdytch.
- [ç] has become [j] in some(but not most) varieties of Plattdytch.
- some speakers of Town Speech/Urban Basanawa may use epenthetic vowels to break initial and final clusters; besides, some speakers may render syllable-final /f/ and /x/ as [p] and [k] respectively; however, realizing syllable-final /f/ and /x/ as [p] and [k](or [j]) respectively is also seen in some varieties of Plattdytch.
- stressed and non-stressed syllables tend to be less distinctive in Town Speech than in most varieties of Plattdytch.

Morphosyntax:
- The Germanic subject-verb inversion is still the common way to produce questinos in Plattdytch; while in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa, polar questions are usually formed by the use of an initial particle, and the subject-verb inversion is considered archaic by Town Speech/Urban Basanawa speakers.
- Some(but not most) varieties of Plattdytch still has grammatical gender divided into the common gender and the neuter gender.
- Some varieties of Plattdytch place object pronouns between aux verbs and main verbs.

Lexical:
- Some(but not most) varieties of Plattdytch retain the 3rd singular feminine pronouns, which is pronounced as /si:/ in those varieties that still have it.
- the 1st and 2nd dual pronouns have been lost in all varieties of Plattdytch, they are only retained in Town Speech/Urban Basanawa.
- Town Speech/Urban Basanawa has a large amount of Sino-Xenic borrowings; while the lexicon of Plattdytch is still largely Germanic.
- The Sino-Xenic numerals don't exist in Plattdytch, and Plattdytch is counted in millions rather than myriads.
- Various semantic shifts in both sides.

Orthography:
- Town Speech/Urban Basanawa is written in Kanji and Kana derived from Japanese; Plattdytch uses basic Latin alphabet.

Genetics of the speakers:
- Town Speech/Urban Basanawa have a large genetic influx from Japanese and other ethnicities(especially Chinese) and have become East Asian physically; while Plattdytch speakers still retain the genetic heritage of Germanic peoples. This has also affected a large portion of cultural customs of both speakers.
Last edited by k1234567890y on Sun 19 Aug 2018, 17:44, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Urban Basanawa: Sinosphere Germanic language

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 19 Aug 2018, 11:57

Expressions equivalent to English "too ADJ to V"

Being a West Germanic language, the way that Town Speech-Plattdytch expresses the meaning "too ADJ to V" is virtually identical to that of English. one uses the expression "too ADJ to V"(written as "過う ADJ と V in Town Speech(aka. Urban Basanawa)), with the verb in the infinitive form. For example:


- (Plattdytch) it is too sware to heven.
- (Town Speech(aka. Urban Basanawa)) いっといす過う重る上えいわ゚ん
- /ɪt ɪs tu: swɑ:ɹ tə he̞:vən/(IPA in both)
- English translation: it is too heavy to lift.

Expressions equivalent to English "so ADJ that V"

The way that Town Speech-Plattdytch expresses the meaning "so ADJ that V" is also very similar to that of English. one uses the expression "so ADJ dat V"(written as "そう ADJ だと V" in Town Speech(aka. Urban Basanawa)) to express the meaning. For example:

- ( Plattdytch) it is so kold dat he will ne gaan aut.
- (Town Speech(aka. Urban Basanawa)) いっといすそう冷どだとひ欲る゚ね行ああん出と
- /ɪt ɪs so: kɔɫd̥ dät hi: wɪɫ nɛ gɑ:n äʊt/(IPA in both)
- English translation: it is so cold that he does not want to go out.
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