Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Thu 01 Dec 2016, 02:41

All4Ɇn wrote:
k1234567890y wrote:sonorants: /(w)* ʋ ɾ r: l l: j/
Why is /w/ put in parenthesis and do you have any example words with it?
/w/ is used as an epenthesis to avoid some vowel clusters, for example:

- bauen [baʊwən] "to build" v.s. baut [baʊt] "(he/she/it) builds"
- drouen [dɾo:wən] "to threaten" v.s. drout [dɾo:t] "(he/she/it) threatens"
- rou [ɾo:] "raw(uninflected form)" v.s. roues [ɾo:wəs] "raw(inflected form)"
- frou [fɾo:] "woman(singular nominative)" v.s. frouen [fɾo:wən] "woman(singular accusative/plural)"
All4Ɇn wrote:
k1234567890y wrote:The Instrumental case only exists for neuter singular words, the use of the instrumental case is marginal and can often be replaced with the dative case.
Considering neuter nouns seem to have the same form in both the dative and instrumental case how is the instrumental case marked? Articles and adjectives I'm guessing?
you are right (:, the instrumental case is marked with articles, as Middle High German.
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Thu 01 Dec 2016, 03:30

Demonstratives and Articles

Below is the different forms of the definite articles:

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: der
- Genitive: des
- Dative: dem(e)
- Accusative: den

Feminine:

- Nominative: dey
- Genitive: der
- Dative: der
- Accusative: die

Neuter:

- Nominative/Accusative: dasz/das
- Genitive: des
- Dative: dem(e)
- Instrumental: dey

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: dey/die
- Genitive: der
- Dative: den

Besides, definite articles can be cliticized, der is often cliticized to d' or r', den is often cliticized to n', dasz and des are often cliticized to s', dem(e) is often cliticized to m', die is often cliticized to d' or dj'.

Definite articles can also be used as relative pronouns, the cliticized form is never used as relative pronouns. For example:

- d'mann, der n'fisch izzt, is alt. - The man who eats the fish is old.

Below is the different forms of the demonstrative dirre "this":

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: dirre
- Genitive: dieses
- Dative: diesem/diesme
- Accusative: diesen

Feminine:

- Nominative: diese/disi
- Genitive: dirre
- Dative: dirre
- Accusative: diese

Neuter:

- Nominative/Accusative: diesz/dies
- Genitive: dieses
- Dative: diesem/diesme
- Instrumental: diese

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: diese
- Genitive: dirre
- Dative: diesen

Below is the different forms of the demonstrative jen "that":

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: jener
- Genitive: jenes
- Dative: jeme
- Accusative: jenen

Feminine:

- Nominative: jene/jeni
- Genitive: jener
- Dative: jener
- Accusative: jene

Neuter:

- Nominative/Accusative: jenes
- Genitive: jenes
- Dative: jeme
- Instrumental: jene

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: jene
- Genitive: jener
- Dative: jenen

Place deixis:
- here: hier
- there: daar

Note:
1. The use of the instrumental case is now rare and mostly seen in set phrases, for example von dey wort "literally", in colloquial speech, it can usually be replaced with the dative case except for set phrases.
2. the distinctions between dasz and das, and between diesz and dies, are purely written, the pronunciations don't differ.
3. the use of jen and dirre is becoming increasingly rare, they are being replaced by the form "definite article+noun+place deixis".
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Mon 05 Dec 2016, 19:02

Adjectives, indefinite article and possessive pronouns

Below is the declension pattern for indefinite articles(ein "a/one", kain "none") and possessive pronouns:

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: -
- Genitive: -es
- Dative: -me*
- Accusative: -en

Feminine:

- Nominative: -*
- Genitive: -er
- Dative: -er
- Accusative: -e

Neuter:

- Nominative/Accusative: -
- Genitive: -es
- Dative: -me*

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: -e
- Genitive: -er
- Dative: -en

Note:
1. the pattern is mostly similar to Standard German, but in Koulesch the uninflected form is also applied for feminine singular.
2. the final -n is replaced with -me in the masculine and neuter dative singular forms.

--------

Adjectives decline for number, case, gender and definiteness. Below are the decline pattern for adjectives:

Definite declension:

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: -e
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en
- Accusative: -en

Feminine:

- Nominative: -e
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en
- Accusative: -e

Neuter:

- Nominative: -e
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en
- Accusative: -e

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: -en
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en

Indefinite declension with indefinite articles or possessive words:

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: -er
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en
- Accusative: -en

Feminine:

- Nominative: -e
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en
- Accusative: -e

Neuter:

- Nominative: -es
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en
- Accusative: -e

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: -en
- Genitive: -en
- Dative: -en

Indefinite declension without indefinite articles or possessive words:

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: -er
- Genitive: -es
- Dative: -em(e)
- Accusative: -en

Feminine:

- Nominative: -e
- Genitive: -er
- Dative: -er
- Accusative: -e

Neuter:

- Nominative/Accusative: -es
- Genitive: -es
- Dative: -em(e)

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: -e
- Genitive: -er
- Dative: -en

----------------

Examples:

with definite articles:

- den guten tag - the good day(accusative)
- dem(e) guten tage - the good day(dative)
- der guote tag - the good day(nominative)

- die guote burg - the good city(accusative)
- der guoten burge - the good city(dative)
- dey guote burg - the good city(nominative)

- dasz gute kind - the good child(nominative/accusative)
- dem(e) guten kinde - the good child(dative)

With indefinite articles or possessive words:

- einen guten tag - a good day(accusative)
- eime guten tage - a good day(dative)
- ein guoter tag - a good day(nominative)

- eine guote burg - a good city(accusative)
- einer guoten burge - a good city(dative)
- ein guote burg - a good city(nominative)

- ein gutes kind - a good child(nominative/accusative)
- eime guten kinde - a good child(dative)

Without indefinite articles or possessive words:

- guoten tag - (a) good day(accusative)
- guotem tage - (a) good day(dative)
- guoter tag - (a) good day(nominative)

- guote burg - (a) good city(accusative)
- guoter burge - (a) good city(dative)
- guote burg - (a) good city(nominative)

- gutes kind - (a) good child(nominative/accusative)
- gutem kinde - (a) good child(dative)

----------------

Below are the possessive pronouns:

- 1st sg: main
- 2nd sg: dain
- 3rd sg: sain(masculine and neuter) / ir(feminine)
- 1st pl: unser
- 2nd pl: eyer
- 3rd pl: ir
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 27 Jan 2017, 14:44

Verbs

Like most other Germanic languages, verbs in Koulesch do conjugate according to the persons of the subject and tenses, and verbs are divided into strong verbs and weak verbs, besides, there are modal verbs and irregular verbs.

In general, the conjugation patterns of verbs in Koulesch are similar to that of Standard German, with some small differences.

Strong verbs(used with corresponding stem vowel changes):

Infinitive: -en

Present:
- 1st sg: -e
- 2nd sg: -st/-est
- 3rd sg: -t/-et
- 1st pl: -n/-en
- 2nd pl: -t/-et
- 3rd pl: -nt/-ent

Preterite/past tense:
- 1st sg: -
- 2nd sg: -st/-est
- 3rd sg: -
- 1st pl: -n/-en
- 2nd pl: -t/-et
- 3rd pl: -nt/-ent

present participle: infinitive+-d

past participle: ge-(stem)-en

stem vowel change(shown in the form of infinitive/present plural/1sg singular-present 2nd/3rd singular-preterite singular-preterite plural-past participle):

Class I: ai(/aɪ/)-ai(/aɪ/)-ei(/e:/)-ie(/i:/)-ie(/i:/)

Class II: ie(/i:/)-ey(/ɛɪ/)-ou(/o:/)-u(/u:/)-o(/o:/)

Class IIIa(when the stem vowel is followed by nasals): i(/ɪ/)-i(/ɪ/)-a(/a/)-u(/ʊ/)-u(/ʊ/)

Class IIIb(when the stem vowel is followed by liquids): e(/ɛ/)-i(/ɪ/)-a(/a/)-u(/ʊ/)-o(/ɔ/)

Class IVa(when the stem vowel is followed by CV): e(/e:/)-i(/i:/)-a(/ɑ:/)-a(/ɑ:/)-o(/o:/)

Class IVb(when the stem vowel is followed by CCV, /x/V, /ʃ/V): e(/ɛ/)-i(/ɪ/)-a(/a/)-u(/ʊ/)-o(/ɔ/)

Class Va(when the stem vowel is followed by CV): e(/e:/)-i(/i:/)-a(/ɑ:/)-a(/ɑ:/)-e(/e:/)

Class Vb(when the stem vowel is followed by CCV, /x/V, /ʃ/V): e(/ɛ/)-i(/ɪ/)-a(/a/)-a(/a/)-e(/ɛ/)

Class VI: a(/ɑ:/)-a(/ɑ:/)-uo(/u:/)-uo(/u:/)-a(/ɑ:/)

Class VII: (any vowel)-(any vowel, same to infinitive)-ie(/i:/)-ie(/i:/)-(any vowel, same to infinitive)

Weak Verbs:

Infinitive: -en

Present:
- 1st sg: -e
- 2nd sg: -st/-est
- 3rd sg: -t/-et
- 1st pl: -n/-en
- 2nd pl: -t/-et
- 3rd pl: -nt/-ent

Preterite/past tense:
- 1st sg: -te
- 2nd sg: -test
- 3rd sg: -te
- 1st pl: -ten
- 2nd pl: -tet
- 3rd pl: -tent

present participle: infinitive+-d

past participle(the schwa insertion rule is applied): ge-(stem)-t
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 16:50

I am going to have a major reworking of the vocabulary of Koulesch.

Numerals

The numerals in Koulesch are listed below:
- 1 - ein
- 2 - zwene(masculine)/zwou(feminine)/zwei(neuter and general numeral)
- 3 - drai(masculine and feminine)/drey(neuter and general numeral)
- 4 - fier
- 5 - fynf
- 6 - sechs
- 7 - siben
- 8 - acht
- 9 - neyn
- 10 - zehn
- 11 - einlif
- 12 - zwelf
- 13 - draizehn
- 14 - fierzehn
- 15 - fynfzehn
- 16 - sechszehn
- 17 - sibenzehn
- 18 - achtzehn
- 19 - neynzehn
- 20 - zweinzig
- 30 - draiszig
- 40 - fierzig
- 50 - fynfzig
- 60 - sechszig
- 70 - sibenzig
- 80 - achtzig
- 90 - neynzig
- 100 - hundert
- 1,000 - dausent

hundert and dausent can be declined as nouns, and when they are declined as nouns, they are always delined as strong neuter nouns.

The way to form numerals are essentially the same to that of Standard German, the conjugation und is used for the part denoting to 20-90:

- 36 - sechs und draiszig
- 188 - (ein) hundert acht und achtzig
- 2,341 - zwei dausent drey hundert ein und fierzig
- 131,072 - (ein) hundert ein und dreiszig dausent zwei und sibenzig

However, it is not uncommon in colloquial speech to use a more "regular" way to form numerals, especially for 11-19:

- 11 - zehn (und) ein
- 12 - zehn (und) zwei
- 13 - zehn (und) drey
- 14 - zehn (und) fier
- 15 - zehn (und) fynf
- 16 - zehn (und) sechs
- 17 - zehn (und) siben
- 18 - zehn (und) acht
- 19 - zehn (und) neyn
- 20 - zwei zehn
- 30 - drey zehn
- 40 - fier zehn
- 50 - fynf zehn
- 60 - sechs zehn
- 70 - siben zehn
- 80 - acht zehn
- 90 - neyn zehn

And in colloquial speech, the conjugation und is often omitted. For example:

- 36 - drey zehn (und) sechs
- 188 - (ein) hundert acht zehn (und) acht
- 2,341 - zwei dausent drey hundert fier zehn (und) ein
- 131,072 - (ein) hundert drey zehn ein dausent siben zehn (und) zwei

However, this can cause the confusion of 13 and 30, 14 and 40, 15 and 50, 16 and 60, 17 and 70, 18 and 80 and 19 and 90 sometimes, but they are disambiguated by the places of stresses.

Larger numerals are listed below, Note that Koulesch uses a long scale rather than the short scale as US English:
- million - yberdausent
- short-scale trillion/long-scale billion(10^12) - zweifachnis
- short-scale quintillion/long-scale trillion(10^18) - dreyfachnis
- short-scale septillion/long-scale quadrillion(10^24) - fierfachnis
- short-scale nonillion/long-scale quintillion(10^30) - fynffachnis

As shown above, "n-fachnis" means "(1,000,000)^n" in long scales, and all these numerals can be declined as nouns, and like hundert and dausent, when they are declined as nouns, they are always delined as strong neuter nouns.

Ordinal numbers are formed by "numeral + -te", and for 20 and larger numerals, it is "numeral + -(e)ste", when used with Hindu-Arabic numerals, they are witten as "(numeral)te" or "(numeral)st(e)". For example:

- 5th - fynfte(5te in Hindu-Arabic numerals)
- 9th - neynte(9te in Hindu-Arabic numerals)
- 15th - fynfzehnte(15te in Hindu-Arabic numerals)
- 20th - zweinzigste(20st in Hindu-Arabic numerals)
- 36th - dreyunddraiszigste(36st in Hindu-Arabic numerals)
- 100th - hundertste(100st in Hindu-Arabic numerals)

The forms of 1st, 2nd and 3rd are irregualar:

- 1st - erste(1st in Hindu-Arabic numerals)
- 2nd - ander(2r, 2er, 2re or 2te in Hindu-Arabic numerals)(the regular form zweite also exists)
- 3rd - dritte(3te in Hindu-Arabic numerals)(the regular form draite or dreyte also exists)

The suffixes for ordinal numbers can also be used to indicate fractions, for example:
- 2/3 - zwei dritte
- 1/5 - ein fynfte
- 3/10 - drey zehnte
- 13/30 - drey zehn dreiszigste

and one usually uses "halb" for 1/2
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by Shemtov » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 22:43

I love the idea of a HG Conlang, my Momčalsumai is partially inspired by HG. Also, if possible, I want to focus on Judeo-languages, and given the "Publish or Die" thing in academia, my Jewishness, the fact I am a native of Southeast PA, I might write A Comparative Study of the Four Principle Varieties of Hochdeutsch: Standard German, Swiss German, Yiddish, and Pennsylvania German.
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Sat 04 Aug 2018, 10:26

Shemtov wrote:
Fri 03 Aug 2018, 22:43
I love the idea of a HG Conlang, my Momčalsumai is partially inspired by HG. Also, if possible, I want to focus on Judeo-languages, and given the "Publish or Die" thing in academia, my Jewishness, the fact I am a native of Southeast PA, I might write A Comparative Study of the Four Principle Varieties of Hochdeutsch: Standard German, Swiss German, Yiddish, and Pennsylvania German.
nice, thanks (: btw, Yiddish is a good inspiration for conlangs(be it Germanic or not, a priori or not) spoken by people with extensive culture contacts with other ethnic groups.

So you want to join the academics of linguists?
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by Shemtov » Mon 06 Aug 2018, 05:21

k1234567890y wrote:
Sun 20 Nov 2016, 20:13
Spoiler:
From Old High German to Middle High German:


- C > C[-voice] / _#(final devoicing)
Are you sure about that? Yiddish evolved from MHG and somehow (despite all [IIRC} of the languages it later came in contact with having the change, maybe because Ashkenazi Reading Hebrew resisted the change and in the early stages the Hebrew Words were like code-switching) it does not have word-final devoicing (At least YIVO/Standard Yiddish and SE Yiddish, which are basically the only forms to survive the Holocaust- though the Chabad-Lubavitch Chassidim speak Central Yiddish, though with strong influence from the former- which was based on NE Yiddish, and their dialect also shows no WF Devoicing.)
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Mon 06 Aug 2018, 06:08

Shemtov wrote:
Mon 06 Aug 2018, 05:21
k1234567890y wrote:
Sun 20 Nov 2016, 20:13
Spoiler:
From Old High German to Middle High German:


- C > C[-voice] / _#(final devoicing)
Are you sure about that? Yiddish evolved from MHG and somehow (despite all [IIRC} of the languages it later came in contact with having the change, maybe because Ashkenazi Reading Hebrew resisted the change and in the early stages the Hebrew Words were like code-switching) it does not have word-final devoicing (At least YIVO/Standard Yiddish and SE Yiddish, which are basically the only forms to survive the Holocaust- though the Chabad-Lubavitch Chassidim speak Central Yiddish, though with strong influence from the former- which was based on NE Yiddish, and their dialect also shows no WF Devoicing.)
what I have gotten is that it occurs in MHG...but MHG had dialects, different dialects may have different developments in respect of phonological featuers.
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Wed 08 Aug 2018, 16:59

Relative Clauses and Noun Clauses

Relative clauses are formed with relative pronouns, which is similar to most European languages but dissimilar to most non-European languages(most non-European languages have invariant relativisers instead of relative pronouns that agree with the gender and number of the head noun and have case markers showing the role of the head noun in the relative clause). The relative pronouns are basically identical to the definite articles.

Below are examples of relative pronouns:

Singular:

Masculine:

- Nominative: der
- Genitive: des
- Dative: dem(e)
- Accusative: den

Feminine:

- Nominative: dey
- Genitive: der
- Dative: der
- Accusative: die

Neuter:

- Nominative/Accusative: dasz/das
- Genitive: des
- Dative: dem(e)
- Instrumental: dey

Plural:

- Nominative/Accusative: dey/die
- Genitive: der
- Dative: den

The relative clause, like most other subordinating clauses, follows a SOV word order. For example:

1.
Der mann, der dasz mædel gefunden haat, ist sain fater
/dɛr man dɛr das mɛ:dəl kfʊndən hɑ:t ɪʃ saɪn fɑ:tər/
The man, who found the girl, is her father.

2.
Dasz mædel, dasz der mann gefunden haat, ist jung
/das mɛ:dəl das dɛr man kfʊndən hɑ:t ɪʃ jʊŋ/
The girl, whom the man found, is young.

When the head noun is an adpositional phrase in the relative clause, the preposition always precedes the relative pronoun. For example:

Der strom, in deme sie sich waschent, ist smutzig
/dɛr ʃtɾo:m ɪn dɛmə si: six ʋaʃʃənt ɪʃ ʃmʊt͡sɪk/
The river, in which they take a bath, is dirty.

Noun clauses start with the complementizer dasz, and the noun clause follows a SOV word order like other subordinating clauses. For example:

ich finde, dasz er ein guoter mann ist
/ɪx fɪndə das ɛr e:n gu:tər man ɪʃ/
I think he is a good man.
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Re: Koulesch: High German dialect with an army and navy

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 19 Aug 2018, 15:08

Contractions between definite articles and prepositions

As Standard German, Koulesch prepositions and definite articles may fuse together, forming contractions.

Below are some common contractions between definite articles and prepositions:

- zuo/ze + dem(e) = zem(me)
- zuo/ze + der = zer
- an + dem(e) = am(me)
- in + dem(e) = im(me)
- von + dem(e) = vom(me)
- auf + dem(e) = aufem/aufme
- auf + den = aufen
- fyr + dasz = fyrsz

Expressions equivalent to English "too ADJ to V"

To expresses the meaning "too ADJ to V", one uses "zuo ADJ ze V", with the verb being in the -en infinitive form and in the dative case. The -en infinitive form of a verb is always in the neuter gender when used as a noun.

For example:

- Der stein ist zuo swer zeme heben
- pronounciation(IPA): /dɛr ʃte:n ɪʃ t͡su: ʃʋe:r zəm he:bən/
- English translation: the stone is too heavy to lift.

Expressions equivalent to English "so ADJ that V"

To expresses the meaning "so ADJ that V", one uses "so ADJ dasz V". For example:

- Der stein ist so swer, dasz wir esz nicht heben kunden
- pronounciation(IPA): /dɛr ʃte:n ɪʃ so: ʃʋe:r das ʋɪr ɛs nɪxt he:bən kʊndə/(note: Koulesch does not have the distinction between ich-laut and ach-laut, and ach-laut is always used regardless of the preceding vowel)
- English translation: The stone is so heavy that we couldn't lift it.
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