Batħaso - The Orkish language

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Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 13:27

This is one of the two languages I've been creating for a friend of mine for his book. The book itself is at a standstill, but the both languages have evolved quickly.

Batħaso is the languages the Orks speak. Although it has always been a little in the shade of its big brother Paatherye (the Elfish language), this is a bit of a pity because it is still interesting to know.

Quick facts:

1. Broad consonant inventory, featuring diverse fricatives, pharyngealized consonants and a series of affricates
2. Average vowel inventory /a ɛ i ɔ u/ with front-back vowel harmony
3. Agglutinative morphology for nouns, including case, number, possession and relationship of speaker to noun
4. Isolating morpophology vor verbs, including aspect and mood particles (no tense)
5. VSO word order
6. Ergative-Absolutive alignment

and much else

I will describe the language as thoroughly as possible in the next chapters.
Last edited by Iyionaku on Sun 15 Jan 2017, 14:18, edited 1 time in total.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Frislander » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 13:42

Five vowels isn't "very small", it's about average, even if you have front-back harmony. Other than that, can't wait!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 14:46

Frislander wrote:Five vowels isn't "very small", it's about average, even if you have front-back harmony. Other than that, can't wait!
Yeah, of course, thank you. It's edited.

1. Phonology

Consonants

Batħaso features the following consonants (romanisation as follows):

/p t k b d g/ <p t k b d g>
/pʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph th kh>
/pˤ tˤ kˤ/ <pħ tħ kħ>
/t͡s ͡dz ͡tʂ ͡dʐ ͡kx ͡gɣ/ <ts dz tsh dzh kx gr>
/t͡sˤ ͡dzˤ/ <tsħ dzħ>
/s z ʂ ʐ x ɾ r̟~͡rʒ h ʕ/ <s z sh zh x r ř h ħ>
/m n/ <m n>
/j l/ <j l>

All consonants can be geminated, but this appears vary rarely, apart form <mm nn>. The sonorants /ɾ r̟ l/ can be syllabic, as well as the affricate /gɣ/.

/r̟/ is a raised alveolar fricative-trilll as found in the Czech language.

Vowels

Orkish's vowel system consists of five vowel phonemes: /a ɛ i ɔ u/. Those vowels are split into a front-back vowel harmony, where /a/ is a neutral vowel that can occur with both series

"Light vowels": /a ɛ i/
"Dark vowels": /ɑ ɔ u/

Traditional Orkish phonology distinguishes /a/ and /ɑ/ as separate phonemes, but this is not the case, there are no minimal pairs, distinguished only by [a] and [ɑ]. In fact, [a] appears in "light words", [ɑ] in "neutral words" (e.g. words only containing /a/ and syllabic consonants) and "dark words".

Examples: maltshin [ˈmal͡tʂin] - healer; but: gratst [͡gɣɑt͡st] (to eat), batħaso [ˈbɑtˤɑsɔ] (Orkish)

The vowels /ɔ/ and /u/ appear as [ʌ] and [ɯ], respectively, after stops and pharyngealized stops.
See: ozkpult (dumb, mentally resticted): /ɔzkpult/ [ɔzkpɯlt]
Additionally, as mentioned before /ɾ r̟ l/ can be syllabic. They appear as [r̩ ͡rʒ̩ ə] then. Examples include: křnt /kr̟nt/ [k͡rʒ̩nt] - fire, glmit /glmit/ [ˈgəmit] - air.

Like in many agglutinative languages, the vowel harmony triggers the occurence of affixes that also follow the vowel harmony. In loan words that sometimes don't follow vowel harmony, the last vowel decides. Example: helikopter [hɛlikʌptɛɾ] - helikopterkti [hɛlikʌptɛɾkti] (not: *helikopterktu).

The only word in the core vocabulary that doesn't follow the vowel harmony is gisħult [ˈgisʕult] - winter. In all other cases, even in compounds, the vowels change, most likely from dark/light to neutral /a/.

If a word only contains /a/ and syllabic consonants, the vowel harmony is lexical and has to be learned by heart. Examples: xadsh [xɑ͡dʂ] - cat is a "light word", but palzh [pɑlʐ] - fish is a "dark word".

Two words are irregular inasmuch as they can appear with light and dark vowel harmony: tnazh [tnɑʐ] - night and tax [tɑx] - water. Compounds with those two roots often fix their harmony, see: taxden [taxdɛn] - wet, but: taxdon [tɑxdʌn] - watery (although both formed with the same derivational suffix). Even for patax [pɑˈtɑx]- to float, although still only containing neutral vowels, the word is fixed as "dark word".

Hm, I feel this has gone a little too elaborate for the first phonology section. Next is syllable structure and stress.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 14:58

looks nice (: how do they form relative clauses, definiteness, etc. when they speak the language? also, adjectives precede or follow nouns or follow the rules of relative clauses? how about demonstratives, numerals, adverbs, negations? do they use prepositions or postpositions or both or they don't have adpositions at all?
Frislander wrote:Five vowels isn't "very small", it's about average, even if you have front-back harmony. Other than that, can't wait!
yes...many conlangers have a bias towards a system with 7 or more vowels, however, a vowel inventory with 7 or more vowels is counted as a large inventory; while a system with 5 or 6 vowels is counted as average.

Such a bias might have something to do with the fact that most conlangers are from areas that speak an European language as the main language and they might see a system with 7 vowles(e.g. Italian) as an average system.
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Anwelda » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 16:00

Iyionaku wrote:6. Ergative-Absolutive alignment.
Did you draw your inspiration from Tolkien's Black Speech (I think this language has some sort of ergative aspect, but I'm not sure)? Or did you choose this feature for another reason?
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 18:13

k1234567890y wrote:looks nice (: how do they form relative clauses, definiteness, etc. when they speak the language? also, adjectives precede or follow nouns or follow the rules of relative clauses? how about demonstratives, numerals, adverbs, negations? do they use prepositions or postpositions or both or they don't have adpositions at all?
Thank you! Relative clauses are not really marked, a relative clause might just follow the noun it refers to, often preceded by a new aspect particle. Definiteness is not marked at all, most adjectives precede the noun, but there are a few exceptions that follow the noun instead: grotsh (every), baxti (some), pħallř (big), ikxi (small), nash (beautiful), ktront (orignal, archaic), shu (many).
There is a three-way demonstration marked with a particle after the noun: jat (near the speaker), jot (near the listener, but not near the speaker) and jorat (neither near the speaker nor the listener). Numerals are partially base-8 because my friend's Orks only have four fingers at each hand, I'll come to that later. Adverbs can be regularly formed out of adjectives, and negation is marked with a suffix or a special aspect. Bath'aso uses prepositions only.
Anwelda wrote: Did you draw your inspiration from Tolkien's Black Speech (I think this language has some sort of ergative aspect, but I'm not sure)? Or did you choose this feature for another reason?
No, I wanted to create an Ergative-Absolutive language anyway. But my friend told me to create a language for somewhat "stereotypical" orcs, so eventually I had to adapt a little to Black Speech phonologically.

A note to orthography: There is no writing system for Orkish atm, so the romanization is used exclusively. If Unicode is not available, you can replace <ħ> and <ř> with <'> and <rzh>, respectively.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by elemtilas » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 18:38

k1234567890y wrote:
Frislander wrote:Five vowels isn't "very small", it's about average, even if you have front-back harmony. Other than that, can't wait!
yes...many conlangers have a bias towards a system with 7 or more vowels, however, a vowel inventory with 7 or more vowels is counted as a large inventory; while a system with 5 or 6 vowels is counted as average.

Such a bias might have something to do with the fact that most conlangers are from areas that speak an European language as the main language and they might see a system with 7 vowles(e.g. Italian) as an average system.
[:)] According to the Font of All Knowledge, English has somewhere between about 15 and 20 vowels --- given that system, a 5 vowel system còuld be seen as "very small" indeed!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by elemtilas » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 18:41

Iyionaku wrote: 1. Broad consonant inventory, featuring diverse fricatives, pharyngealized consonants and a series of affricates
2. Average vowel inventory /a ɛ i ɔ u/ with front-back vowel harmony
3. Agglutinative morphology for nouns, including case, number, possession and relationship of speaker to noun
4. Isolating morphology for verbs, including aspect and mood particles (no tense)
5. VSO word order
6. Ergative-Absolutive alignment
Well, you had me at VSO and agglutination. I certainly look forward to seeing more!

Do you also plan on a thread for Paatherye?
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 18:44

Syllable structure

Orkish syllables can be really elaborate. The maximum syllable is (C)(C)(F)V(C)(F)(C), where C is any consonant and F is any fricative. However, there are some possible anlauts that occur more often, while others don't seem to exist at all. Usual triconsonantal anlauts include tbr-, krħ-, bsħ-, ktr-, shtħr- or kpr-. A maximum syllable appears with krħedst [krʕɛdst] - carriage.

Stress

Stress is generally on the first syllable of the root. That means, one of the rare prefixes like pa- (verbalizer) or me-/mo- (adverbializer) is not stressed, but even an inflected word with several affixes like ozkpultxumtzupttu (you idiots I disrespect!), it is still stressed on the first syllable: [ˈɔz͡kpʌltxum͡tz̥uptːɯ]
elemtilas wrote:Well, you had me at VSO and agglutination. I certainly look forward to seeing more!

Do you also plan on a thread for Paatherye?
Thank you! Yes there will be a thread for Paatherye sooner or later, but I somewhat knew that I'd continue neglecting Bath'aso if I'd just skip it. It was started about half a year before Paatherye, so it'll have to come first [:)]
Last edited by Iyionaku on Sat 28 Jan 2017, 13:25, edited 1 time in total.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by elemtilas » Sun 15 Jan 2017, 18:52

Iyionaku wrote:
Do you also plan on a thread for Paatherye?
Yes there will be a thread for Paatherye sooner or later, but I somewhat knew that I'd continue neglecting Bath'aso if I'd just skip it. It was started about half a year before Paatherye, so it'll have to come first [:)]
Great! Ya, Orkish languages are very cool, especially if the Orks themselves are of interest, culturally and historically speaking. They've often been too overlooked as People of Interest. (Elves have, too, but for other reasons.) Anyway, I like what I'm seeing thus far!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Mon 16 Jan 2017, 00:32

2. Morphology

Nouns

Nouns usually consist of a root and several suffixes. They are inflected after number, case and relation of the speaker to it, but not after gender or definiteness.

Number

There are two grammatical numbers: Singular and Plural. While the singular is unmarked, the plural takes the suffixes -ti/-kti or -tu/-ktu, depending on vowel harmony and the root coda. -ti/-tu are only used if the root ends on a stop.

Examples:

trezhd (human) -> trezhd-ti (humans)
bsħogrt (house) -> bsħogrt-tu (houses)
řetz (horse) -> řetz-kti (horses)
tħomz (evening) -> tħomz-ktu (evenings)

Many other suffixes are formed this way, and generally you can tell that a suffix generally features either e/o or i/u.

Case

It is widely disputed how many cases Batħaso has. Classical Orkish grammar states nine cases (and that's what students of Orkish have to learn), but only five of them are definitely grammatical. Those are as follows:

Absolutive case: marks the subject of an intransitive sentence and the object of a transitive one, unmarked
Ergative case: marks the subject of a transtitive sentence, marked with -z/-ez/-oz
Indirective case: this one is similar to a Dative case, but also has some other functions, e.g. marking of reciprocial participants, marking of the subject of passive sentences etc. Marked with -zh/-tizh/-tuzh
Genitive case: marks a possessor, marked with -e/-o/-te/-to
Instrumental case: marks an instrument by or with what the subject achieves an action. Marked with -izt/-uzt/-tizt/-tuzt

In Plural, the case affix follows the number affix. (Originally, this was the other way round, but I found out that it was some kind of language universal that number always precedes case, so I had to change it.)

Example noun: tbro (clock)

ABS: tbro, tbro-ktu
ERG: tbro-z, tbro-ktu-z
INDR: tbro-zh, tbro-ktu-zh
GEN: tbro-to, tbro-ktu-to
INST: tbro-tuzt, tbro-ktu-tuzt

Note: I only use hyphens to indicate morpheme borders, in everyday writing they are not present.

There are two other cases that are often debated, an Initiative case and a Completive case. They are used to indicated the beginning and end of an action and corresponds roughly with English "before" and "after". Example with the noun xrats (party)

xrats-ek (before the party) [initiative case is formed with -ek/-ok/-tek/-tok]
xrats-ux (after the party) [completive case is formed with -ix/-ux/-tnix/-tnux]

Modern scholars argue that those two had originally been the only two postpositions of Batħaso and underwent vowel harmony due to analogization. However, most descriptivists argue that if something behaves exactly like case, it should be called this way too.

The last two classical cases are the so called durative case and temporal case. In prescripist Orkish grammar, those two should mark the on-going of an action, where the temporal case more refers to a certain point of action. However, the usage of those "cases" has changed drastically.

The durative case (marked with -esht/-osht/-tesht/-tosht) nowadays functions as a subject complement:

Bat karshark-osht
I am a teacher. (Literally: Me, while being a teacher.)

The temporal case (marked with -tzhipt/-tzhupt) has become a vocative form that sounds belittling and somewhat odd to most speakers, away from speaking to children. But using or not, it is definitely not a case anymore, but a relational affix.

Ogrok-tzhupt!
Oh my dear Ogrok!

The main argument why there are still all grouped as cases, despite their strongly divergent functions, is that they contradict each other as there cannot be more than one case affix per noun (although even that is untrue due to possessive suffixaufnahme). An overview about the cases in the classical order with the noun ħok (people) and in singular and plural::

1. Ergative: ħokz, ħoktuz
2. Absolutive: ħok, ħoktu
3. Indirective: ħokuzh, ħoktuzh
4. Genitive: ħoko, ħoktuto
5. Instrumental: ħoktuzt, ħoktutuzt
6. Durative: ħokosht, ħoktutosht
7. Initiative: ħokok, ħoktutok
8. Terminative: ħokux, ħoktutnux
9. Temporal: ħoktzhupt, ħoktutzhupt

In the next post, I will explain the system of relational affixes. Questions are welcome, as always. [:)]
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Mon 16 Jan 2017, 13:44

Relational affixes

Relational affixes are put after the noun stem before plural and case suffixes. This is one of the hardest parts of Orkish grammar, because most relational affixes don't convey a syntactical meaning, they are just a statement of opinion of the speaker towards the called object. For descriptions, those "personal" affixes are often way more important than "neutral" adjectives. The exact meaning is mostly only vaguely translatable, and although you can speak Batħaso without using the affixes, an Ork might find you impolite and/or dumb. The other way round, Orks really struggle to speak human language or Paatherye without the affixes, so it is highly common for Orks to use the affixes in a foreign language as well:

"Have that humanphotz hijack me wifehambz! I go to kill humanmard!"
(That human hijacked my wife? I will kill him!)

Other orks, aware how that sounds to humans, try to avoid personal language altogether as they mistakenly assume that humans and elves don't give much of one's personal opinion (as their languages don't support it inherently)

That is one of the main reasons why humans and elves consider Orks to be blunt, dumb, aggressive and careless, although this is actually not the case.

Some usual affixes

In the example above by the angry husband there were three affixes:

-phetz/photz: Shows great disguise
-hambz: adoring, loving
-ard/mard: shows revulsion, disgust, loathing

Many affixes can vary in their meaning greatly. So, the suffix -zet/-zot generally refers that you have enough of something, but can also be meant to talk glorifyingly about a person you have known long ago. -naz and -terk/tork both show respect, but -naz is usually used for persons you cannot stand but still have to respect them somehow, while -terk/-tork is something you would only call your friends with. There are about 200 affixes of this kind, and many are very specific. As Orkish pronoun system is very restricted (see soon), the affixes can also distinguish similar persons in a discussion.

Khek posh moshzutork/moshzuhul/moshzuptosh/moshzukunn/moshzupħur.
All possibilites mean "She came", but the woman that is described can be very different:

Moshzutork: The woman who came is a good friend of mine
Moshzuhul: I like the woman, not mandatorily in a sexual way, but this is not excluded
Moshzuptosh: The woman I plan to get it on with, or am in love with and plan on a relationship
Moshzukunn: The woman I'm not feeling for, but still is somewhat cute
Moshzupħur: The woman that is not pretty, but still interesting

The context of this (it's from a translated text of mine) were two friends talking about one having a date (except for the first sentence, where a different woman was described). In another context, the affixes could be meant totally different. As many humans and elves use the wrong affixes in wrong contextes, Orks can get offended easily:

Shels zar paħrontokz dinnekinnbe!
You did not just call my mother a good catch, did you?

(The mother made some cakes for the Ork and a human, and the human wanted to express that the mother is cute in the way she cares for the both. The affix -kinn/-kunn cannot be used in this context. Correct would have been the suffix -hel/hul or even -ambz/-hambz).
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Clio » Mon 16 Jan 2017, 20:07

Iyionaku wrote:The main argument why there are still all grouped as cases, despite their strongly divergent functions, is that they contradict each other as there cannot be more than one case affix per noun (although even that is untrue due to possessive suffixaufnahme).
Just to be clear on what you're saying here: All nine suffixes are grouped as case suffixes because no two can co-occur? And another reason for considering them cases is that the suffixes harmonize with the root, right? So these are the morphological arguments for grouping all nine as cases. I take it most of the arguments against are syntactic (e.g., for the temporal case) or historical (for--as far as I can tell--the other three controversial cases)?
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Mon 16 Jan 2017, 20:16

Clio wrote: Just to be clear on what you're saying here: All nine suffixes are grouped as case suffixes because no two can co-occur? And another reason for considering them cases is that the suffixes harmonize with the root, right? So these are the morphological arguments for grouping all nine as cases. I take it most of the arguments against are syntactic (e.g., for the temporal case) or historical (for--as far as I can tell--the other three controversial cases)?
You concluded it very well. To be honest, I am still uncertain how to deal with it. In various topics and occurences, I switched between speaking of 5 cases, 7 cases or 9 cases (the latter mainly to impress people not so experienced with linguistics, putting me a little to hubris shame)
I think it is most likely to speak correctly of 7 cases (although initiative and completive are much more seldom than the first five cases), group the temporal case to relational affixes and call the durative case "Subject complement".
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Tue 17 Jan 2017, 22:49

Nouns set, let's get to

Adjectives

Adjectives agree with their noun in case and number, but not in relational affixes, because the adjective can carry personal meaning on its own.

Medtħas pħor phashktizh groshttuzh tħennzktizh.
Medtħas pħor phash-kti-zh grosht-tu-zh tħennz-kti-zh
3PL in light-PL-INDR hallow-PL-INDR forest-PL-INDR
They are in light, hallow forests.

In this example it can be seen that the adjectives not only follow the noun, but also carry the same affixes, the plural affix -kti/-ktu/-ti/-tu and the indirective case suffix -zh. The relational affixes, however, can change:

Medtħas pħor phashelktizh groshtxumktuzh tħennzktizh.
Medtħas pħor phash-el-kti-zh grosht-xum-ktu-zh tħennz-kti-zh

The speaker uses the suffixes -el (marking liking, adoring) and -xum (disrespecting). Therefore, one can say that he seems to like the light, but disobeys religion and therefore doesn't believe in "hallowness" or such.

Syntax

Nearly all adjectives precede the noun. However, there are a few exceptions that instead follow the noun:

- measure adjectives like grotsh (every), baxti (some), shu (many) and numerals as well
- all colour words like ptrun (white), sholt (light red), xint (bluegreen)
- pħallřo (big)
- ikxi (small)
- nash (beautiful)
- ktront (original, archaic)

Comparation

Orkish forms the comparative with the particle tshun (more), preceding the adjective.

Kxush tshun pħallřotork mas bat.
2SG.ABS COMP big-respecting.ABS as 1SG.ABS
You are taller than me.

There is no "real" superlative, but it can be formed with the relational affix -ansh/-dansh.

Trazhdmoshzu tshun pħallřo mas grotsh batħas, medzh korktosht pħallřodansh durb.
[ˈtrɑʐdmɔʂzu ͡tʂun ˈpˤɑlːr̟ɔ mɑs ˈ͡gɣɔ͡tʂ ˈbɑtˤɑs, mɛ͡dʐ ˈkʌɾktʌʂt ˈpˤɑlːr̟ɔdɑnʂ dɯɾb]
human-woman COMP big.ABS than all 1PL.ABS, 3SG.ABS person-DUR big_over_all.ABS here
The human woman is taller than all of us, she is the tallest person here.

Look that pħallřodansh follows its noun, instead of the adjectives in the first example. Furthermore, look how the durative case (-tosht) is used to describe a subject complement (didn't state an example in the nouns section so it's quite well here).


Summary: Adjectives follow their noun in case and number, but not in relation. They mostly precede the noun they agree with but there are exceptions. Comparation is marked with a particle tshun and a maximum is marked with the relational affix -ansh/-dansh.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
Iyionaku
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Thu 19 Jan 2017, 10:41

Numerals

Orks only have four fingers at each hand, and four toes at each foot. Therefore, the numeral system differs from Indo-European systems as it is partially base-8, partially base-16.

Cardinal numbers

The cardinal numbers from 0-8 are as follows:

0 lutz [lutz̥]
1 bax [bɑx]
2 ptruzht [͡ptruʐt]
3 nosh [nɔʂ]
4 kratsh [͡krɑ͡tʂ]
5 henzh [hɛnʐ]
6 knazt [knɑzt]
7 ħetp [ʕɛtp]
8 kpron [͡kprɔn]

The numerals from 9-15 are written A,B,D,E,G,H,J in Orkish, after the first letters of the Latin Orkish alphabet without "Ħ" and "I" (most likely for not to be confused with "H" and "1", respectively). "16" is "10" in Orkish - the number base is therefore considered hexadecimal. The decimal number is written in []-brackets behind.
Spoiler:
A kpronbax [͡kprɔnbɑx] [9]
B kpronptruzht [ˈ͡kprɔɱptruʐt] [10]
D kpronnosh [ˈ͡kprɔnːɔʂ] [11]
E kpronkxatsh [͡ˈkprɔn͡kxa͡tʂ] [12]
G kpronhanzh [ˈ͡kprɔnhɑnʐ] [13] ! Exception: Due to vowel harmony, /e/ changes to /a/. Same for I
H kpronknazt [ˈ͡kprɔŋknɑzt] [14]
J kpronħatp [ˈ͡kprɔnʕatp] [15]
10 kxatshtu [ˈ͡kxɑ͡tʂtɯ] [16]
The further bases are:

20 ptruzhtkxatsht [ˈ͡ptruʐt͡kxɑ͡tʂt] [32]
30 noshkxatsht [ˈnɔʂ͡kxɑ͡tʂt] [48]
40 kxattasht [ˈ͡kxɑtːɑʂt] [64]
80 kpronkxatsht [ˈ͡kprɔŋ͡kxa͡tʂt] [128]
J0 kpronptruztkxatsht [ˈ͡kprɔɱptruʐt͡kxɑ͡tʂt] [160]

100 anshu [ˈɑnʂu] [256]
1000 ushħok [ˈuʂʕɔk] [4,096]
8000 ushħoktu [ˈuʂʕɔktɯ] [32,768]
10000 ugrodoz [ˈu͡gɣɔdʌz] [65,536]
80000 ugrodozktu [ˈu͡gɣɔdʌzktɯ] [524,288]

There are no higher bases, so the highest possible number is JJJJJ [1,048,575]. For higher numbers, Elfish or human numerals are used.

1,000,000,000: miljarde [ˈmiljaɾdɛ]

Ordinal numbers

Are formed regularly by adding the relational suffix -ansh/-dansh to them. E.g. knaztdansh - the 6th
Last edited by Iyionaku on Tue 22 Aug 2017, 07:55, edited 1 time in total.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Imralu
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Imralu » Sat 21 Jan 2017, 09:30

I'm curious about the bilabial consonants because most depictions of orks have projecting lower canine teeth that emerge between the lips. I would have expected bilabial fricatives and approximants but not full-closure stops ... or do your orcs lips fit so snugly around the teeth that there is a full closure? Or do they lack projecting teeth?
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
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Iyionaku
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Sat 21 Jan 2017, 17:43

As far as I know, they do lack front teeth and have true lips, albeit I'm not sure about that. I'll ask my friend about it.

Verbs

Unlike nouns, verb do not show inflection at all. Every verb has a base form that it always retains. A few example verbs:

kunns - to see
gratst - to eat
ktun - to sleep

However, verbs can be specified after aspect and mood (no tense) by use of particles (some sources also talk about auxillary verbs). Those particles always precede the verb and so are mostly at the beginning of a clause.

Aspects

There are eight aspects in Orkish:

Imperfective, unmarked
Perfective, marked with the particle khek
Habituative, marked with shtu
Continuative, marked with zhuts
Ingressive, marked with heks
Resultative, marked with shext
Eventuative, marked with ktosh
Negative, marked with zar

Most of the aspects do what they are normally supposed to in traditional linguistics. The continuative is similar to a progressive aspect as it shows that an action just takes place (in opposition to ingressive and resultative). The Eventuative is often misused as a future tense by humans and Elves, but in fact it only marks actions that might or might not occur. That is often a future action, but not always: I am taking the train at 3 o'clock will not trigger the eventuative aspect in Orkish, but a sentence like She might already have done it does.

Examples in sentences behind the spoiler.
Spoiler:
Gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok eats.

Khek gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok ate. / Ogrok has eaten. / Ogrok will have eaten.

Shtu gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok eats/ate regularly.

Zhuts gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok is eating. / Ogrok was eating. / Ogrok will be eating.

Heks gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok started to eat. Ogrok starts to eat. Ogrok has been eating.

Shext gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok stopped to eat. Ogrok stops to eat. Ogrok finishes his meal.

Ktosh gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok will eat. Maybe Ogrok eats. Maybe Ogrok ate.

Zar gratst Ogrok.
Ogrok doesn't eat. Ogrok didn't eat. Ogrok won't eat.
Next post: Moods
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
Iyionaku
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Sun 22 Jan 2017, 13:21

Moods

There are four special moods expressed by particles/auxillary verbs in Orkish:

Imperative/Adhortative: marked with E (always capitalized)
Conditional: marked with homs
Potential: marked with shels
Necessitative: marked with graz

Examples behind the spoiler:
Spoiler:
Heksampabz medtħas.
We attack them.

E heksampabz medtħas!
Let's attack them!

Homs heksampabz medtħas.
We will attack them (if something happens).

Shels heksampabz medtħas.
We could attack them (we have the weapons for it). Or: Do we attack them?

Graz heksampabz medtħas!
We have to attack them!
The potentialis shels is also used to form pseudo questions (see later).
Unlike aspects, mood particles can be combined with each other to create very specific meanings that are hard to translate. Theoretically there are 64 combinations, but not all are used. A few examples include:

shels homs (Irrealis, Conditional past)
homs shels (Direct speech)
E shels (polite appeal, also for offers)
E homs ("should", weak deontic modality)
Homs shels graz (Doubious direct speech, "He must have said that")
Graz shels homs (Optative, strong desire)
E homs graz shels (Rarely used to emphasize the absolute necessity, "We can, We must, and this is the right moment for it")

Combined with aspect particles, the mood particles can also be used to determine certain temporal stages:

Shels zhuts (still)
Shels ktosh (not yet)
E shels shext (not yet finished)
Graz E heks (suddenly)
Shels homs zar (not anymore)
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
Iyionaku
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Re: Batħaso - The Orkish language

Post by Iyionaku » Wed 25 Jan 2017, 19:11

Pronouns

Personal prononus

Orkish distinguished personal pronouns after person (1,2,3) and number (singular, plural, the plural pronouns are derived from the singular ones). The basic pronouns are:

1SG: bat [bɑt]
2SG: kxush [͡kxuʂ]
3SG: medzh [mɛ͡dʐ]

The plural pronouns are derived by use of the plural suffix -tħas (used exclusively for pronouns), and sometimes assimilation processes occur.

1PL batħas [ˈbɑtˤɑs]
2PL kxutħas [ˈ͡kxutˤɑs]
3PL medtħas [ˈmɛdtˤas]

Case

The personal pronouns take the same case affixes as nouns and adjectives. Curiously, while bat is a light word, batħas is a dark word. There are only two exceptions: The ergative form of bat is bats (not *batez), the instrumental of kxush is kxusht (not *kxushuzht).

Full table of pronouns:
Image

Attentive readers may have noticed that the 1PL.GEN form is Batħaso, what is usually viewed as the language's name. But this is a peculiar feature with what I will deal later on.
Additionally, the pronouns have special clitic forms in Absolutive, Ergative and Genitive case that are appended to the main verb. Those clitics concur the vowel harmony (that makes them actual affixes, tho). However, if the antecendent ends on a vowel or a sonorant, there are some reduced forms. The affixes are:

bat/bats/bate -> -b/-bz/-be ; -eb/-ebz/-eb
batħas/batħaz/batħa -> -b/-bz/-ba ; -ab/-abz/-ab
kxush/kxushoz/kxushto-> -k/-kz/-ko ; -ok/-okz/-ok
kxutħas/kxutħaz/kxutħa -> -x/-ks/-ka bzw. -ax/-akz/-xa
medzh/medzhez/medzhe -> -m/-mz/-me bzw. -em/-emz/-em
medtħas/medtħaz/medtħa -> -m/-mz/-ma bzw. -am/-amz/-am

As you can see, sometimes the differentiation between Absolutive and Genitive vanishes, as well as the differentiation between 3SG and 3PL.

I will demonstrate the affixes with the verb ktemt (to answer) and the noun trdedzh (question).

Image

Reflexive pronouns

There is a distinct 3SG and 3PL reflexive pronoun: sedzh (Plural: sedtħas). The similarity to Indo-European reflexives is quite obvious, it seems to be a loan from the Old Human Language. However, it is only used in very high contexts, normally the antipassive is used (see: Syntax).

Demonstrative pronouns

Batħaso has a three way contrast in its demonstratives (that appear after the noun):
jat (close to the speaker)
jot (distant to speaker, close to listener)
jorat (not close to any of both)

When standing alone, a dummy noun has to be placed: either jakb (action), kork (person, living being) or pħok (thing). Those are easily interchangeable with little affect on meaning, so this is by no means a gender system.

Summary

Orkish personal pronouns are distinguished after person and decline after case (same affixes like on nouns) and number (a different affix is used). They have clitic forms in Absolutive, Ergative and Genitive put on verbs or nouns (undergoing vowel harmony). Reflexive pronouns are rare. Demonstration has a 3-way-contrast.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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