Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Fri 16 Jun 2017, 16:50

Zythros Jubi wrote:What's the etymology of the word for "hour"?
It's a variant of Đrã, the word for time, which comes from Proto-Chamic *dras
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Sun 18 Jun 2017, 21:19

French Loanwords
Due to the French colonization of Vietnam, a number of nativized French loanwords have entered into Ởnh·Vú. Many of them have equivalents in Vietnamese but many of them are unique to Ởnh·Vú. Here are some of the more common ones
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Sun 24 Sep 2017, 22:44

Reduplication
I though I should go more into the specifications of reduplication. Although reduplication is not a productive grammatical feature of Ởnh·Vú, it occurs in such a large number of nouns that it's hard to miss it. It's usage varies heavily between the words that undergo it but they most often fall into one of the following categories
Forms Collective Nouns
𠊛 (Ởnh)- Person; 𠊛ヌ (Ởnh·Ởnh)- People
𩵜 (Yãnh)- Fish; 𩵜ヌ (Yãnh·Yãnh)- Fish
𪀄 (Chim)- Bird; 𪀄ヌ (Chim·Chim)- Birds

Forms Diminutives
几 (Kí)- Table; 几ヌ (Kí·Kí)- Small table
庯 (Po)- Mister; 庯ヌ (Po·Po)- Title for boys under 11~12 years old
㹥 (So)- Dog; 㹥ヌ (So·So)- Doggy

Shows Slightness
𩇢 (Gio)- Green/blue; 𩇢ヌ (Gio·Gio)- Greenish/bluish
𧹦 (Mảir)- Red; 𧹦ヌ (Mảir·Mảir)- Reddish

Shows Emphasis/Intensity
㫻 (Bừ)- Often; 㫻ヌ (Bừ·Bừ)- Always
窒 (Đay)- Very/really/so; 窒ヌ (Đay·Đay)- Really really
無 (Mưo)- Nothing/no; 無ヌ (Mưo·Mưo)- You’re welcome (it's nothing)

Indicates Specification
𦙏Đã- Chest/breast/bosom; 𦙏ヌ (Đã·Đã)- Breast (female)
䱸Bứy- Crocodile (formerly meant crocodile/shark); 䱸ヌ (Bứy·Bứy)- Shark

Onomatopoeic
𧓭ヌ (Mỉt·Mỉt)- Cricket
螠ヌ (Gep·Gep)- Frog

Forms Verbs From Nouns
眜 (Mã)- Eye; 眜ヌ (Mã·Mã)- Stare at
羅懱 (La·Mót)- Fashion; 懱ヌ (Mót·Mót)- Popular/trendy/hip/chic

Forms Adverbs From Nouns/Verbs
𢇱 (Hù)- Early; 𢇱ヌ (Hù·Hù)- Every morning
日 (Nit)- Sun; 日ヌ (Nit·Nit)- All day

Differentiates Would-Be Homophones
𡥵 (Ãc)- Child; 𪀅ヌ (Ãc·Ãc)- Crow
易 (Ỳ)- Easy/simple; 異ヌ (Ỳ·Ỳ)- Different
菛Yàm- Food; 蒌ヌ (Yàm·Yàm)- Vegetable
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Mon 25 Dec 2017, 20:48, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Tue 03 Oct 2017, 04:45

Names

Given Names
There is a virtually infinite variety of given names in Ởnh·Vú. Names are given by the parents and are either one or two syllables long and are simply Ởnh·Vú words, typically ones representing either something related to the child, or a trait the parents want the child to have. For example 勇氣 (Yứonh·kĩ) meaning courage is a fairly common name for males. Given names are placed after surnames.

Middle Names
Only people with a single syllable first name have a middle name. Middle names are essentially always a Sino-pronounced single character. Although this is far from everyone, many people with middle names prefer to be called by a reduplicated version of their middle name instead of their given name. Middle names are placed after given names. Below are some common middle names:

光 Canh (♂)
公 Cunh (♂)
氏 Đé (♀)
誠 Genh (♂)
好 Háo (♀)
友 Hú (♂)
一 It (♂)
文 Mun (♂)
二 Nì (♂)
月 Nưt (♀)
小 Sớ (♀)
德 Tơc (♂)
秋 Trú (♀)
子 Tứ (♂)
仔 Tứ (♂)


Surnames
Almost all surnames are Chinese in origin. Below are some of the most common:
白 Ꞗàc
裴 Ꞗuy
范 Ꞗứm
馮 Ꞗưnh
田 Den
鄧 Dờnh
陳 Đrin
王 Hưnh
于/胡/尤 Hưo
金 Khim
江 Khunh
林 Lim
李/黎/劉/柳/留/呂/廖/盧/陸/雷/羅/欒 Lứ (the most common Ởnh·Vú surname, due to its wide variety of characters the name is not as commonly confused as it could potentially be if written in an alphabet)
武 Mứo
阮 Nứn
潘 Pứn
丁 Tenh
蔣/張 Tránh
黃/汪 Vánh
吳 Vo
楊 Yanh
余 Yu
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Thu 04 Jan 2018, 04:55, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 03 Oct 2017, 13:17

I just wanted to let you know, that I find the consistency in your style of conlanging wonderful. I would call it "lexicalist conlanging" because you put so much focus on the lexicon and the lexical exception in your grammar. It's really astonishing [:)]
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Zythros Jubi » Tue 03 Oct 2017, 16:43

Why does the reflex of "ville" refer to Paris, instead of borrowing the proper noun itself? Well, IMHO the word for "city", ville, is more suitable to serve as a nickname for Saigon.

Well, how come all of 李/黎/劉/柳/留/呂/廖/盧/陸/雷/羅 have the same pronunciation? They do not have the same tone in Middle Chinese, after all. So does the pair 蔣/張. I wonder how the Sino-Xenic pronunciation is derived from Middle Chinese.

BTW, I wonder how are loanwords from western languages are transcribed in Chu Nom, as well as proper nouns. Are most of the examples above written in the same characters as in Chu Nom?
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Frislander » Tue 03 Oct 2017, 20:16

Creyeditor wrote:I just wanted to let you know, that I find the consistency in your style of conlanging wonderful. I would call it "lexicalist conlanging" because you put so much focus on the lexicon and the lexical exception in your grammar. It's really astonishing [:)]
Could this be... lexical-functional conlanging? [B)]
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 03 Oct 2017, 20:23

Actually, I don't know. LFG is rather morpheme centric whereas All4Ɇn is more into paradigms I feel. Also the treatment of syntax is pretty different, IMHO. But I am not an expert on this.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Tue 03 Oct 2017, 21:34

Creyeditor wrote:I just wanted to let you know, that I find the consistency in your style of conlanging wonderful. I would call it "lexicalist conlanging" because you put so much focus on the lexicon and the lexical exception in your grammar. It's really astonishing [:)]
Thanks so much for the compliment! [:D] Although I'm entirely sure what you mean by your second sentence. Could you explain a little more?
Creyeditor wrote:Actually, I don't know. LFG is rather morpheme centric whereas All4Ɇn is more into paradigms I feel. Also the treatment of syntax is pretty different, IMHO. But I am not an expert on this.
Can you explain this too? Curious to hear what you think of conlanging style [:)]

Zythros Jubi wrote:Why does the reflex of "ville" refer to Paris, instead of borrowing the proper noun itself? Well, IMHO the word for "city", ville, is more suitable to serve as a nickname for Saigon.
Misinterpretation with French missionaries. Comes from confusion from something along the lines of "notre ville"
Zythros Jubi wrote:Well, how come all of 李/黎/劉/柳/留/呂/廖/盧/陸/雷/羅 have the same pronunciation? They do not have the same tone in Middle Chinese, after all
All of these were essentially rendered as variations of Lư or Lu and thus were easily confused before eventually being merged into Lứ with the various spellings being kept (and sometimes expanded on) to help avoid confusion.
Zythros Jubi wrote:I wonder how the Sino-Xenic pronunciation is derived from Middle Chinese.
There's a huge number of sound changes from both Proto-Chamic and Middle Chinese. I can share them if you'd like
Zythros Jubi wrote:BTW, I wonder how are loanwords from western languages are transcribed in Chu Nom, as well as proper nouns. Are most of the examples above written in the same characters as in Chu Nom?
Aside from (mostly French) western loanwords that have been nativized, western loanwords are borrowed from English and keep the same Latin spelling. Pronunciation of these words vary from person to person based on their knowledge of English.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Zythros Jubi » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 02:46

Well I'd like to see your Grand Master Plan.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 04:10

Spoiler:
əu -> ư
aw -> o
mu-> vu
mua ->va
ua -> ư
ia -> ey
n-> nh (final in non sino words)
bl & br-> v
pl, pr, kr kl -> s and ả tone
gl & gr-> g
b d g-> ꞗ d kh Intervocalic (may appear initially as the result of prefixes being dropped including tə mə and sometimes pə)

Voiceless initial syllable ending in glottal stop takes á tone
Voiced initial syllable ending in glottal stop takes à tone
Voiceless initial syllable ending in s/h takes ả tone
Voiced initial syllable ending in s/h takes ã tone
N followed by ə or u becomes a final n
B/Đ/Đr/G/R followed by ə or u at the end of the word drops the vowel and turns consonant voiceless (Đr becomes ch). Vowel before gets à tone

Consonant preceded and followed by the same vowel ->vowel with ã tone unless the consonant is voiceless or second vowel is followed by a final voiceless stop or s/h then > ả
əi -> ơy
M between consonants is dropped and adds á tone to vowel before it
aəi -> ưy
aia-> ưy
Long vowels give ã tone
ow -> o
ai -> ưy
ailan ->ưinh
atus ->ảch or ãch if syllable starts with voiced consonant
ŋuo->vo
mˠ-> m
jr-> gi (causes syllable to end in r if it doesn’t have final)
ɨu-> u
ʑ->gi
gɨu- giu
iuɪ- iu
ɢʷ->g
ɢʷe/ɢʷo-> quo
kwə->quo
Aspirated consonants give high tone. Aspirated and low tone give ã tone
pˠ ->b
kˠ-> g
ʈˠ-> d
ŋˠ->v
ɳ(ˠ)-> n
ʉɐ -> ư
ʉi -> ưy
bˠ- b, vowel after gets à tone
gˠ- g, vowel after gets à tone
d͡ʒˠ- đr vowel after gets à tone
ɖˠ(i) ->đr
ʔɲ -> y, vowel after gets à
ᴇu -> ơ
atri-> ách if final
iᴇu-> ơ
ᴇue and iuᴇi-> ơy
siuᴇi-> xơy
iᴇ-> e
ura -> ở
ua/uɑ/uə-> ư
uya and uja-> ứy
ɳɨʌ/ŋɨʌ -> vu
ɨʌ- u
eŋ -> ơŋ
zi-> gi
uᴇ->uy
iuᴇ-> yuy if initial, uy otherwise
ʃˠ- r
ia-> ư
ɦˠ -> dropped but gives á tone
ɡˠ-> kept but gives á tone
ʔˠ-> dropped but gives à tone
h after a voiced consonant is dropped and gives previous syllable ã tone
ey-> í after voiceless, ì after voiced except in Chinese loanwords
aŋi/ani-> ay
uŋa->uy
an-> á before a voiceless consonant
apuy-> ư
upa/uha- ủo
asey- axí
iya-> ứy
ɨ-> i if only letter in syllable
eu->eo
ayau- áo
idung-> yùnh initially
ikan-> yãnh initially
na-> n finally
ular-> vãr initially
abuy-> ũy
adu and ayu- ao
aʔu-> áo (after voiceless) and ào (after voiced)
aʔə-> ái (after voiceless) and ài (after voiced)
tey->chí
inay-> ính
uken-> úinh
ulan->lan
ulang-> lanh
tl-> tr initially
hijow-> gio
ako, aku-> ao
akuay->ứy
ȵ(ɨ)-> n
ʈɨɐ-> tra
ʈɨu-> tru
ʈˠiᴇu-> trơ
ʈˠiᴇ-> tre
t͡ɕɨo-> cho
t͡ɕʰiuɪ-> chú
t͡sɨo ʈɨo-> tro
t͡sʰɨu-> trú
ɖɨo->đro
ɕɨ->x
sl-> x
ɖɨɐ-> đra
iæ->ư
(u)ʌi- ưy
au-> ao
ɦˠ(u)->v
ɨo-> ưo
urey->ure
sˠ-> s
ɨɐ-> ư
hl-> kh
uli-> uy
ulit->uich
ɦw-> w and gives á tone
High and low tone together combine to ã
ã and à tone together combine to ả
ã and á tone together combine to á
ã and ả tone together combine to ả
á and ả tone together combine to ã
sei->xí
ji, jɨ and jiᴇ-> i if only syllable
inam and inum -> ín
udey->úy
uɛi->úy
iᴇ(i)-> e
sr> x
atə-> ái (after voiceless) and ài (after voiced)
əa -> a
ahirah -> ảir
Took this straight from my notes. Definitely pretty messy and hopefully I’ll clean it up as time goes on
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 16:55

Countries
Country names in Ởnh·Vú are divided between those directly borrowed from English and written in Latin script and those from other sources which are written in Hanzi..

From Chinese
阿拉伯聯合酋長國 (A·Lup·Bac·Hup·Lứn·Đư·Tránh·Quoc)- United Arab Emirates
澳 (Ào)- Australia
奧國 (Ào·Quoc)- Austria
埃及 (Ay·Ghíp)- Egypt
比 (Bì)- Belgium
葡萄牙 (Buo·Đao·Va)- Portugal
臺灣 (Đuy·Vàn)- Taiwan
瑞士 (Giùy·Đrứ)- Switzerland
瑞典 (Giùy·Tén)- Sweden
荷蘭 (Ha·Lan)- Netherlands/Holland
韓國 (Han·Quoc)- South Korea
希臘 (Hư·Lap)- Greece
香港 (Hưnh·Gúnh)- Hong Kong
印度 (Ìn·Đùo)- India
美 (Mí)- America/United States of America
蒙古 (Munh·Qúo)- Mongolia
白俄 (Bàc·Na)- Belarus
俄 (Na)- Russia
挪威 (Na·Ưy)- Norway
日本 (Nit·Pứn)- Japan
南非 (Nơm·Pưy)- South Africa
北朝鮮 (Pơc·Trơ·Sen)- North Korea
波蘭 (Pư·Lan)- Poland
法 (Pưp)- France
泰 (Tãy)- Thailand
德 (Tơc)- Germany
中非共和國 (Trunh·Pưy·Gừonh·Hư·Quoc)- Central African Republic
中國 (Trunh·Quoc)- China
土耳其 (Túo·Nứ·Cư)- Turkey
英國 (Ừnh·Quoc)- England/United Kingdom
西班牙 (Xí·Ban·Va)- Spain
意國 (Ỳ·Quoc)- Italy

From French
玡海岸 (Bã·Hứy·Nàn)- Ivory Coast (Calque of Fr: Côte d’Ivoire)
唯師 (Bèy·Ri)- Brazil (Fr: Brésil)
咖俄陀 (Cà·Na·Đa)- Canada (Fr: Canada)
捷 (Chéc)- Czech Republic (Fr: Tchèque)
沁陀迦舍 (Ma·Đa·Ga·Xá)- Madagascar (Fr: Madagascar)
沁𤳨 (Ma·Roc)- Morocco (Fr: Maroc)
莫澳 (Mac·Ào)- Macao (Fr: Macao)
彌西 (Me·Xí)- Mexico (Fr: Mexique)
濕 (Xip)- Cyprus (Fr: Chypre)

From Russian
椅樞尼阿 (Ẽ·Xo·Ni·A )- Estonia (Ru: Estonija)
迦侶師阿 (Ga·Lú·Ri·A)- Georgia (Ru: Gruzija)
辣为阿 (Lát·Ꞗĩ·A)- Latvia (Ru: Latvija)
列婆 (Let·Ꞗa)- Lithuania (Ru: Litva)
澳淶俄 (Uc·Lay·Na)- Ukraine (Ru: Ukraina)

From Other Sources
可母 (Cá·Mé)- Cambodia (Khmer: Kmae)
寮 (Láo)- Laos (Laotian: Lāo)
緬沁Mion·Ma- Myanmar/Burma (Burmese: Mranma)
Saudi阿拉伯 (Saudi A·Lup·Bac)- Saudi Arabia (English: Saudi & Sino: A·Lup·Bac)
越南 (Yư·Nơm)- Vietnam (Chamic: Yư & Sino: Nơm)

From English
All other country names are identical to their English names
Spoiler:
Image
Green- Chinese
Blue- French
Red- Russian
Purple- Other
Grey- English
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Mon 25 Dec 2017, 20:07, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 17:37

All4Ɇn wrote:
Creyeditor wrote:I just wanted to let you know, that I find the consistency in your style of conlanging wonderful. I would call it "lexicalist conlanging" because you put so much focus on the lexicon and the lexical exception in your grammar. It's really astonishing [:)]
Thanks so much for the compliment! [:D] Although I'm entirely sure what you mean by your second sentence. Could you explain a little more?
Well, to take a birds eye perspective, your first three non-phonology sections in this thread were Numbers, Personal Pronouns and Family Terms, which are all groups of words. You gave word lists and usage notes. So the principal way of ordering your posts seems to be words or classes of words. Another minor detail is your description of irregular indirect objects. Its limited to a small set of lexical items (not transparently phonologically or morphologically conditioned) and is discussed in the post on prepositions, which are again: a class of words.
Other people have a functional perspective. They have posts on how you do possession, describe background actions, ect. Yet other people have more formally based sectioning. Nominal morphosyntax includes personal pronouns as a side note and indirect objects would maybe be explained in the post on the verb/object complex. All of this is of course just a subjective impression.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 18:53

Creyeditor wrote:Well, to take a birds eye perspective, your first three non-phonology sections in this thread were Numbers, Personal Pronouns and Family Terms, which are all groups of words. You gave word lists and usage notes. So the principal way of ordering your posts seems to be words or classes of words. Another minor detail is your description of irregular indirect objects. Its limited to a small set of lexical items (not transparently phonologically or morphologically conditioned) and is discussed in the post on prepositions, which are again: a class of words.
Other people have a functional perspective. They have posts on how you do possession, describe background actions, ect. Yet other people have more formally based sectioning. Nominal morphosyntax includes personal pronouns as a side note and indirect objects would maybe be explained in the post on the verb/object complex. All of this is of course just a subjective impression.
Huh. That's a pretty cool way to look at it. You're definitely pretty spot on. Just never realized it about myself I suppose. I think it especially shows through in Ởnh·Vú due to the small amount of grammar.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Creyeditor » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 19:11

I actually think that your presentation of Thrinn is similar in structure. Just that you list (example) word forms of your word classes [:)]
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 19:34

Creyeditor wrote:I actually think that your presentation of Thrinn is similar in structure. Just that you list (example) word forms of your word classes [:)]
I guess I like to teach my conlangs in the same way I'd teach a language like French to someone who doesn't know it
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by Zythros Jubi » Thu 05 Oct 2017, 05:54

Why is 沁 used for Ma, instead of something like 摩?
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Thu 05 Oct 2017, 06:52

Zythros Jubi wrote:Why is 沁 used for Ma, instead of something like 摩?
摩 comes out in Ởnh·Vú as Mư
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Thu 05 Oct 2017, 22:08

Demonyms
Demonyms are formed very regularly in Ởnh·Vú and consists of applying the suffix 人 (Nin) to the place in question. There are only 4 exceptions:
阿拉人 (A·Lup·Nin)- Arab
沁淶人 (Ma·Lay·Nin)- Malaysian
清人 (Ténh·Nin)- Chinese
越人 (Yư·Nin)- Vietnamese

Languages
Language names are generally formed very similarly by adding the suffix 語 (Vú) to the place in question. As not all languages form their names from places, there are several exceptions. Below are the exceptions formed from place names

阿拉語 (A·Lup·Vú)- Arabic
韓語 (Han·Vú)- Korean
漢語 (Hàn·Vú)- Chinese (in general)
印度語 (Ìn·Đùo·Vú)- Hindi (literally Indian)
沁淶語 (Ma·Lay·Vú)- Malay (literally Malayan)
南非語 (Nơm·Pưy·Vú)- Afrikaans (literally South African)
中國語 (Trunh·Quoc·Vú)- Mandarin (literally Chinese)
英語 (Ừnh·Vú)- English
意語 (Ỳ·Vú)- Italian
越語 (Yư·Vú)- Vietnamese
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Sun 29 Oct 2017, 06:06, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Ởnh·Vú- Chamic Language

Post by All4Ɇn » Fri 13 Oct 2017, 00:18

Simplified Characters
For the overwhelming majority of Hanzi, Ởnh·Vú uses the traditional Chinese characters. However, a number of high-use overly complicated Hanzi are commonly encountered in simplified forms. Some of these are identical to their Chinese forms while others may differ. In handwriting, the simplified forms are almost always used over the original for these characters. In typing typically the unsimplified forms are used but the simplified forms may be encountered either in fonts/notes meant to ressemble handwriting or to ease the strain of reading, like you would commonly see in signs/marketing. Below are some of the most common simplified characters.

龜 (Cở) Turtle -> 龟
龜甲 (Cở·Gap) Tortoiseshell -> 龟甲
龜裂 (Cở·Let) Crevice -> 龟裂

機 (Cưy) Machine -> 机
計算機 (Kèy·Sứn·Cưy) Computer/Calculator -> 計算机
飛機 (Pưy·Cưy) Airplane -> 飛机

圖書館 (Đuo·Xu·Cừn) Library -> 圕 (Đùon)
This simplification is completely different than all others in that it simplifies 3 characters into a single one with a different pronunciation. Typically only 圖書館 is used in spoken conversation while 圕 is far more common in writing. 圕 is really only ever said when someone is reading aloud something with that character written on it.

蘭 (Lan) Orchid -> 兰
蘭若 (Lan·Ná) Temple -> 兰若
荷蘭 (Ha·Lan) Netherlands -> 荷兰

門 (Mưn) Gate -> 门
Unlike other simplifications, this one also affects the characters based off of it
入門 (Nip·Mưn) Enter -> 入门
時間 (Giư·Ghen) Time -> 時间
閏年 (Nũn·Nen) Leap Year -> 闰年

爾 (Né) So/Like This/Such -> 尒
爾後 (Né·Hứ) Henceforth -> 尒後
爾ヌ (Né·Né) That's Just The Way It Is -> 尒ヌ

學 (Ớc) Learn -> 学
學習 (Ớc·Gip) Study -> 学習
學生 (Ớc·Rành) Student -> 学生

當 (Tanh) Keep On/Continue To -> 当
不當 (Pú·Tành) Inappropriate -> 不当
當然 (Tanh·Nen) Natural/As Expected -> 当然

體 (Téy) Form/Style -> 体
體系 (Téy·Hèy) System -> 体系
屍體 (Xi·Téy) Corpse -> 屍体

歲 (Xờy) Year Of Age -> 亗
年歲 (Nen·Xờy) Age -> 年亗
歲入 (Xờy·Nip) Annual Revenue -> 亗入

書 (Xu) Letter -> 书
書架 (Xu·Gà) Bookcase/Bookshelf -> 书架
書店 (Xu·Tèm) Bookstore -> 书店

畫 (Vẽ) Character Stroke -> 画
作畫 (Tà·Vẽ) Paint -> 作画
書畫 (Xu·Vẽ) Calligraphy -> 书画
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Fri 17 Nov 2017, 01:28, edited 5 times in total.
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