Islogian

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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Thu 07 Sep 2017, 00:27

Ælfwine wrote:Nice work so far All4Ɇn.
Thanks! Glad you like it so far [:D]
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Thu 07 Sep 2017, 16:02

Countries
Countries are a subset of proper nouns that appear in 2 groups, those preceded by definite articles and those that aren't. The following countries always include the definite article with their name, all other countries are never used alongside them:
Spoiler:
L’Aràbia Felix- Yemen
La Bahamà- The Bahamas
Al Barén- Bahrain
Al Brasil- Brazil
La Camàr- Comoros
Al Capo Verde- Cape Verde
Al Cec- The Czech Republic
Al Congo- The Congo
Al Cuvét- Kuwait
Al Danmarc- Denmark
La França- France
L’Helvèţia- Switzerland
L’Hìndia- India
Al Iapàn- Japan
Le Imarati Arabe Unite (IAU)- The United Arab Emirates (UAE)
L’Inghelterra- England
Al Iràc- Iraq
Al Jasàir- Algeria/Algiers
La Jumùria del Congo- Republic of the Congo
La Jumùria Democrática del Congo- Democratic Republic of the Congo
La Machrib- Morocco
Al Majar- Hungary
Al Mexic- Mexico
La Nêmcia- Austria
Al Nijèr- Niger
La Norvegia- Norway
La Philippìn- The Philippines
Al Portugal- Portugal
Al Regno Unito- The United Kingdom
Al Salvadòr- El Salvador
Al Sin- Chinese
Al Somali- Somalia
I Stati Uniti D’América (SUA)- United States Of America (USA)
Al Sud-Sudàn- South Sudan
Al Sudàn- Sudan
Al Suhudi- Saudi Arabia
La Sved- Sweden
Al Urdùn- Jordan
Preposition Usage
Countries preceded by definite articles use the preposition a to show location, î to show movement towards, and de to show movement away. The article is always contracted with the preposition in this case. Those not preceded by definite articles instead use ne' to show both location and movement towards and de to show movement away.

So alla França- I'm in France
Vado îl Iapàn- I'm going to Japan
Vegno dèl Inghelterra- I'm coming from England

So n'Iu- I'm in Greece
Vado ne' Missir- I'm going to Egypt
Vegno d'Almàgna- I'm coming from Germany
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Fri 08 Sep 2017, 06:44

Country Adjectives
Adjective of each country have to be memorized as there are no set groups for figuring out what country takes what suffix to indicate its adjective and many adjectives may have small irregularities in the stem. However, country adjectives can roughly be grouped into 7 different categories based on their suffixes as shown below with examples.

1. The ending -i
*Almàgna (Germany) - Almani (German)
*Al Jasàir (Algeria) - Jasairi (Algerian)
*Lìbya (Libya) - Libi (Libyan)
*Tunis (Tunisia) - Tunissi (Tunisian)
*Vietnam (Vietnam) - Vietnami (Vietnamese)

2. The ending -ese
*La França (France) - Francese (French)
*Holanda (Netherlands) - Holandese (Dutch)
*Lubnàn (Lebanon) - Lûbnese (Lebanese)
*La Nêmcia (Austria) - Nemcese (Austrian)
*Al Sudan (Sudan) - Sudanese (Sudanese)

3. The ending -o
*Argentina (Argentina) - Argentino (Argentine/Argentinian)
*Hispánia (Spain) - Hispagnolo (Spanish)
*Al Majar (Hungary) - Majaro (Hungarian)
*Mongólia (Mongolia) - Mongolo (Mongolian/Mongol)
*Rumánia (Romania) - Rumâno (Romanian)
*Al Sin (China) - Sino (Chinese)

4. The ending -ano
*Gôrgia (Georgia) - Gôrgiano (Georgian)
*Itália (Italy) - Italiano (Italian)
*Al Mexic (Mexico) - Mexicano (Mexican)
*I Stati Uniti D’América (United States Of America) - Americano (American)

5. The ending -iano
*Brasil (Brasil) - Brasiliano (Brazilian)
*Canadà (Canada) - Canadiano (Canadian)
*Ciad (Chad) - Ciadiano (Chadian)
*Cile (Chile) - Ciliano (Chilean)
*Laos (Laos) - Laoţiano (Laotian/Lao)

6. A form derived from a shortening of the country name followed by a normal suffix
*Afganistàn (Afghanistan) - Afgano (Afghan/Afghani)
*Aserbaigiàn (Azerbaijan) - Asero (Aseri/Aserbaijani)
*Bèlgica (Belgium) - Belgiano (Belgian)
*Al Danmarc (Denmark) - Danese (Danish)
*Maláisia (Malaysia) - Malaio (Malaysian/Malay)
*Ûsbechistàn (Uzbekistan) - Ûsbeco (Uzbek/Uzbekistani)

7. Completely irregular. Below are all of the adjectives that fall in this category
*Albánia (Albania) - Arnávoto (Albanian)
*L'Arábia Felix (Yemen) - Iemenì (Yemeni)
*Cosovo (Kosovo) - Cosovaro (Kosovar/Kosovan)
*Costa d'Àj (Côte d'Ivoire) - Ivoriano (Ivorian)
*Cypro (Cyprus) - Chibrese (Cypriot)
*Ethiópia (Ethiopia) - Abascì (Ethiopian)
*Inghelterra (England) - Inghlise (English)
*Iu (Greece) - Grèco (Greek)
*Madagascár (Madagascar) - Malagascio (Malagasy)
*Missir (Egypt) - Egyţţo (Egyptian)
*Myanmar (Myanmar) - Burmese (Burmese)
*Polónia (Poland) - Polaco (Polish)
*Al Regno Unito (United Kingdom) - Británico (British)
Spoiler:
Image
Black: -ano
Pink: -iano
Blue: -ese
Yellow: -o
Red: -i
Purple: Shortened from country name
Green: Completely irregular
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Wed 13 Sep 2017, 07:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Sat 09 Sep 2017, 23:00

Languages
The formation of language names is generally identical to other Romance languages, which is to say it's identical to the masculine form of the adjective referring to the area. There are two language names that I'd consider irregular: arábia (Arabic) which is only feminine gendered language and nemcese (German) which comes from the adjective for Austria instead.

Article Usage
In the majority of cases languages are preceded by the necessary definite article, there are however two exceptions:
1. After the verbs comprendre, lere, parlare, sapere, and scrivre e.g. "Non compregno francese"- I don't understand French
2. After the preposition ne' e.g. "Ḑillo ne' grèco"- Say it in Greek
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Mon 11 Sep 2017, 00:09

Verbal Nouns
As there's nothing 100% consistent with verbal nouns in Islogian I figured it'd make more sense to cover them after verbs. Unlike other Romance languages, Islogian has inherited a ton of verbal noun from Latin's future perfect. In general, if a verb doesn't have a verbal noun, you can make one regularly using the steps below, but many verbs instead have completely different verbal nouns than the ones that would be formed from the regular steps. An example of this is Splicare (to arrive) which has the verbal noun Uorud (arrival). Many other verbal nouns have changed their meanings over time and thus may not be direct nominal equivalents to the verbs they come from. Another important thing to note is that verbal nouns are distinct from gerunds/present participles (which I'll go over in the next post). A regular verbal noun is formed by taking the past participle, dropping the -o, and adding -ura to the end. Some examples include:
Lettura- Reading
Scrittura- Writing
Pettura- Painting
Cottura- Cooking
Notatura- Swimming
Falsura- Bankruptcy

Only 7 verbal nouns (and their derivatives) that end -ura are irregular in their formation:
Bere: Bettura (Drink/Beverage or Drinking)
Cherere: Chestura (Asking)
Estre: Futura (Future or Being)
Havere: Hattura (Having)
Plâcere: Plattura (Pleasure or Pleasing)
Venire: Ventura (What's Next/What's Coming/Next or Coming)
Vedere: Visura (A Showing or Seeing)
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Tue 12 Sep 2017, 23:14

Present Participles & Gerunds
Both of these are used in fairly similar situations but do not overlap

The gerund is used in 2 situations:
1. Describes an action that is related to and occurred at the same time as another event. Typically is translated as while.
2. Describes how or why something happens. Typically translate as by

The present participle is used in 3 situations:
1. Modifies a noun
2. Replaces a relative clause
3. Sometimes used as an adjective

Regular Endings
Left is for -are verbs, right is for -ere/-re/-ire verbs.
Gerund: -agno/-egno
Present Participle: -ante/-ente
All verbs that undergo the change [d̪] > [z̪] in the present also undergo it in the present participle but not in the gerund e.g. Vedegno/Veḑente

Irregular Verbs
Amblare: Amblagno/Inte or Amblante
Bere: Bevegno/Bevente
Clòre: Clodegno/Clodente
Dure: Ducegno/Ducente
Ḑire: Ḑicegno/Ḑicente
Essere: Edegno/Edente
Estre: Essegno/Essente
Fare: Facegno/Facente
Gòre: Godegno/Godente
Lere: Legegno/Legente
Plòre: Plodegno/Plodente
Pore: Ponegno/Ponente
Sapere: Sapegno/Sapiente
Trare: Traiegno/Traiente

Due to the distinction, it's possible for two sentences with different meanings to be translated the same in English:
Lo vidi amblagno nella binate- I saw him going into the building (speaker is the one going in the building)
Lo vidi inte nella binate- I saw him going into the building (speaker sees someone going in the building)
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Fri 15 Sep 2017, 07:04

Dialects
I thought this would be something cool to go into. As Islogian is spoken by many speakers in a large area of land there are often significant changes between dialects. In general, speakers whose native language is not Islogian typically speak standard Islogian with the local area's phonology while native speakers outside of the Istanbul/Western-Turkish area typically speak a mutually intelligible dialect. These dialects on occasions have major vocab changes due to the effects of Arabic influence. For example, in Dalmatian and Northern Greek Islogian, the word for book is typically libro instead of chitab. Below are the phonetic changes in each major dialect.

Dalmatian
[ɲː ʎː] -> [ɲ ʎ]
[s̪ː] -> [s̪]
[ä ɑ] -> [a ä]
[(i)] -> [∅] unstressed word finally

Albanian:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[x] -> [h]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[r rː] -> [ɾ r]
[ʎː] -> [ɟ͡ʝ]
[ɨ ä ɑ] -> [y ə ä]

Northern Greek/Macedonian:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[b d̪ ɡ] -> [β ð ɣ] non post-nasal
[k ŋ ɡ] -> [c ɟ ʝ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ʝ]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[ɨ ä ɑ] -> [y a ä]
[(i)] -> [∅] unstressed word finally

Central Greek:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[b d̪ ɡ] -> [β ð ɣ] non post-nasal
[k ŋ ɡ] -> [c ɟ ʝ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ʝ]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[lˤ] -> [l]
Words ending in consonants other than [(s) n] add an unstressed [ə] to the end

Cycladic Islands:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[b d̪ ɡ] -> [β ð ɣ] non post-nasal
[k ŋ ɡ] -> [c ɟ ʝ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ʝ]
[t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] -> [t͡s d͡z]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[lˤ] -> [l]
Words ending in consonants other than [(s) n] add an unstressed [ə] to the end

Cretan:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[b d̪ ɡ] -> [β ð ɣ] non post-nasal
[k ŋ ɡ] -> [c ɟ ʝ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ʝ]
[t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ] -> [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ ʑ]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[lˤ] -> [l]
Words ending in consonants other than [(s) n] add an unstressed [ə] to the end

Southeastern Greek:
Initial consonants are pronounced geminated
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[b d̪ ɡ] -> [β ð ɣ] non post-nasal and [ɰ ʔ ʔ] intervocally
[k ŋ ɡ] -> [c ɟ ʝ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ʝ]
[t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] -> [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[lˤ] -> [l]
Words ending in consonants other than [(s) n] add an unstressed [ə] to the end

Thracian/Bulgarian:
[kj ɡj] -> [c ɟ]
[t͡ʃi d͡ʒi] -> [t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] unstressed word finally
[s̪ː] -> [s̪]

Cypriot:
Initial consonants are pronounced geminated
[p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] -> [pʰ p t̪ʰ t̪ kʰ k t͡ʃʰ t͡ʃ ]
[v] -> [ʋ]
[k ɡ] -> [cʰ c] before [i e ɛ]
[mj kj ɡj] -> [mɲ cʰ c]
[r rː] -> [ɾ r]
[z̪] -> [z̪ː]
[lˤ ʎː] -> [l̪ ʝː]
[ɨ] -> [ɯ]

Eastern Turkish:
[s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [(s) z l]
[k ɡ] -> [c ɟ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ɟ]
[x] -> [h] syllable initially
[t͡ʃi d͡ʒi] -> [t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] unstressed word finally
[r rː] -> [ɾ r]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[ɨ] -> [ɯ]

Caucasian:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[k] -> [q] before [ɑ]
[x] -> [χ]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[lˤ] -> [l]

Kurdish/Middle Eastern:
[t̪ d̪ t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ s̪ z̪ l̪] -> [t d t͡s d͡z s z l]
[t̪ d̪ k s̪] -> [tˤ dˤ q sˤ] before [ɑ]
[k ɡ] -> [c ɟ] before [i e ɛ]
[kj ɡj] -> [c ɟ]
[x] -> [χ]
[s̪ː] -> [(s)]
[ɨ] -> [ʉ]
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Sun 04 Mar 2018, 19:23, edited 7 times in total.
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Mon 18 Sep 2017, 08:33

Numbers
Islogian numbers come in 3 forms: adjectival cardinal numbers, nominal cardinal numbers, and ordinal numbers. From left to right are the adjectival, nominal, and ordinal forms. Those with only two forms only have only one form for the cardinal.

0-19:
0- Sifir/Sifìremo
1- Uno (Un before masculine nouns starting with vowels, una before feminine nouns, and un' before feminine nouns starting with vowels)/Uno/Primo
2- Dû (Due before feminine nouns and du' before feminine nouns starting with vowels)/Do/Secondo
3- Trê/Trei/Terţo
4- Quattro (Quattr' before nouns starting with vowels)/Quattor/Quarto
5- Cinc/Cinque/Chinto
6- Sei (Sex before nouns starting with vowels)/Sei/Sesto
7- Seţţe (Sett' before nouns starting with vowels)/Seţţe/Sèttemo
8- Otto (Ott' before nouns starting with vowels)/Otto/Ottavo
9- Nôv/Nôve/Nono
10- Ḑèce (Ḑec before nouns starting with vowels)/Ḑèce/Ḑècemo
11- Unḑe/Ùnḑemo
12- Doḑe/Dóḑemo
13- Treḑe/Tréḑemo
14- Quattorḑe/Quattòrḑemo
15- Cinḑe/Cìnḑemo
16- Seḑe/Séḑemo
17- Ḑesseţţe (Ḑessett' before nouns starting with vowels)/Ḑesseţţe/Ḑessèttemo
18- Ḑeciotto (Ḑeciott' before nouns starting with vowels)/Ḑeciotto/Ḑeciottavo
19- Ḑecenôv/Ḑecenôve/Ḑecenono

20-99:
20- Vinti/Vicésemo
21- Vintetuno (Vintetun, Vintetuna/Vintetun')/Vintetuno/Vinti-primo
22- Vintidȗ (Vintidue/Vintidù')/Vintidó/Vinti-secondo
23- Vintirȇ/Vintitrei/Vintiterţo
24- Vintiquattro (Vintiquattr')/Vintiquattor/Vinti-quarto
25- Vinticinc/Vinticinque)/Vinti-chinto
26- Vintisei (Vintisex)/Vintisei/Vinti-sesto
27- Vintiseţţe (Vintisett')/Vintiseţţe/Vinti-sèttemo
28- Vintetotto (Vintetott')/Vintetotto/Vinti-ottavo
29- Vintinôv/Vintinôve/Vinti-nono
30- Trinta/Trintésemo
40- Quaranta/Quarantésemo
50- Cinquanta/Cinquantésemo
60- Sessanta/Sessantésemo
70- Settanta/Settantésemo
80- Ottanta/Ottantésemo
90- Nonanta/Nonantésemo

100-1,000,000:
100- Cen (Cent before nouns starting with vowels)/Cento/Centésemo
101- Centetuno (Centetun, Centetuna/Centetun')/Centetuno/Cento-primo
108- Centetotto (Centetott')/Centetotto/Cento-ottavo
200- Docenti/Docentésemo
300- Trecenti/Trecentésemo
400- Quaggenti/Quaggentésemo
500- Quingenti/Quingentésemo
600- Sescenti/Sescentésemo
700- Seggenti/Seggentésemo
800- Ôggenti/Ôggentésemo
900- Nôngenti/Nôngentésemo
1000- Mil/Mille/Millésemo
1001- Milletuno (Milletun, Milletuna/Milletun')/Milletuno/Mille-primo
1002- Milledȗ (Milledue/Milledù')/Milledó/Mille-secondo
1008- Milletotto (Milletott')/Milletotto/Mille-ottavo
2000- Do-Miglia/Do-Millésemo
1,000,000 Miglione (followed by de and the accusative if used before a noun)/Miglionésemo
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Sun 20 May 2018, 05:06

Genitive Constructions
Similar to Turkish, nouns in genitive constructions typically have two parts, a possessor marked with the genitive, and the possessed marked with the appropriate possessive suffix. The possessor noun is typically used with a definite article but not always, while the possessed noun is never used with one. Here are some examples:
Al garçone papùsciasua
DEF.ART.MASC.GEN waiter.GEN shoe-3s.POS
The waiter's shoe

Coffrétemio fìgliasua
brother.GEN-1s.POS daughter-3s.POS
My brother's daughter

Bivi las vacaras lácoro
drank.1s.PAST DEF.ART.FEM.PL.GEN cow.PL.GEN milk-3p.POS
I drank the cows' milk

This structure can also be used with genitive pronouns and their respective possessive suffixes to show a stressed possession:
È tui fìgliotuo!
be.3s 2s.GEN son-2s.POS
He's your son!
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Re: Islogian

Post by eldin raigmore » Sun 20 May 2018, 14:20

Aren’t possessed nouns always definite anyway? as i inderstand it they don’t need any additional marking to show definiteness. Am I wrong?

Could use 2 of gerunds be sometimes better translated as “because” than as “by”?

———

I’m really enjoying your conlang!
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Sun 20 May 2018, 17:04

eldin raigmore wrote:
Sun 20 May 2018, 14:20
Aren’t possessed nouns always definite anyway? as i inderstand it they don’t need any additional marking to show definiteness. Am I wrong?
From what I could see in similar languages like Romanian that seems to be the case. I originally had the possessed nouns always preceded by the definite article in addition to the possessive suffix but it fit the flow better to remove them.
eldin raigmore wrote:
Sun 20 May 2018, 14:20
Could use 2 of gerunds be sometimes better translated as “because” than as “by”?
I suppose so. I could definitely see that working out in some more formal sounding sentences like the following:

Vôlegno màchina, ne sunsi una
Wanting a car, I bought one / Because I wanted a car, I bought one
Avegno paur, non ii fa lui
(Being) afraid, I didn't go towards it / Because I was afraid, I didn't go towards it
eldin raigmore wrote:
Sun 20 May 2018, 14:20
I’m really enjoying your conlang!
Always glad to hear that!
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