Islogian

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
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Davush
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Re: Islogian

Post by Davush » Mon 17 Jul 2017, 08:37

Imaala (the raising of /a a:/) happened pretty early I think. Andalusi Arabic certainly had it. Arabic loans in Turkish often have <e> for /a:/ if that helps. The Eastern half of Saudi, Iraq and all the Gulf dialects always have the backed version. I'm sure there'd be a way to justify it though.
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Mon 17 Jul 2017, 08:53

Davush wrote:Arabic loans in Turkish often have <e> for /a:/ if that helps
Huh. I always figured this was the result of vowel harmony
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Davush
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Re: Islogian

Post by Davush » Mon 17 Jul 2017, 11:53

Actually you may be right - I know little about Turkish but I assumed loanwords like 'medeniyet' from مدنيلت /madaniyya:t/ were due to imala but then there are also things like 'mecaz' from /maja:z/. I'd be interested in learning more about Arabic loans in Turkish (I.e dialect vs fusha and phonological implications).
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Mon 17 Jul 2017, 12:09

Irregular Nouns
There are a number of nouns with irregular declensions. Below are the ones without dual forms. I'll go into nouns with dual forms later

Arabi (m)- Arab
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Arabi
Dative/Genitive: Arabi
Instrumental-Comitative: Aràbico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Aràb
Dative/Genitive: Arabes
Instrumental-Comitative: Aràpco
The nouns Russi (Russian), Hindi (Indian), Iahudi (Jew), and Tûrki (Turk) have the same declension pattern
Baba (m)- Dad/Papa/Pope
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Baba
Dative/Genitive: Baba
Instrumental-Comitative: Bàbaco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Babi
Dative/Genitive: Babos
Instrumental-Comitative: Bàbico
Ca (f)- House/Home
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Ca
Dative/Genitive: Ca
Instrumental-Comitative: Casco (means at home)

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Case
Dative/Genitive: Casas
Instrumental-Comitative: Càseco
Coffré (m)- Brother
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Coffré
Dative/Genitive: Coffrete
Instrumental-Comitative: Coffreco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Coffrì
Dative/Genitive: Coffrés
Instrumental-Comitative: Coffrico
Cossůr (f)- Sister
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Cossůr
Dative/Genitive: Cossůre
Instrumental-Comitative: Cossůrco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Cossore
Dative/Genitive: Cossoras
Instrumental-Comitative: Cossòreco
Cuò (n)- Heart
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Cuò
Dative/Genitive: Cuò
Instrumental-Comitative: Cuòco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Cůra
Dative/Genitive: Cůra
Instrumental-Comitative: Cůraco
Figlio (m)- Son/Child
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Figlio
Dative/Genitive: Figlio
Instrumental-Comitative: Fìglioco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Filli
Dative/Genitive: Figlios
Instrumental-Comitative: Fìllico
Mare (m)- Sea
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Mare
Dative/Genitive: Mare
Instrumental-Comitative: Màreco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Mâri
Dative/Genitive: Mâres
Instrumental-Comitative: Mȃrico
Ůvo (n)- Egg
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Ůvo
Dative/Genitive: Ůvo
Instrumental-Comitative: Ůvoco

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Uòva
Dative/Genitive: Uòva
Instrumental-Comitative: Uòvaco
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Mon 28 Aug 2017, 13:54, edited 1 time in total.
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Thu 20 Jul 2017, 14:34

Dual Forms
15 nouns have their own unique dual forms. Some of these nouns have irregularities besides the presence of the dual. Duals are treated as plural forms with regards to agreement and conjugation

Abbo (m)- Grandfather (Grandparents in the dual)
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Abbo
Dative/Genitive: Abbo
Instrumental-Comitative: Ábboco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Abbani
Dative/Genitive: Abbanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Abbànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Abbi
Dative/Genitive: Abbes
Instrumental-Comitative: Ábbico
Anno (m)- Year
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Anno
Dative/Genitive: Anno
Instrumental-Comitative: Ánnoco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Annani
Dative/Genitive: Annanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Annànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Anni
Dative/Genitive: Annes
Instrumental-Comitative: Ánnico
Bracio (f)- Arm
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Bracio
Dative/Genitive: Bracio
Instrumental-Comitative: Bràcioco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Braciani
Dative/Genitive: Bracianes
Instrumental-Comitative: Braciànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Bracia
Dative/Genitive: Bracia
Instrumental-Comitative: Bràciaco
Ḑe (m)- Day
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Ḑe
Dative/Genitive: Ḑe
Instrumental-Comitative: Ḑeco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Ḑani
Dative/Genitive: Ḑanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Ḑànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Ḑi
Dative/Genitive: Ḑes
Instrumental-Comitative: Ḑico
Femma (f)- Woman
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Femma
Dative/Genitive: Femma
Instrumental-Comitative: Fèmmaco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Femmani
Dative/Genitive: Femmanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Femmànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Femme
Dative/Genitive: Femmas
Instrumental-Comitative: Fèmmeco
Gamba (f)- Leg
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Gamba
Dative/Genitive: Gamba
Instrumental-Comitative: Gámbaco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Gambani
Dative/Genitive: Gambanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Gambànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Gambe
Dative/Genitive: Gambas
Instrumental-Comitative: Gámbeco
Genoglio (f)- Knee
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Genoglio
Dative/Genitive: Genoglio
Instrumental-Comitative: Genòglioco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Genogliani
Dative/Genitive: Genoglianes
Instrumental-Comitative: Genoglànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Genoglia
Dative/Genitive: Genoglia
Instrumental-Comitative: Genògliaco
Hůmo (m)- Man
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Hůmo
Dative/Genitive: Hůmo
Instrumental-Comitative: Hůmoco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Hůmani
Dative/Genitive: Hůmanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Hůmànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Huòmini
Dative/Genitive: Huòmines
Instrumental-Comitative: Huòminico
Luna (f)- Moon/Month (dual only used for second meaning)
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Luna
Dative/Genitive: Luna
Instrumental-Comitative: Lùnaco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Lunani
Dative/Genitive: Lunanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Lunànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Lune
Dative/Genitive: Lunas
Instrumental-Comitative: Lùneco
Mano (f)- Hand
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Mano
Dative/Genitive: Mano
Instrumental-Comitative: Mànoco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Manani
Dative/Genitive: Mananes
Instrumental-Comitative: Manànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Mani
Dative/Genitive: Manes
Instrumental-Comitative: Mànico
Nate (m)- Buttock (butt/buttocks in dual, butts in the plural)
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Nate
Dative/Genitive: Nate
Instrumental-Comitative: Nàteco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Naţani
Dative/Genitive: Naţanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Naţànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Nati
Dative/Genitive: Nates
Instrumental-Comitative: Nàtico
Oglio (f)- Eye
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Oglio
Dative/Genitive: Oglio
Instrumental-Comitative: Òglioco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Ogliani
Dative/Genitive: Oglianes
Instrumental-Comitative: Oglànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Ogli
Dative/Genitive: Oglies
Instrumental-Comitative: Òglico
Oreglia (f)- Ear
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Oreglia
Dative/Genitive: Oreglia
Instrumental-Comitative: Orègliaco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Oregliani
Dative/Genitive: Oreglianes
Instrumental-Comitative: Oregliànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Oreglie
Dative/Genitive: Oreglias
Instrumental-Comitative: Orèglieco
Páter (m)- Father (Parents in dual)
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Páter
Dative/Genitive: Patre
Instrumental-Comitative: Páterco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Patrani
Dative/Genitive: Patranes
Instrumental-Comitative: Patrànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Patri
Dative/Genitive: Patres
Instrumental-Comitative: Pátrico
Piè (f)- Foot
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative: Piè
Dative/Genitive: Piede
Instrumental-Comitative: Pièco

Dual:
Nominative/Accusative: Piedani
Dative/Genitive: Piedanes
Instrumental-Comitative: Piedànico

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative: Piedi
Dative/Genitive: Piedes
Instrumental-Comitative: Pièdico
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Isfendil
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Re: Islogian

Post by Isfendil » Thu 20 Jul 2017, 21:32

I really like this. Especially this type of borrowing. Although, especially now, these people were almost certainly bilingual (otherwise this can't have happened unless the entire speaker population was fully educated) so you need to pay attention to the spoken varieties that influenced it.
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Fri 21 Jul 2017, 12:53

Isfendil wrote:Although, especially now, these people were almost certainly bilingual (otherwise this can't have happened unless the entire speaker population was fully educated) so you need to pay attention to the spoken varieties that influenced it.
Will do [:D]. Although what exactly makes it necessary for them to have been bilingual?
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Re: Islogian

Post by Isfendil » Fri 21 Jul 2017, 16:34

All4Ɇn wrote:
Isfendil wrote:Although, especially now, these people were almost certainly bilingual (otherwise this can't have happened unless the entire speaker population was fully educated) so you need to pay attention to the spoken varieties that influenced it.
Will do [:D]. Although what exactly makes it necessary for them to have been bilingual?
The borrowing of whole grammatical affixes. Latin didn't have a dual and that dual resembles very much the Arabic dual so I assumed that that is what is going on here. It would make sense for grammaticalized borrowing of that magnitude to occur if the founder population (even if not necessarily the modern population- see Izaafa in persian) is bilingual, because then they're rearranging the languages they speak to be more grammatically similar to each other in their heads over time. I'm oversimplifying, I apologize, but idk how to explain things in other ways.
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Mon 24 Jul 2017, 07:57

Adjectives
Adjectives follow fairly similar declensions to the nouns they modify.

First/Second Declension
The first form listed is the masculine, second feminine, and third neuter.
Albo- White
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Albo; Alba; Albo
Dative/Genitive: Albo; Alba; Albo

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Albi; Albe; Albe
Dative/Genitive: Albos; Albas; Albas
Third Declension 1
Agile- Agile/Nimble
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Agile
Dative/Genitive: Agile

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Agili
Dative/Genitive: Agiles
Third Declension 2
Adjectives with this pattern may have 2 stems: nominative singular and one used for all other forms
Felix- Happy/Nice
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Felix
Dative/Genitive: Felice

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Felici
Dative/Genitive: Felices
Fourth Declension
The first form listed is the masculine, second feminine, and third neuter. All adjectives ending in -i/-ì have this declension.
Pharsi- Persian/Farsi
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Pharsi; Phársia; Pharsi
Dative/Genitive: Pharsi; Phársia; Pharsi

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Pharsi; Pharse; Pharse
Dative/Genitive: Pharses
Invariable
Many adjectives, especially those that are borrowed or refer to colors, are invariable. Some invariable adjectives include Nàranj (orange), Pòrpora (Tyrian purple), and Scic (chic)
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Mon 31 Jul 2017, 20:55, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Tue 25 Jul 2017, 00:13

Irregular Adjectives
Altro- Other
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Altro; Altra; Altro
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Alt; Altr'; Alt
Dative/Genitive: Altro; Altra; Altro
*Before vowel: Alt; Altr'; Alt

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Âltri; Âltre; Âltre
Dative/Genitive: Âltros; Âltras; Âltras
Ambo- Both
Spoiler:
Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Ambo; Ambe; Ambe
Dative/Genitive: Ambos; Ambas; Ambas
Arabi- Arab/Arabian/Arabic
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Arabi; Aràbia; Arabi
Dative/Genitive: Arabi; Aràbia; Arabi

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Aràb; Arabe; Arabe
Dative/Genitive: Arabes
The nouns Russi (Russian), Hindi (Indian/Hindi), Iahudi (Jewish), and Tûrki (Turkish) have the same declension pattern
Bachir- Virgin
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Bachir; Ḑana; Bachir
Dative/Genitive: Bàcre; Ḑana; Bàcre

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Bàcri; Ḑane; Ḑane
Dative/Genitive: Bàcres; Ḑanas; Ḑanas
Bello- Beautiful/Nice
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Bello; Bella; Bello
*Before noun: Bel, Bella, Bel
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Bell'
Dative/Genitive: Bello; Bella; Bello
*Before noun: Bel, Bella, Bel
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Bell'

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Bei; Belle; Belle
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Begli, Belle, Belle
Dative/Genitive: Bellos; Bellas; Bellas
Buò- Good
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Buò; Bůna; Buò
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Buon; Bůn'; Buon
Dative/Genitive: Buò; Bůna; Buò
*Before vowel: Buon; Bůn'; Buon

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Bůni; Bůne; Bůne
Dative/Genitive: Bůnos; Bůnas; Bůnas
Gra- Big/Large/Great/Tall
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Gra
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Gràn
Dative/Genitive: Gra
*Before vowel: Gràn

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Gragni
Dative/Genitive: Gragnes
Gri- Grey
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Gri; Grisa; Gri
Dative/Genitive: Gri; Grisa; Gri

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Gri; Grise; Grise
Dative/Genitive: Grises
Isì- Warm/Nurturing/Motherly/Kind
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Isì; Isida; Isì
Dative/Genitive: Isì; Isida; Isì

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Isì; Iside; Iside
Dative/Genitive: Isides
Laçif- Pretty
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Laçif
Dative/Genitive: Laçive

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Laçivi
Dative/Genitive: Laçives
Mico- Small/Little
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Mico; Mica; Mico
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Mic; Mica; Mic
Dative/Genitive: Mico; Mica; Mico
*Before vowel: Mic; Mica; Mic

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Mici; Mice; Mice
Dative/Genitive: Micos; Micas; Micas
Molto- Much/A Lot/Many
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Molto; Molta; Molto
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Mol; Molt'; Mol
Dative/Genitive: Molto; Molta; Molto
*Before vowel: Mol; Molt'; Mol

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Môlti; Môlte; Môlte
Dative/Genitive: Môltos; Môltas; Môltas
Nuò- New
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Nuò; Nůva; Nuò
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Nuov; Nůva; Nuov
Dative/Genitive: Nuò; Nůva; Nuò
*Before vowel: Nuov; Nůva; Nuov

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Nůvi; Nůve; Nůve
Dative/Genitive: Nůvos; Nůvas; Nůvas
Reo- Bad/Evil/Wicked
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Reo; Rea; Reo
Dative/Genitive: Reo; Rea; Reo

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Rei; Ré; Ré
Dative/Genitive: Reos; Reas; Reas
Veglio- Old (of an object)
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Veglio; Veglia; Veglio
*Before noun: Vel, Veglia, Vel
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Vell'
Dative/Genitive: Veglio; Veglia; Veglio
*Before noun: Vel, Veglia, Vel
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Vell'

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Vegli; Veglie; Veglie
*Before noun not starting with a vowel: Vei, Veglie, Veglie
Dative/Genitive: Veglios; Veglias; Veglias
Vero- True/Real
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Vero; Vera; Vero
*Before noun starting with a vowel: Vér; Ver'; Vér
Dative/Genitive: Vero; Vera; Vero
*Before vowel: Vér; Ver'; Vér

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Veri; Vere; Vere
Dative/Genitive: Veros; Veras; Veras
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Mon 28 Aug 2017, 04:52, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Thu 27 Jul 2017, 02:38

Possessive Suffixes
Rather than use a determiner, Islogian opts instead to show possession through use of suffixes. For those with multiple forms listed, the first form listed is the masculine, second feminine, and third neuter.

First Person Singular
Forms starting with <i> are used after consonants while those starting with <m> are used after vowels
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -io/-mio; -ia/-mia; -io/-mio
Dative/Genitive: -io/-mio; -ia/-mia; -io/-mio

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -ii/-mii; -ie/-mie; -ie/-mie
Dative/Genitive: -ios/-mios; -ias/-mias; -ias/-mias
Second Person Singular
Noun forms ending in a voiced consonant make it voiceless before these prefixes
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -tuo; -tua; -tuo
Dative/Genitive: -tuo; -tua; -tuo

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -tui; -tue; -tue
Dative/Genitive: -tuos; -tuas; -tuas
Third Person Singular
Forms starting with <u> are used after consonants while those starting with <s> are used after vowels
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -uo/-suo; -ua/-sua; -uo/-suo
Dative/Genitive: -uo/-suo; -ua/-sua; -uo/-suo

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -ui/-sui; -ue/-sue; -ue/-sue
Dative/Genitive: -uos/-suos; -uas/-suas; -uas/-suas
First Person Plural
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -noster; -nostra; -noster
Dative/Genitive: -noster; -nostra; -noster

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -nostri; -nostre; -nostri
Dative/Genitive: -nostros; -nostras; -nostros
Second Person Plural
Forms starting with <o> are used after consonants while those starting with <v> are used after vowels
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -oster/-voster; -ostra/-vostra; -oster/-voster
Dative/Genitive: -oster/-voster; -ostra/-vostra; -oster/-voster

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -ostri/-vostri; -ostre/-vostre; -ostri/-vostri
Dative/Genitive: -ostros/-vostros; -ostras/-vostras; -ostros/-vostros
Third Person Plural
Forms starting with <o> are used after consonants while those starting with <l> are used after vowels
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -oro/-loro
Dative/Genitive: -oro/-loro

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: -oro/-loro
Dative/Genitive: -oro/-loro
Examples:
Chitábio- My book
Chitábuo- His books
Chitáptuo- Your book
Cutubii- My books
Cutùpcomii- With my books


Let me know if you guys have any questions about anything so far [:)]
Last edited by All4Ɇn on Sun 20 May 2018, 04:32, edited 2 times in total.
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Isfendil
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Re: Islogian

Post by Isfendil » Thu 27 Jul 2017, 04:57

I am very much loving how this romlang is. Thank you for making it.
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All4Ɇn
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Fri 28 Jul 2017, 08:14

Isfendil wrote:I am very much loving how this romlang is. Thank you for making it.
Thanks so much for saying that [:D]. Glad you're liking it
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Sat 29 Jul 2017, 06:46

Adverbs
For the vast majority of adverbs, the adverb is the same as the nominative masculine singular form of the corresponding adjective. 4 adverbs derived from adjectives have irregular, unique forms:

-The adverbial form of Buò is (Ben before vowels) and means good/well
-The adverbial form of Reo is Malo (Mal before vowels) and means badly/poor
-The adverbial form of Nuò is Nůvo and means newly/recently
-The adverbial form of both Molto and Gra is Gragne (Grand before vowels) and means a lot/much/largely/greatly/heavily

There is also the adverb Mol which is derived from Molto but has the completely separate meaning of "very"
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Mon 31 Jul 2017, 20:04

Comparative/Superlative
All regular adjectives/adverbs use the same form for both the comparative and superlative. Its stem formed by adding -ior to the dative/genitive stem of the adjective. Adjectives/adverbs whose stems end in -d/-l/-t instead have the endings -ḑor/-glior/-ţor. The superlative is always preceded by a definite article.

Irregular Comparatives/Superlatives
A number of adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative stems. Unlike the rest, these adjectives/adverbs have separate comparatives and superlatives.

Alto- High/Tall
Alçor/Sommo

Basso- Low/Short
Bassior/Imo

Bè- Well
Meio/Òttemo

Buò- Good
Meglior/Òttemo

Deso- Near/Close
Propior/Pròssemo

Eterno- Old (Of Age)
Segnor/Sèssemo

Gra- Big/Large/Great/Grand
Maior/Mássemo

Gragne- A Lot/Much/Largely/Greatly/Heavily
Plus/Plùremo

Iòvene- Young
Iognor/Ionèssemo

Malo- Badly
Peio/Pèssemo

Mico- Small/Little
Meno/Ménemo

Molto- A Lot/Many
Plus/Plùremo

Nuò- New
Novior/Novèssemo

Nůvo- Newly/Recently
Novior/Novèssemo

Reo- Bad
Pér/Pèssemo
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Re: Islogian

Post by Ælfwine » Tue 01 Aug 2017, 00:15

How did Latin manage to survive in the Eastern Roman Empire, where is wasn't spoken much outside of political settings and military outposts?
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Tue 01 Aug 2017, 01:01

Ælfwine wrote:How did Latin manage to survive in the Eastern Roman Empire, where is wasn't spoken much outside of political settings and military outposts?
The biggest bit of alt-history in the development of Islogian is that Latin replaced Koine Greek in most aspects. There isn't much of an explanation other than that that is simply what happened.
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Re: Islogian

Post by All4Ɇn » Tue 01 Aug 2017, 22:45

Definite Articles
Unlike other Romance languages, Islogian does not have indefinite articles as nouns that are not definite are presumed indefinite. The definite articles are the only place where neuter nouns are distinct from masculine nouns in the singular.
Spoiler:
Singular:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: Al; La; Lo
*Before vowel: Al; L'; L'
Dative/Genitive: Al; La; Lo
*Before vowel: Al; L'; L'

Plural:
Nominative/Accusative/Instrumental-Comitative: I; Le; Le
*Before noun not starting with a vowel: Gli; Le; Le
Dative/Genitive: Los; Las; Las
Now part of me would like to incorporate the sun and moon letters into the pronunciation of the definite article al, although I'm not sure how probable this is even if was derived not directly from Arabic but through its own means but stuck around partially due to Arabic influence. What do you guys think?
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Re: Islogian

Post by Isfendil » Tue 01 Aug 2017, 23:42

Sun and moon is a fairly reasonable phonological process, I don't it'd be too farfetched, but given that there are many different forms of definite article which might hold it due to analogy and al in islogian was a larger particle with romance origins, I am unsure.
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Re: Islogian

Post by shimobaatar » Wed 02 Aug 2017, 03:48

All4Ɇn wrote:I've been working on this extensively the past month or so and though I'd share. Islogian was the first major conlang project I ever started. I abandoned it due to disappointment with its outcome. But since my conlanging skills have improved since I decided to go back to it and fix everything I had problems with about it.
Yay!

I'm quite surprised that multiple people have asked something along the lines of how it's possible for a Romance language to be spoken where Islogian is, given that this is a conlanging/conworlding board. You've responded to those questions better than I would have.

Phonology and orthography stuff:
Spoiler:
All4Ɇn wrote:/m~ɱ n~n̪~ŋ ɲː/ <m n gn>
/p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ/ <p b t d c~ch g~gh>
/t̻͡s̪ d̻͡z̪ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ <ţ~ç z c~ci g~gi>
/s̪ z̪ ʃ ʒ/ <s~ss ḑ~s sc~sci~ş j>
/f v x ∅/ <f v ch h>
/j w r l̪~lˤ ʎː/ <i u r l gl~gli>
I assume the situation is <c g ci gi> before back vowels and <ch gh c g> before front vowels, and <s ḑ> word initially, but <ss s> medially, right? But what determines the spelling of /t̻͡s̪/? Etymology? Is /ʎː/ <gl> before front vowels but <gli> before back vowels? Similarly, is /ʃ/ <sc> before front vowels but <sci> before back vowels? If that's the case, though, when is it <ş>? And is <sc> just /s̪k/ elsewhere?

Do speakers just have to learn when <ch> is /x/ and when it's /k/? Are /gl̪~glˤ/ or /gn/ valid clusters?

I assume the exact realization of /m~ɱ n~n̪~ŋ/ is determined by the following consonant, but what determines the realization of /l̪~lˤ/? I assume it's not just a case of free variation?
All4Ɇn wrote:All consonants can be geminated with the exceptions of /ɲː j w ʎː/
Can /s̪/ be geminated in the environment in which it is spelled <ss>? If so, how is that represented?
All4Ɇn wrote:/i ɨ u/ <i î~â~û~ô~ê u>
/e o/ <e o>
/ɛ ɔ/ <e o>
/ä ɑ/ <a a>
/ɛ ɔ ɑ/ only exist in stressed syllables and are replaced with /e o ä/ elsewhere
So /ɛ ɔ ɑ/ only contrast with /e o ä/ in stressed syllables? Is stress ever marked? Does etymology determine the spelling of /ɨ/? Would, for example, the sequence <cî>, be pronounced as /t͡ʃɨ/ or /kɨ/?
All4Ɇn wrote:Vowel Length
When a vowel is stressed in a non-final open syllable, the vowel is pronounced long. In all other cases the syllable is pronounced short. There are only 2 exceptions to this:
1. In -re verbs which have only a single consonant before the -re and a vowel before that, the vowel before the consonant is always pronounced long.
2. Some single syllable morphemes

Contrastive Vowel Length
Vowel length is contrastive in a set number of single syllable morphemes. All other single syllable words are pronounced with short vowels
So vowel length is only marked orthographically when it's contrastive/unpredictable?
All4Ɇn wrote:Al [äl̪]- DEF.ART.MASC.SG
Ál [äːl̪]- to.DEF.ART.FEM.SG/to.DEF.ART.NEUT.SG (pre-vowel)

Àl [ɑl̪]- to.DEF.ART.MASC.SG / Hàl [ɑl̪]- state/condition/health.NOM.SG
Àl [ɑːl̪]- Common prefix in family names

Ca [kɑ]- house.NOM.SG
Cà [kɑː]- as/since/for
If /ä ɑ/ contrast here, does that mean that monosyllabic words are considered stressed syllables?

Also, are stressed /e o ä/ just <e o a> while /ɛ ɔ ɑ/, which only appear stressed, are <è ò à>, and therefore /ä äː/ can be differentiated orthographically but /ɑ ɑː/ can't? But wait, why is /ɑ/ <a> in "ca", but <à> in "àl" and "hàl"? Is the presence or absence of coda consonants relevant?
All4Ɇn wrote: Cel [t͡ʃɛl̪]- DEM.MASC.SG
Cèl [t͡ʃɛːl̪]- DEM.FEM.SG/DEM.NEUT.SG (pre-vowel)

[…]

De [d̪e]- about/from
Dé [d̪eː]- give.1S.SJV/give.3S.SJV

Del [d̪ɛl̪]- from/about.DEF.ART.MASC.SG
Dèl [d̪ɛːl̪]- from/about.DEF.ART.FEM.SG/from/about.DEF.ART.NEUT.SG (pre-vowel)

[…]

E [e]- and
É [eː]- eat.2S.IMP

È [ɛ]- be.3S.PRES
Èe [ɛː]- eat.3S.PRES

Es [ɛs̪]- be.2S.PRES
Ès [ɛːs̪]- eat.2S.PRES

[…]

Re [re]- king.NOM.SG
Ré [reː]- bad/evil.FEM.NOM.PL
Why aren't [t͡ʃɛl̪ d̪ɛl̪ ɛs̪] <cèl dèl ès>? To prevent homographs? Is that why [ɛː] is <èe>? But then why are [ɑl̪ ɑːl̪] both <àl>?
All4Ɇn wrote:Chi [ki]- who.NOM/who.ACC
Chì [kiː]- that (conjunction)

[…]


Ḑi [z̪i]- say.2S.IMP
Ḑii [z̪iː]- say.2S.IMP-3P.ACC.PRO
Why is /iː/ <ì> in "chì" but <ii> in every other example given?
All4Ɇn wrote: Î [ɨ]- in/inside
 [ɨː]- today

Îl [ɨl̪]- in.DEF.ART.MASC.SG
Îl [ɨːl̪]- 3S.MASC.NOM.PRO
So /ɨː/ can never be differentiated from /ɨ/ in writing?

I'm probably just overthinking all this and expecting everything to make perfect sense when I know full well that natlang orthographies usually don't, and that you're good at making naturalistic orthographies. The noun declension sections have given me even more questions about the language's orthography, but I won't bother you with those.

All4Ɇn wrote:Regular Noun Declensions
The instrumental-comitative case is an interesting addition! Do you have any idea what percentage of nouns in the language are in each declension?
All4Ɇn wrote:Some nouns in this pattern maintain a different stem in the dative/genitive forms:
Tàlbe/Tùlbes
Bàdne
Duccne
Ambre/Umbres
Cabre
Just to be clear, what forms are each of these?
All4Ɇn wrote:Cossůr (f)- Sister
I know I said no more questions about the orthography, but I don't see anything about <ů> in this new thread before the first post on irregular nouns. Were these copied from an older thread?
All4Ɇn wrote:Rather than use a determiner, Islogian opts instead to show possession through use of prefixes. For those with multiple forms listed, the first form listed is the masculine, second feminine, and third neuter.
Perhaps you meant "suffixes"?
All4Ɇn wrote:All regular adjectives/adverbs use the same form for both the comparative and superlative. Its stem formed by adding -ior to the dative/genitive stem of the adjective. Adjectives/adverbs whose stems end in -d/-l/-t instead have the endings -ḑor/-glior/-ţor. The superlative is always preceded by a definite article.
Wait, so, once -ior is added to the adjective's dative/genitive stem, how are regular comparatives and superlatives formed?
All4Ɇn wrote:Now part of me would like to incorporate the sun and moon letters into the pronunciation of the definite article al, although I'm not sure how probable this is even if was derived not directly from Arabic but through its own means but stuck around partially due to Arabic influence. What do you guys think?
It would be cool, but I don't know how realistic it is.
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