Yep. I don't know of any words where this happens yet but <ḑ> could theoretically occur medially due to etymology. The vast majority of nouns spell /t̻͡s̪/ with <ţ> while a very small closed number of words use ç.shimobaatar wrote:I assume the situation is <c g ci gi> before back vowels and <ch gh c g> before front vowels, and <s ḑ> word initially, but <ss s> medially, right? But what determines the spelling of /t̻͡s̪/? Etymology?
<gl sc> follow the same rules as Italian. /ʃ/ is typically only spelled <sc> for etymology while <ş> is used elsewhere although there are a lot of exceptions.shimobaatar wrote:Is /ʎː/ <gl> before front vowels but <gli> before back vowels? Similarly, is /ʃ/ <sc> before front vowels but <sci> before back vowels? If that's the case, though, when is it <ş>? And is <sc> just /s̪k/ elsewhere?
<ch> is /k/ before front vowels and /x/ everywhere else. /gl̪ gn/ could definitely exist although I can't think of any nativized words with /gn/ right now.shimobaatar wrote:Do speakers just have to learn when <ch> is /x/ and when it's /k/? Are /gl̪~glˤ/ or /gn/ valid clusters?
/lˤ/ is used if between a back vowel and a front vowel, or between 2 back vowels while /l̪/ is used elsewhereshimobaatar wrote:What determines the realization of /l̪~lˤ/
The correct pronunciation of medial <ss> is technically /s̪ː/ but is often pronounced simply as <s̪>shimobaatar wrote:Can /s̪/ be geminated in the environment in which it is spelled <ss>? If so, how is that represented?
Yep. By default words are stressed on the penultimate syllable if ending in a vowel/n/r/s or the final syllable if ending in any other consonant. By default, the stressed vowel is /e o ä/ in open syllables and /ɛ ɔ ɑ/ in closed. If the syllable is stressed elsewhere or uses a different vowel than expect than it is marked.shimobaatar wrote:So /ɛ ɔ ɑ/ only contrast with /e o ä/ in stressed syllables? Is stress ever marked? Also, are stressed /e o ä/ just <e o a> while /ɛ ɔ ɑ/, which only appear stressed, are <è ò à>, and therefore /ä äː/ can be differentiated orthographically but /ɑ ɑː/ can't? But wait, why is /ɑ/ <a> in "ca", but <à> in "àl" and "hàl"? Is the presence or absence of coda consonants relevant?
Yep and it would be /t͡ʃɨ/. As /ɨː/ occurs so rarely there's no need for the distinctionshimobaatar wrote:Does etymology determine the spelling of /ɨ/? Would, for example, the sequence <cî>, be pronounced as /t͡ʃɨ/ or /kɨ/? So /ɨː/ can never be differentiated from /ɨ/ in writing?
Yepshimobaatar wrote:So vowel length is only marked orthographically when it's contrastive/unpredictable? If /ä ɑ/ contrast here, does that mean that monosyllabic words are considered stressed syllables?
In the others the second <i> is a separate morpheme while in <chì> the vowel is long specifically to avoid confusion with <chi>/shimobaatar wrote:Why is /iː/ <ì> in "chì" but <ii> in every other example given?
Thanks! Hopefully I cleared it up for youshimobaatar wrote:I'm probably just overthinking all this and expecting everything to make perfect sense when I know full well that natlang orthographies usually don't, and that you're good at making naturalistic orthographies. The noun declension sections have given me even more questions about the language's orthography, but I won't bother you with those.
Thanks but I'm not sure I understand your question here.shimobaatar wrote:The instrumental-comitative case is an interesting addition! Do you have any idea what percentage of nouns in the language are in each declension?
Dative/Genitive singular. Bisyllabic nouns stressed on the first often remove the second unstressed vowel.shimobaatar wrote:Just to be clear, what forms are each of these?
Sorry I don't know how I skipped that. <ů> is used where the pronunciation was once /wo/ before being simplified to /u/.shimobaatar wrote:I know I said no more questions about the orthography, but I don't see anything about <ů> in this new thread before the first post on irregular nouns. Were these copied from an older thread?
How did I mess that upshimobaatar wrote:Perhaps you meant "suffixes"?
Another thing I should have mentioned. They're declined the same as regular third declension adjectivesshimobaatar wrote:Wait, so, once -ior is added to the adjective's dative/genitive stem, how are regular comparatives and superlatives formed?
Thanks for all the questions and repliesshimobaatar wrote:It would be cool, but I don't know how realistic it is.