Ȧbhannı

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Ȧbhannı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Tue 26 Sep 2017, 05:05

Check out my WIP grammar (with a refined phonology) typeset in LaTeX here!

Ȧbhannı is a language isolate on the main inhabited continent of some unmade conworld.

Phonology

/m n̪/ ⟨m n
/t̪ ɟ̟ k/ ⟨t ȷ k
/β θ̱ ɕ ʑ x/ ⟨b z s ȷh h
/ɾ̪/ ⟨r

/i e ɔ a/ ⟨ı e o a
/í é ɔ́ á/ ⟨i ė ȯ ȧ
/eɪ̯ ɔʊ̯ ɔɪ̯/ ⟨eı ou oı
/éɪ̯ ɔ́ʊ̯ ɔ́ɪ̯/ ⟨ėı ȯu ȯı

Vowel harmony exists between the two mid vowels, i.e. roots are either e-grade or o-grade, where ⟨e ė eı ėı⟩ correspond to ⟨o ȯ ou ȯu⟩.

Phonotactics

Maximal syllable structure is (C)V(C), with the following constraints
  • ȷh⟩ becomes ⟨r⟩ word-finally
  • ȷ⟩ becomes ⟨n⟩ word-finally
The following (intervocallic) clusters are valid:
  • mm⟩, ⟨nn⟩, ⟨tt⟩, ⟨kk⟩, ⟨zz⟩, ⟨ss⟩, ⟨hh⟩, ⟨rr
  • zm⟩, ⟨sm⟩, ⟨hm⟩, ⟨rm⟩, ⟨hn
  • nt⟩, ⟨zt⟩, ⟨st⟩, ⟨ht⟩, ⟨rt⟩, ⟨nk⟩, ⟨rk
  • rb⟩, ⟨nh⟩, ⟨th⟩, ⟨bh⟩, ⟨rh
  • kr⟩, ⟨br⟩, ⟨hr
Suffixes will place an epenthetic -a- after the root in order to prevent the formation of illegal clusters.

Prosody

Stress is dactylic in roots, that is, it follows a repeating stressed-unstressed-unstressed pattern. Only stressed vowels may take a high tone. However, normal-tone vowels in word-final syllables are always unstressed. Abhanȷı is roughly stress-timed.

Allophony

Ȧbhannı has fairly minimal allophony (suggestions welcome). This includes:
  • /a/ → [ɑ] in o-grade words
  • /k x n̪k/ → [k̟ x̟ n̪k̟] when adjacent to /i/
  • [k x n̪k] → [ḵ x̱ n̪ḵ] in o-grade words, when not adjacent to /i/ or a consonant adjacent to containing /i/
  • [n̪t̪ n̪k̟ n̪k n̪ḵ] → [n̪d̪ ŋ̟k̟ ŋg ŋ̱g̱]
  • Plosives are unreleased word-finally
Last edited by vo1dwalk3r on Fri 29 Dec 2017, 17:39, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Abhanȷı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 04:28

Check out the edit of my first post where I linked my WIP grammar typeset in LaTeX! I don't have too much else for this post other than a bit of typology. I have a lot planned out for verbal and nominal morphology and other grammatical features but they're very incomplete and I want to get down the basics before moving on. I'm curious to hear what you think!

Morphological Typology

Synthesis in Abhanȷı is tends to fall into three categories: verbal morphology, marking tense; nominal morphology, marking case and number; and extensive derivational morphology. These functions of synthesis are almost exclusively agglutinating and suffixing, apart from stem modification and suppletion being very common for the irregular formation of past tense verbs. Abhanȷı is also predominantly head-marking; for example, in the case of possession, the object possessed is marked.

Other grammatical functions are marked using isolating morphological processes.

Syntactic Typology

The clause order of Abhanȷı is a strict VSO except in negative clauses and questions, where it is SVO. Questions are marked only through word order, unless they ask a negative in which case a special negative particle is used. Abhanȷı also tends to be head-initial; for example, adpositions are prepositions and occasionally circumpositions, and modifiers (including relative clauses and auxiliary verbs) follow what they modify.

Morphosyntactic Alignment

Abhanȷı follows roughly a split-S active-stative alignment, marking subjects of volitional verbs and objects of non-volitional verbs in the active case and other nouns in the stative case, where each verb belongs to a fixed “volitional” or “non-volitional” class. However, it has similarities with a fluid-S alignment, as morphological processes can be used to transform a verb between cases. However, this process is often irregular and generally non-functional, so that younger words cannot generally undergo this process.
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Re: Abhanȷı

Post by Iyionaku » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 08:13

Nice to see that you use LateX for your grammar. I do that too (although I lack motivation after having written two subsequent scientific works for university with it atm).

Actually, your grammar reads very well and way better than your post that I found very confusing at first sight. I recommend everyone who is interested in the language to directly read the LateX document.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: Abhanȷı

Post by Frislander » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 10:45

I do really rather like the look of that phonology, though the voicing contrast in the palatal fricatives only strikes me as a little weird. I can't wait for more of the grammar!
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Re: Abhanȷı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Wed 04 Oct 2017, 15:31

Thanks guys!
Iyionaku wrote:Nice to see that you use LateX for your grammar. I do that too (although I lack motivation after having written two subsequent scientific works for university with it atm).
I finally convinced myself to start using it now that I'm in an "actual" math course and realized it would be cool to use for conlanging. I'm really enjoying it so far, the results are so aesthetically pleasing.
Frislander wrote:I do really rather like the look of that phonology, though the voicing contrast in the palatal fricatives only strikes me as a little weird.
Yeah the phonology's a wierd one. There are a lot of quirks to it that I can come up with historical explanations for, but the palatals are giving me a hard time. If only it had some living relatives I could make a more informed reconstruction...
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Fri 29 Dec 2017, 00:16

I've been working a lot but I tend to work very non-linearly, so it's hard to organize it into separate posts. I've uploaded my current LaTeX grammar and dictionary here. I also renamed it to Ȧbhannı because I realized I don't allow the ⟨⟩ cluster, haha. I imagine you guys would like to see some text—here's the opening of the Odyssey.

Mıȯuzko mȧȷharra erekı e, om ȧr e ȧnnır
[miˈɔ̂ʊ̯θ̱.ḵɔ ˈmá.ʑɐr.ra ˈɛ.ɺe.k̟i e, om áɺ e án̪.n̪iɺ]
muse-VOC sing from.within 1sg, and with 1sg tell.story
Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story

rah ȧrkon a sinıhratı mȯrakoztı inok,
[ɺɐx ˈáɺ.ḵɔn̪ a ˈɕí.n̪ix̟.ɺɐ.t̪i ˈmɔ́.ɺɐ.ḵɔθ̱.t̪i ˈí.n̪ɔḵ̚]
man with-be-PST REL.sg skill-ACT-POSS-pl method-all-POSS-pl fighting,
of that man skilled in all ways of contending,

tanarahȧıbasan a, ėzehamrahamı roȷoran barı a,
[ˈt̪a.n̪ɐ.ɺɐˈxáɪ̯.βɐ.ɕɐn̪ a, ˈɛ́.θ̱e.xɐmˈɺa.xɐ.mi ˈɺɔ.ɟ̟ɔ.ɺɐn̪ ˈβa.ɺi a,]
wander-er-be-PST REL.sg, for.year-many-REDUP-PL request-make-PST 3-ACT-pl REL.sg,
the wanderer, harried for years on end,

ȯrı ėkken bar nȧntar kı ȧztennaket
[ˈɔ́.ɺi ˈék.kɛn̪ βɐɺ ˈn̪án̪.d̪ɐɺ k̟i ˈáθ̱.t̪ɛn̪.n̪ɐ.kɛt̪̚]
after take-PST 3-ACT wealth out.from strong-place
after he plundered the stonghold

hın a zabokotarat Tarȯı.
[x̟in̪ a ˈθ̱a.βɔ.ḵɔˈt̪a.ɺɐt̪ t̪ɐˈɺɔ́ɪ̯]
be.on-PST REL.sg high-place-ACT-POSS Troy
on the proud height of Troy.

Here's another text, a short poem I wrote and translated, which I set a song to for my composition class. It's not an example of "in-universe" poetry, with respect to my unmade conworld, but just an experiment.

ke ȧıno saratı e,
ke ȧıno saratı e

zaratar e ommıratı
ere zin akamı hȧtousırı—
bȯu issat ȯ tan
emık e zabor—

ȯ ȷano zarat er,
ȯ tan zȧn asorat e


Curious what you guys think. Thanks for reading!
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by DesEsseintes » Fri 29 Dec 2017, 07:03

Your grammar doc makes me want to learn LaTeX.

The language looks pleasant. You make use of pretty much all my favourite features, namely overdots on vowels, ı, and gemination.
Last edited by DesEsseintes on Fri 29 Dec 2017, 07:35, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Fri 29 Dec 2017, 07:10

Beautiful, right? It can be tricky sometimes though.
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by Thrice Xandvii » Fri 29 Dec 2017, 08:22

(You formatted your link in the OP incorrectly. In the opening [ it needs to be url= and then the URL, not just the URL.)
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by Frislander » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 15:28

Interesting grammar, looks good, I especially like the use of auxilliaries for aspect (very Tibeto-Burman) and the the different varieties of adjectives.

I'm slightly confused by the vocative case though, which may be a feature of the lack of examples, but what does the difference between "positive" and "negative" vocatives mean?
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 17:45

Ah, right. The vocative has a normal (i.e. Latin-esque) use, but when the subject of a clause is put in the vocative case and placed before the verb, this forms an imperative mood clause. Now, instead of negating the verb in this case, you use the negative vocative ending.
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by Frislander » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 18:34

vo1dwalk3r wrote:
Sat 30 Dec 2017, 17:45
Ah, right. The vocative has a normal (i.e. Latin-esque) use, but when the subject of a clause is put in the vocative case and placed before the verb, this forms an imperative mood clause. Now, instead of negating the verb in this case, you use the negative vocative ending.
Oh my that is an interesting construction, and a good way to get more use out of the vocative (which seems to be a rather weird case that doesn't seem to do anything else in natlangs). This would be good to put in your syntax section. I don't think it's attested in natlangs at all but I like it all the same (though languages having separate forms for the prohibitive vis-à-vis the normal negative is extremely common).
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Wed 10 Jan 2018, 23:35

Okay, I think I've gotten far enough on Ȧbhannı that it's time to start over. :D

But to be serious, this is a problem of mine. If I work too long on a conlang, particularly if I'm going for naturalism, it starts to feel "topheavy" and frustrating and unmotivating. So I want to start over (not entirely from scratch of course), this time with Ȧbhannı's structure in mind and try to give it a more solid linguistic base. I may go through this process multiple times, but I think eventually I'll get it in a state that I like.

This time though I want to focus a lot more on the worldbuilding aspect of it, since Ȧbhannı is set in a conworld. So, for reference, here's a map of the region, with the Ȧbhannı region roughly in the blurry red part. The bottom of this image is the equator and the top is roughly the 75º; that puts the Ȧbhannı region at approximately the latitude of Georgia/the Carolinas, the northernmost land around mid-south Scandinavia, and the whole continent (what can be seen) maybe a bit smaller than South America. This map is fairly tentative, but should be a decent idea of the geography of the region.

Now, Ȧbhannı is actually not itself a language isolate as I previously stated, but a member of the Abhannic language family along with another, smaller language spoken a bit north (and some dialects of the two). These split off maybe 1000 or so years before modern Ȧbhannı as described above. The first major stage of the Abhannic languages comes probably a few centuries before, with the emergence of a complex society by speakers of "Old Ȧbhannı," or Hȧṕuxańńı, an isolate. A harsher climate lead to the shrinking of this civilization and the split of the northern group. The northern language remains fairly conservative, while Ȧbhannı underwent some major phonological developments during this time. Around 500 years BP, Ȧbhannı was in its middle stage and pretty close to its modern stage, and Ȧbhannı society had begun to recover and spread again.

The following is a tentative sketch of Old Ȧbhannı phonology. It's tricky working backwards, especially because Ȧbhannı phonology is so wierd and I wanted to explain both the palatal series and the vowel harmony which were hard to do together.

/mʲ mˠ nʲ nˠ/ ⟨ḿ m ń n⟩
/pʲ pˠ tʲ tˠ kʲ k ʔ/ ⟨ṕ p t́ t ḱ k ʔ⟩
/sʲ sˠ xʲ x h/ ⟨ś s x́ x h⟩
/rʲ rˠ j ɰ/ ⟨ŕ r ȷ w⟩

/i ɯ ǝ a/ ⟨ı u ǝ a⟩
/əi əɯ ai/ ⟨ǝı ǝu aı⟩

Syllables are CV(R), where R is a nasal, rhotic or approximant. Stress is exclusively root-initial, where there may be a pitch accent (high tone, marked as overdot). /h/ and /ʔ/ are found only (almost only?) word-initially.

Old Ȧbhannı had a topic marker wǝ/jǝ, which was always unstressed and preceded the noun; which one was used was based on noun class, which was either animate or inanimate (roughly).

More soon, hopefully...
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Re: Ȧbhannı

Post by vo1dwalk3r » Mon 15 Jan 2018, 01:17

Ok ok, I've finally figured out Old Ȧbhannı (now Haʔpuhannı) phonology and the diachronics to modern Ȧbhannı:

/mʲ mˠ nʲ nˠ/ ⟨ḿ m ń n
/pʲ pˠ kʲ k ʔ/ ⟨ṕ p ḱ k ʔ
/sʲ sˠ h/ ⟨ś s h
/ɾʲ ɾˠ j w/ ⟨ŕ r w y

/i ɯ ǝ a/ ⟨ı u ǝ a
/ǝɪ̯ aɪ̯/ ⟨əı aı

Stress is exclusively word-initial.

Glides occur exclusively word-initially.

Syllable structure is CV(N), where N can be a nasal or glottal consonant. Valid clusters are homorganic nasal+plosive, and glottal+consonant (except ʔ). In addition, all consonants except ʔ, j and w can be geminated.

Coincidentally, the consonant inventory is identical to Abau's, plus the palatalized/velarized contrast and the glottal stop.

The diachronics are kinda messy, and still subject to change, so here they are in action. The words and are animacy-based topic markers which were dropped but effected vowel harmony:

/wǝ jaɪ̯ʔnˠa/ wǝ yaıʔna → /áɪ̯na/ ȧına 'rain'
/hɯmˠa/ huma → /xama/ hama 'to eat'
/wǝ hiɾˠǝ/ wǝ hırǝ → /xiɺɔ/ hıro 'sky'
/wǝ yihsʲǝ/ wǝ yıhśǝ → /íɕ.ɕa/ issa 'breath'
/yǝ kʲǝsʲiɾˠɯ/ wǝ ḱǝśıru → /keɕiɺ/ kesır 'storm'
/wǝ yǝʔhanˠ/ wǝ yǝʔhan → /ɔ́.xan/ ȯhan 'snow'
/ɾapˠǝɪ̯/ rapǝı → /ɺaβɔʊ̯/ rabou 'to fall'
/pʲǝʔkaɪ̯/ ṕǝʔkaı → /tákaɪ̯/ tȧkaı 'to run'
/pʲaɾˠapˠɯ/ ṕarapu → /taraβ/ tarab 'clear'
/wǝ sˠapˠǝ/ wǝ sapu → /θaβɔ/ zabo 'wind'
/yǝ sˠɯhɯʔ/ yǝ suhuʔ → /θax/ zah 'horizon'
/sˠaʔnʲɯ/ saʔńu → /θán/ zȧn 'to flee'
/sˠaɾˠapʲɯ/ saraṕu → /θaɺat/ zarat 'to see'

I'm really glad I have a decent outline of Ȧbhannı diachronics because now I can make a much more historically informed (and hopefully self-consistent) grammar.
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