Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

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Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 07 Oct 2017, 11:45

I've wanted to get back into this for a long time. I'm revisiting Dijo to give it a new coat of phonemes, mess with its grammar a bit, and turn it into something new. The original Dijo post has been buried since February, as has been my motivation to conlang, but I'm getting back into it.

So, here we go. This is somewhere around my 8th attempted language, and I'm hoping this will be my best one yet. I'm still not going for any realism as usual as knowing what is and isn't realistic is beyond my understanding of Linguistics considering I have no formal education in it. This time, I'm going for a much bigger phonology and I'm basing it somewhat on my own phonology, but changing it up so it doesn't just sound like English. The purpose is the same: personal language to teach to a couple of friends and make a cool textbook thing on.

In several places listing markers and pronouns and so on, a lot of asterisks will be used. This is just to mark where I haven't come up with the word in the language yet, and they'll be replaced as I come up with them. Until then, make whatever noise you want when reading aloud.

Feedback is wanted! I really love answering questions about stuff, and it could really help me iron out any issues with the language as well as introduce new interesting things.

Contents
Phonology, Orthography, Phonotactics
Basic Syntax
Pronouns
Noun Case
Article
Plural
Auxiliary Verb
Hierarchical Relation
Questions
More Coming Soon...
Last edited by OTʜᴇB on Sat 11 Nov 2017, 21:25, edited 10 times in total.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 07 Oct 2017, 12:20

Contents

Phonology, Orthography, Phonotactics

1 / p~p̚ b~b̚ t~t̚ d~d̚ k~k̚ g~ɡ̚ / <p b t d k g >
2 / pʷ bʷ tʷ dʷ kʷ ɡʷ / <pw bw tw dw kw gw >
3 / pʲ bʲ tʲ dʲ kʲ ɡʲ / <pj bj tj dj kj gj >
4 / m~m̩ n~n̩ ŋ~ŋ̩ / < m n ŋ >
5 / mʷ nʷ ŋʷ / < mw nw ŋw >
6 / mʲ nʲ ŋʲ / < mj nj ŋj >
7 / ɾ / < rr >
8 / f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ / < f v th dh s z sh zh >
9 / fʷ vʷ θʷ ðʷ sʷ zʷ ʃʷ ʒʷ / < fw vw thw dhw sw zw shw zhw >
10 / fʲ vʲ θʲ ðʲ sʲ zʲ ʃʲ ʒʲ / <fj vj thj dhj sj zj shj zhj >
11 / ɬ ɮ / < lh ll >
12 / ʍ w ɹ ɹʷ j / < wh w r rw j >
13 / l~ɫ~ɫ̩ / < l >
14 / p͡f b͡v t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ɬ d͡ɮ / < pf bv ts dz tsh dzh tlh dll >

/ ə ɑː ɔː / < e a o >
  • Syllable structure is (C)(C)V/C(C)(C)
  • Single-consonant onsets can be any from groups 1-3, 5-12, and 14 (excluding /t͡ɬ d͡ɮ/) as well as /l/
  • The nucleus can be any from group 4 as well as /ɫ̩/ or a vowel
  • Single-consonant codas can be any from groups 1, 4, 8, and 11 as well as /ɫ/
  • Onset clusters are:
    • / p k / followed by / ɾ ɬ ɹ l /
    • / b g / followed by / ɾ ɮ ɹ l /
    • / t d / followed by / ɾ ɹ /
    • / m / followed by / ɹ l /
    • / n ŋ / followed by / ɹ /
    • Group 8 followed by / ɾ ɹ l /
    • Group 14 followed by / l /
  • Coda clusters are:
    • / p̚ k̚ / followed by / t /
    • / b̚ ɡ̚ / followed by / d /
    • / m / followed by / p b /
    • / n / followed by / t d /
    • / ŋ / followed by / k g /
    • / f θ ʃ / followed by / t k /
    • / v ð ʒ / followed by / d g /
    • / s / followed by / p t k /
    • / z / followed by / b d g /
    • / ɫ / followed by Group 1 or / f v /
    • / t͡ɬ d͡ɮ / followed by / ɫ /
  • If the nucleus contains a nasal, then neither the onset or coda may
  • Conversely, if either the onset or coda contains a nasal, then the nucleus may not
  • No phoneme may appear at the end of one syllable and at the start of the next simultaneously
  • No two plosives with the same place of articulation may appear next to each other
  • No voiced and unvoiced pair may appear next to each other
  • An approximant in the onset means no consonant with the same place of articulation may appear in the nucleus
  • A labialised consonant in the onset means no bilabial consonant may appear in the nucleus
  • Syllables in the middle or at the end of a word must contain an onset and nucleus
  • Syllables at the start of a word need only contain a nucleus
The following allophony rules apply:
  • p b t d k g > p̚ b̚ t̚ d̚ k̚ ɡ̚ / [nucleus]_#
  • p b k g > p̚ b̚ k̚ ɡ̚ / [nucleus]_t [nucleus]_d
  • m n ŋ > m̩ n̩ ŋ̩ / in nucleus
  • l > ɫ / in coda
  • l > ɫ̩ / in nucleus
Last edited by OTʜᴇB on Mon 13 Nov 2017, 22:08, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 07 Oct 2017, 20:31

Contents

Basic Syntax

Basic word order is OSV, but it can be expanded to COSVA. C is a context section of a clause which would contain information about the context of a clause, such as where it happened, what was used to complete the action, or a deadline for an action. V is an auxiliary verb that denotes tense, aspect, and mood, and A is a noun that represents the action in the clause. Words fall under 7 groups: Noun, Adjective, Adverb, Auxiliary verb, Case markers, Article markers, and Plural markers. A large clause would build up like this:

[ Loc/Time/Rel Art Noun Pl Adj(s) ], [ Art Noun Pl Adj(s) ] [ Loc Art Noun Pl Adj(s) ] [ AuxVerb ] [ Mot Art Noun Adv(s) ]

The smallest sentence contains only the subject, and is used to declare its existence or for the Vocative case – for instance when calling the name of a friend. The Action is required for there to be an object. Single-word sentences might also be an action. In this case, it might indicate an action being done, or an informal command.
Last edited by OTʜᴇB on Sat 28 Oct 2017, 17:52, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by Reyzadren » Mon 09 Oct 2017, 03:19

So, how is/was your textbook so far? (Dijo or language 8 etc)

Collating all information about a conlang in one concise place is always a good thing.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Mon 09 Oct 2017, 10:49

Reyzadren wrote:So, how is/was your textbook so far? (Dijo or language 8 etc)

Collating all information about a conlang in one concise place is always a good thing.
The textbook was and is still only in the design stage. I've planned out the contents and written a short introduction that I'll be rewriting to fit Lang8 better. I have just about sorted the design though. Feel free to browse the PDF here and tell me what you think - considering it is still very incomplete. It's all being done with LaTeX so this design bit will take me a while, but then the writing bit will happen much faster.

Other than the textbook, I'm basically using this thread as the more concise layout of all the info on my conlang.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by Iyionaku » Mon 09 Oct 2017, 12:35

The textbook looks ridiculously good. I admire people who really dug deep into LateX so much. I, unfortunately, only mastered it on an operational level (which is still better than nothing I guess)
Edit: Quick hint: Use the xlist package for your examples - it basically adds tab stops automatically so that one translated word, its gloss and the respective translation are all in the same column.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Mon 09 Oct 2017, 21:20

Iyionaku wrote:
Edit: Quick hint: Use the xlist package for your examples - it basically adds tab stops automatically so that one translated word, its gloss and the respective translation are all in the same column.
Hint taken. I was originally trying to use tables for that, but it was really clunky.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by Reyzadren » Tue 10 Oct 2017, 00:21

Example 1.1 looks amazing, of course. Both of us know why :P
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Tue 10 Oct 2017, 19:30

Reyzadren wrote:Example 1.1 looks amazing, of course. Both of us know why :P
Indeed. I think it was you that posted the textbook draft several months ago that I only mimicked a lot with LaTeX. To be fair, it is some exceptional styling work.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 28 Oct 2017, 18:03

Contents

Pronouns

Pronouns behave in much the way one might expect. They can be substituted in place of nouns to negate the need for repeatedly describing them. Some article markers can be used as pronouns:

Code: Select all

PROX.DEM  "this"        *
DIST.DEM  "that"        *
          "everything"  *
The first two are to be treated as a 3SG pronoun, and a plural marker can be used if required.

The main pronouns convey no gender, only person. They are all singular as well, being made plural with a marker just like those already described. The 1SG pronoun is exclusive when made plural, and the listener would be included by adding "and 2SG" to the noun phrase.

Code: Select all

1SG  "I"          *
2SG  "you"        *
3SG  "he/she/it"  *
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 28 Oct 2017, 19:09

Contents

Noun Case

Noun cases are split into 4 groups that each reference a different aspect about the noun, be it location, motion, time, or relation. Only some can be used on different parts of a clause.

Location Cases

These may be placed on either the Context or Subject in a clause. On the Context, it will describe where an event happened in relation to the accompanying noun. On the Subject, it describes the location of the Subject, relative to the Object during the event. The Initiative and Terminative cases may only be placed on the Context.

Code: Select all

Adessive     “near”              *
Apudessive   “beside”            *
Inessive     “within”            *
Initiative   “starting from”     *
Intrative    “between”           *
Locative     “at”                *
Pertingent   “against/touching”  *
Subessive    “underneath”        *
Superessive  “on top of”         *
Terminative  “finishing at”      *
Motion Cases

These may be placed only on the Action. These describe in what manner the action was done, but may only be used if the Action is motion-related. Where no case is used, the action is done to the Object.

Code: Select all

Ablative     “away from”      *
Elative      “out of”         *
Initiative   “starting from”  *
Allative     “to”             *
Illative     “into”           *
Terminative  “finishing at”   *
Perlative    “through”        *
Prolative    “past”           *
Time Cases

These may be placed only on the Context. These describe when an event occurred. When used, the Context should either be a time or a full clause. In either case, the case marker is placed at the very beginning of the sentence.

Code: Select all

Pre         “before _”        *
Post        “after _”         *
Trans       “during _”        *
Accusative  “for _ time”      *
Limitative  “finishing by _”  *
Temporal    “at _ (time)”     *
Relation Cases

These may be placed only on the Context. These describe the relation between the Context and the Subject. This may describe a reason for an action, an implement used, or a helper in an event.

Code: Select all

Aversive      “avoiding”            *
Benefactive   “for the benefit of”  *
Causal        “because of”          *
Comitative    “with (help of)”      *
Instrumental  “using”               *
Privative     “without”             *
Semblative    “like _”              *
Instructive   "by means of"         *
Last edited by OTʜᴇB on Sat 11 Nov 2017, 21:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 11 Nov 2017, 18:37

Contents

Article

Articles denote the scope of a noun, whether it be to refer to a specific instance of a noun, all the way up to every instance of one. There are 8 article markers:

Code: Select all

NDEF      "a"             *
DEF       "the"           *
PROX.DEM  "this"          *
DIST.DEM  "that"          *
4.NDEF    "another"       *
4.DEF     "the other"     *
GEN       "_ in general"  *
UNI       "all"           *
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 11 Nov 2017, 19:27

Contents

Plural

Plurals are very simple. There is only a singular-plural distinction:

Code: Select all

SG  "one"   _
PL  "many"  *
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 11 Nov 2017, 20:43

Contents

Auxiliary Verb

The auxiliary verb is placed before the Action noun in a clause. Not only does it denote that the following noun phrase be interpreted as an action, but it conveys tense, aspect, and mood.

Tense

Tense follows a very simple Past-Present-Future distinction.

Aspect

Code: Select all

SIM    Simple        "did"              "do"                "will do"
PRF    Perfect       "had done"         "has done"          "will have done"
PRSP   Prospective   "was about to do"  "is about to do"    "will be about to do"
HAB    Habitual      "used to do"       "does"              "will do"
PROG   Progressive   "was doing"        "is doing"          "will be doing"
INCEP  Inceptive     "started to do"    "starting to do"    "will start to do"
RES    Resumptive    "resumed doing"    "is resuming doing" "will resume doing"
TERM   Terminative   "stopped doing"    "stopping doing"    "will stop doing"
CTN    Continuative  "was still doing"  "is still doing"    "will still be doing"
DFC    Defective     "almost did"       "almost does"       "will almost do"
ACD    Accidental    "accidentally did" "accidentally does" "will accidentally do"
Mood

Code: Select all

IND       Indicative             "this happened"
NDEF.IND  Indefinite Indicative  "this possibly happened"
SJV       Subjunctive            "thi should happen"
COND      Conditional            "this would happen if _"
OPT       Optative               "I wish for this to happen"
IMP       Imperative             "this must be done (command)"
NEC       Necessitative          "this must be done (necessity)"
POT       Potential              "this might happen"
PER       Permissive             "this is allowed to happen"
CAP       Abilitative            "this is able to happen"
Additional Markers

The negative marker m(e) can be placed on the auxiliary verb as a prefix to make it negative.

Complete Auxiliary Verb Table

Code: Select all

          SIM  PRF  PRSP  HAB  PROG  INCEP  RES  TERM  CTN  DFC  ACD
IND       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
NDEF.IND  *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
SJV       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
COND      *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
OPT       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
IMP       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
NEC       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
POT       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
PER       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
CAP       *    *    *     *    *     *      *    *     *    *    *
Yes, this looks really empty, but you'll have your 110 verbs eventually...
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 11 Nov 2017, 21:08

Contents

Hierarchical Relation

There are 3 hierarchical markers:

Code: Select all

PAR  Parent      *
CHL  Child       *
POS  Possessive  *
The marker is placed on the insignificant noun - the noun that is not the Subject or Object of the encapsulating clause. For instance, if one wishes to state that they live in Somewhereshire, they will put the parent marker between the 1SG and "Somewhereshire" to show that "Somewhereshire" is the hierarchical parent of oneself. This same principle is applied to family names, places of work/education, or any group a noun belongs to. The child marker refers to the contents of a conceptual noun. It is not used to refer to, say, the contents of a box, but it would be used in the phrase "herd of sheep", where the "sheep" are the hierarchical children of the "herd". The possessive is similar to the parent marker, but instead of marking association, it marks possession.

Another use case could be putting the child marker between "Somewhereshire" and the 1SG to refer to "Somewhereshire" as the significant noun, but add the information that it is where one lives. In English, this might be phased as "In Somewhereshire - where I live - ...".
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Sat 11 Nov 2017, 21:24

Contents

Questions

The most basic form of question is that of a conformation or a yes/no question. These are marked by placing * on the end of the clause.

Content questions are all formed from a single word that is substituted into the sentence. Where in a sentence it is and what surrounds it are what determine what the question asks for.
  • If it is marked by a Location case, then it is a "Who/What".
  • If it is marked by a Motion case, then it can be either "Who/What" or "Where". Which of the two it is is based on context and intuition and is unlikely to be confused.
  • If it is marked by a Time case, then it is a "When".
  • If it marked by a Relation case, then it is a "Who/What". However, if it is marked by the Causal case, then it can be a "Why", and if marked by the Instructive case, it can be a "How". Like the Motion cases, the type of question is determined by context and intuition.
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Re: Language 8 (or somewhere near 8)

Post by OTʜᴇB » Mon 13 Nov 2017, 22:00

I've modified the Phonology, Orthography, Phonotactics entry with allophony replacing the distinction between plosives with no audible release, syllabic nasals, and the variations on / l /. I've also added the allophony rules at the end and updated the phonetic group numbers which are proving wonderfully useful.
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