M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

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M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 20 Oct 2017, 06:08

M̟oḩaic is a language spoken on a Small Continent, about 3/4 the size of IRL Australia, to the West of Fuhe, called M̟oḩa /mˤoɦa/. It may be related to Idagian, the substrate language of Lumubuhudåg. as there are some possible cognate words like Southeast Lumubuhudåg /idæg/ and Proto-M̟oḩaic /ɨtʼaʔ/, both meqaning "Language" and similarities between valency changing operations in M̟oḩaic and Lumubuhudåg. There is also a small language family on the Southwest of M̟oḩa, Chaskian which contains four linguistic-ethnic groups, only one of which has a large independent polity (Shat), though one linguistic-ethnic group, the Sas, has a few independent city states. There is also an Isolate spoken on a peninsula jutting out of the border between the M̟oḩaic and Chaskian languages, Aunna, though it may be related to the Wanian languages, just obscured under M̟oḩaic and Chaskian influence.

Proto-M̟oḩaic
/p pˤ pʼ b bˤ t tˤ tʼ d dˤ t͡ʃ t͡ʃˤ t͡ʃʼ d͡ʒ d͡ʒˤ k kʼ g q q' ɢ ʔ/
/m mˤ n nˤ ɲ ɲˤ/
/θ θˤ ð ðˤ s sˤ z zˤ ʃ ʃˤ ʒ ʒˤ x ɣ X ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ/
/l/
/r/
/j w/

/ɨ ə ä/

Phonotactics: (C)V(j/w)(C)

Nouns:
Nouns have two genders, animate and inanimate, two numbers, singular and plural, and seven cases, Nominative, Accusative, Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental, Genitive, Locative, Allative, and Ablative.
Note: The Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental case is, in addition to being an intrumental case, also marks the theme of ditransitive verbs, as Proto-M̟oḩaic is Secundative.

Declension:
Animate:
Example noun /qaθaɦɨħ/ "Snake"
Singular:
Nominative: /qaθaɦɨħ/
Accusative: /qaθaɦɨħaʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /qaθaɦɨħəq/
Genitive: /qaθaɦɨħaɲɨ/
Locative: /qaθaɦɨħam/
Allative: /qaθaɦɨħəd/
Ablative: /qaθaɦɨħɨt'/

Plural:
Nominative: /qaθaɦɨħas/
Accusative: /qaθaɦɨħawʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /qaθaɦɨħəwq/
Genitive: /qaθaɦɨħajɲɨ/
Locative: /qaθaɦɨħawm/
Allative: /qaθaɦɨħəjd/
Ablative: /qaθaɦɨħɨjt'/

Inanimate:
Example: /p'arəʕ/ "River"
Nominative: /p'arəʕ/
Accusative: /p'arəʕaq'/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /p'arəʕəX/
Genitive: /p'arəʕən/
Locative: /p'arəʕəb/
Allative: /p'arəʕəðə/
Ablative: /p'arəʕɨk'/

Plural:
Nominative: /p'arəʕaj/
Accusative: /p'arəʕawq'/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /p'arəʕəwX/
Genitive: /p'arəʕəjn/
Locative: /p'arəʕəwb/
Allative: /p'arəʕəjð/
Ablative: /p'arəʕɨwk'/
Last edited by Shemtov on Fri 20 Oct 2017, 21:41, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 20 Oct 2017, 07:56

The next few posts will be about various branches of the family

The Gune Branch-Spoken along the Gune River valley (about a third of the way down from the north of M̟oḩa) , and its mouth, though to the west there is a bulge of Gune-languages to the south. This is the branch I'll work on first- as the language spoken at the river's mouth- Börëʿ /bøʀəʕ/, has had trade with Fuhe for the past hundred years.
Isoglosses of Gune: Ejectives to Pharyngialyzed consonants, followed by backing of following vowel for original pharyngial. Uvulars to velars, followed by backing of following vowel. Spiritization of /ɢ/. Affricates to Fricatives. Post-alveolars to alveolars, followed by fronting of vowel. Vowels after labials round. /pʼ/>/∅/. /Vj/ front. /Vw/ back and round. Loss of Ablative and Lative cases
Last edited by Shemtov on Thu 26 Oct 2017, 02:03, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 20 Oct 2017, 22:14

The second branch is Achanian, from Proto-Achanian /ʔa˧.t͡ʃan˩/ "Temple; Religion", as a mark of Pan-Achanian culture is the contruction of massive Temples to their gods, and a religion-centered Monarchy. It is spoken to the south of the Gune River valley, to the east of the bulge of Gune-languages to the south of the valley. The isoglosses of Achanian are: Cʼ>ʔ, fusion of syllable-final non-pharyngeal fricatives with their corrosponding stops, while syllable final pharyngeal fricatives >∅. Loss of Voice distinction for stops and fricatives, resulting in a tone-system (Proto-Achanian had a two-tone system /˧ ˩/, but some languages had have some tone-splits, especially the Southeastern Subranch, which has lost syllable final stops). Velars fuse with post-alveolars leading to fronting of vowels following Proto-M̟oḩaic post-alveolars, while uvulars become velar. /ɨj əj aj/>/i: ɛi æi/ /ɨw əw aw/>/u: ɔu ɑu/ Loss of syllable-final pharyngealzation, resulting in the backing of proceeding vowel. Loss of all locative cases. Shift of gender system from animate-inanimate to Divine/Human gender and non-speaking gender, often used to distinguish animals from gods with attributes of that animal, so Proto-Achanian ka˧.θa˧.hɯ˩ -from Proto-M̟oḩaic qaθaɦɨʕ "Snake"- is used to refer to a Messianic Snake God, while the word for "snake" is t͡ʃu:ʔ˩.ka˧.θa˧.hɯ˩- t͡ʃu:ʔ˩ meaning "Little".
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 23 Oct 2017, 02:24

The third branch I want to talk about is the Ēf branch. It is spoken to the south of the continent, between Achanian branch and the Chaskian languages. There is evidence to support the idea that Ēf and Achanian are sub-branches of an Ēf-Achanian branch, as they share similiar isoglosses.
Isoglosses of Ēf:
C'>∅
Fusion of syllable-final non-pharyngeal fricatives with their corrosponding stops, while syllable final pharyngeal fricatives >∅
Velars fuse with post-alveolars leading to fronting of vowels following Proto-M̟oḩaic post-alveolars, while uvulars become velar.
/ɨj əj aj/>/i: e: ɛ:/ /ɨw əw aw/>/u: o: ɔ:/
Loss of voice-voiceless distinction for fricatives and plosives, following vowel becomes long or if already long has a /j/ /ə̯/ or /w/ on-glide based on the vowel.
Pharyngealized consonants lost; following vowels backed or centered. (possibly lowered?)
/ɨ/>/jə/
t͡ʃ>ʃ
Loss of all locative cases.
Loss of Gender system.
Split-Ergativity- ergative with perfective verbs.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Thu 26 Oct 2017, 02:07

The Fourth and Final branch is Zèlian [zɛl], which in terms of spread is the largest brach, being spoken in all M̟oḩaic-speaking areas north of Gune-speaking territory.
Isoglosses:
Ejectives to Pharyngialyzed consonants, followed by backing of following vowel for original pharyngial
/ɢ/>/q/ followed by /q/>/ʔ/ followed by backing of vowel for original uvular.
Affricates to Fricatives. Post-alveolars to alveolars, followed by fronting of vowel.
Vowels after labials round.
/pʼ/>/ʔ/
/ɦ/>/ʕ/
/ɨj əj aj/>/i: e: ɛ:/ /ɨw əw aw/>/u: o: ɔ:/
Loss of Ablative and Lative cases
Deutoroaccusative case turns plain accusative, while accusative turns Dative. Locative takes over as Instrumental
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Void » Fri 27 Oct 2017, 02:12

This is done rather well. Any chance to read some texts?
mihor odh jörhönsüd šarhur zahrastakram

uhra róksud rétthírselle murgga arraukun duhšankatas
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 27 Oct 2017, 06:07

Konungr wrote:This is done rather well.
Thank you
Konungr wrote: Any chance to read some texts?
This is a scratchpad, which means the family is not developed fully, rather I'm posting information as I create the information. That's why
I didn't list the branchs' shift in verbal morphology- I have not fully developed the Proto-Lang's Verb system, though I have some idea of where it will go- sort of PIE (though the IE influence may be more Sanskrit then full on PIE) with some Chadic influence, and plenty of valency-changing operations.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 27 Oct 2017, 22:33

VERBS:
Verbs have seven tenses, Plain Present, Plain Past, Plain Future, Perfective Past, Perfective Future, Habitual Present and Habitual Past. This post is going to focus on the Plain Tenses.
I will be using two Verbs as examples, to represent consonant-final stems and verb-final stems /ɢɨna/ "to walk" and /ʒˤɨɦ/ "to eat".
Verbs distinguish three persons and two numbers, and in third person, gender.

Present:
1P Sing: ɢɨnaʔəm
1P PLR ɢɨnaʔan
2P Sing: ɢɨnaʔas
2P PLR: ɢɨnaʔɨl
3P Anim SING: ɢɨnaʔaɦ
3P Anim PLR: ɢɨnaʔət
3p INANIM SING: ɢɨna
3p INANIM PLR: ɢɨnaʔɨz

1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦəm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦan
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦas
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦɨl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦaɦ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦət
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦ
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦɨz

Future:
1P Sing: ɢɨnaʔawm
1P PLR ɢɨnaʔawn
2P Sing: ɢɨnaʔawsˤ
2P PLR: ɢɨnaʔəwl
3P Anim SING: ɢɨnaʔawʕ
3P Anim PLR: ɢɨnaʔawtˤ
3p INANIM SING: ɢɨnaw
3p INANIM PLR: ɢɨnaʔəwzˤ

1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦawm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦawn
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦawsˤ
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦəwl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦaʕ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦawtˤ
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦaw
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦəwzˤ


Past:
1P Sing: ɢɨnaʔɨjm
1P PLR ɢɨnaʔəjɲ
2P Sing: ɢɨnaʔəjʃ
2P PLR: ɢɨnaʔɨjl
3P Anim SING: ɢɨnaʔəjɦ
3P Anim PLR: ɢɨnaʔɨt͡ʃ
3p INANIM SING: ɢɨnaj
3p INANIM PLR: ɢɨnaʔɨjʒ

1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦɨjm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦəɲ
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦəʃ
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦɨjl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦəjɦ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦɨjt͡ʃ
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦɨ
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦɨjʒ

Note on Past Tense: Ditransitive Verbs have ablaut in the past for the final stem vowel a>ə ə>ɨ ɨ>ɨj, and then conjugate like present tense verbs.
List of Ditransitive verbs:
/natan/-to give
/ðaɢə/-to take from
/p'ɨtan/-to rent to; to loan
/nˤɨs/- To borrow; to rent from
/k'aʕa/-To initiate bartering
/sˤaθɨ/-To accept an offer of barter.
/dəʔrɨ/-to throw
/t͡ʃˤət͡ʃʼ/- To catch
/ʃaʕal/-to ask for an object

So to say "I gave" instead of saying /natanɨjm/, you would say /natənɨm/
Last edited by Shemtov on Fri 03 Nov 2017, 22:07, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by gokupwned5 » Sat 28 Oct 2017, 21:51

Have you created a "Proto-World" for the conworld of all these conlangs?
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 29 Oct 2017, 01:01

gokupwned5 wrote:Have you created a "Proto-World" for the conworld of all these conlangs?
No, because Homo Sapiens have existed long enough on the World of Fuhe that everything is obscured under time. I'm also playing around, in deep history, of a polygenesis of language (this should not be confused with Racial Polygenesis), that while the potential for speech evolved in the first homo sapiens, however different populations of humans actually began to speak when they were spread apart- or that "Proto-World" culture had Taboo words, like we see in some Oceanic, Papuan, and Australian languages, that though eventually abandoned by almost all cultures, but caused a quick evolution of early Homo Sapien language,, so Proto-World cannot even be attempted to be reconstructed.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 03 Nov 2017, 22:27

The complex or aspectual tenses: Perfective Past, Perfective Future, Habitual Present and Habitual Past, are the same whether the verb-stem is consonant-final or vowel-final, so I will show only the conjugations of /ʒˤɨɦ/ "to eat".

Perfective Past:

1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦlɨjm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦləɲ
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦləʃ
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦlɨjl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦləjɦ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦlɨjt͡ʃ
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦlɨ
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦlɨjʒ



Perfective Future:



1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦləm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦlawɲ
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦlawʃˤ
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦləwl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦlaʕ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦlawt͡ʃˤ
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦlaw
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦləwʒˤ


Present Habitual:
1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃəm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃaɲ
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃaʃ
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃaɦ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃət
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦɨt͡ʃ
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨʒ

Past Habitual:
1P Sing: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨjm
1P PLR ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨɲ
2P Sing: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨʃ
2P PLR: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨjl
3P Anim SING: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨjɦ
3P Anim PLR: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨjt͡ʃ
3p INANIM SING: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨ
3p INANIM PLR: ʒˤɨɦt͡ʃɨjʒ


Ditransitive Verbs have ablaut in the perfective past for the final stem vowel a>ə ə>ɨ ɨ>ɨj, and then conjugate like present habitual verbs, so the past perfect of "I have given" is not /natanlɨjm/ but /natənt͡ʃəm/.

Example sentences:
ɢɨnat͡ʃəm p'arəʕəðə
ɢɨna-t͡ʃəm p'arəʕ-əðə
walk-1P.SING.HAB.PRSNT river-ALL.INAM
"I often walk to the river"

natənas t'ad͡ʒəq qaθaɦɨħaʔ p'arəʕəb
natən-as t'ad͡ʒ-əq qaθaɦɨħ-aʔ p'arəʕ-əb
PST\give-2P god-DEUTACC snake-ACC river-LOC
"You offered a snake to the god by the river"
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 12 Nov 2017, 09:00

So this post is dedicated to tracing the sound changes from Proto-M̟oḩaic to the first language I will work on, Börëʿ /bøʀəʕ/, which is in the Eastern (or Macro- Börëʿic) Subbranch of the Gune Branch of M̟oḩaic. However, before I work on the morphosyntax of the language, I will create the Proto-M̟oḩaic Mood, Valency, Adjective and Adverbial system.
From Proto-M̟oḩaic to Proto-Gune:
(L=Labial U=Uvalar V=Velar)
ɨj>i
əj>e
aj>æ
ɨw>u
əw>o
aw>ɒ
k'>q
pʼ>∅
qʼ>ʔ
ɢ>ʁ
Uɨ>Vɯ (excluding ʁ, which stays uvalar)
Uə>Vʌ (excluding ʁ, which stays uvalar)qa>kɑ
Ua>Vɑ
t͡ʃɨ>ʃi
t͡ʃə>ʃe
t͡ʃa>ʃæ
d͡ʒɨ>ʒi
d͡ʒə>ʒe
d͡ʒa>ʒæ
ʃɨ>ʃi
ʃə>ʃe
ʃa>ʃæ
ʒɨ>ʒi
ʒə>ʒe
ʒa>ʒæ
ɲɨ>ɲi
ɲə>ɲe
ɲa>ɲæ
t͡ʃˤɨ>ʃˤɪ
t͡ʃˤə>ʃˤɜ
t͡ʃa>ʃˤa
d͡ʒˤɨ>ʒˤɪ
d͡ʒˤə>ʒˤɜ
d͡ʒˤa>ʒa
ʃˤɨ>ʃɪ
ʃˤə>ʃɜ
ʃˤa>ʃˤa
ʒˤɨ>ʒɪ
ʒˤə>ʒˤɜ
ʒˤa>ʒˤa
ɲˤɨ>ɲɪ
ɲˤə>ɲˤɜ
ɲˤa>ɲˤa
Lɨ>Lʉ
Lə>Lɵ
La>Lɒ
Lˤɨ>Lˤu
Lˤə>Lˤo
Lˤa>Lˤɒ
Cˤɨ>Cˤɯ
Cˤə>Cˤʌ
Cˤa>Cˤɑ
C'>Cˤ

Proto-Gune Phonology:
/p pˤ b bˤ t tˤ d dˤ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k ʔ/
/m mˤ n nˤ ɲ ɲˤ/
/θ θˤ ð ðˤ s sˤ z zˤ ʃ ʃˤ ʒ ʒˤ x ɣ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ/
/l/
/r/
/j w/

/i ɪ~ɨ~ʉ ɯ u/
/e ɜ~ə~ɵ o/
/ʌ/
/æ ä~ɒ ɑ/

Proto-Gune to Proto-East-Gune (Proto-Macro-Börëʿic)
ʁ>ʀ
ʃ>s
ʒ>z
t͡ʃ>ʃ
d͡ʒ>ʒ
Li>Ly
Le>Lø
ɪ>i
ʉ>u
ɜ>e
ɵ>o
ɒ>ɑ
ɲ>n
ɲˤ>nˤ
θ>f
θˤ>fˤ
ð>v
ðˤ>v
w>v
j>ʒ

Proto-East-Gune (Proto-Macro-Börëʿic) Phonology:
/p pˤ b bˤ t tˤ d dˤ k ʔ/
/m mˤ n nˤ /
/f fˤ v vˤ s sˤ z zˤ ʃ ʒ x ɣ ħ ʕ h ɦ/
/l/
/r ʀ/


/i y ɨ ɯ u/
/e ø ə o/
/ʌ/
/æ ä ɑ/

Proto-East-Gune (Proto-Macro-Börëʿic) to Börëʿ
ɨ>i
ʌ>ɑ
ä>æ
bˤ>b
pˤ>p
fˤ>f
vˤ>v
r>ʀ
ɣ >ʀ
p>f
ɯ>u

Börëʿ Phonology and romanazation:
/b t tˤ d dˤ k ʔ/ <b t t̟ d d̟ k '>
/m mˤ n nˤ / <m m̟ n n̟>
/f v s sˤ z zˤ ʃ ʒ x ħ ʕ h ɦ/ <f v s s̟ z z̟ š ž c h̟ ʿ h ḩ>
/l/ <l>
/ʀ/ <r>


/i y u/ <i ü u>
/e ø ə o/ <e ö ë o>
/æ ɑ/ <ä a>
Last edited by Shemtov on Tue 14 Nov 2017, 02:34, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 13 Nov 2017, 05:57

Valency Operations Part 1:
Proto-M̟oḩaic was rich in Valency changing operations.

Verbalazation:
Nouns can be turned into verbs by the suffix -aʒ, if the noun ends in a consonant and ʔaʒ, if it ends in a vowel:
ðˤaħ "sun"
ðˤaħaʒ "To dawn"

t'abˤɨ "wife"
t'abˤɨʔaʒ "to get married"

Nominalazation:
This forms nouns from verbs; often this is a verbal noun or infinitive. The suffix is -rə if the verb ends in a vowel, and -əʔ if it ends in a consonant; this can be used productively on verbalized nouns to create an extension of meaning:
ðˤaħaʒəʔ "Tommorow"
ʒˤɨɦəʔ "eating; to eat"
laθarə "smelling; to smell"

ɢɨnaʔɨjm ʒˤɨɦəʔ zamˤɨʔawq
ɢɨna-ʔɨjm ʒˤɨɦ-əʔ zamˤɨ-ʔawq
go-PST.1P eat-NOM apple-PLR.ACC
"I went to eat apples"

dajdən laθarə ðakərawn
dajd-ən laθa-rə ðakər-awn
feces-GEN smell-NOM avoid-1P.PLR.PRSNT
"We avoid smelling feces"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 13 Nov 2017, 09:14

Valency Part 2:
The causative is the suffix -rəʔ put between the stem and the person/number/tense suffix.
ʒˤɨɦrəʔas
"You will feed"

Causative verbs are treated as Ditransitives, so in the past the the suffix is rɨʔ:
ʒˤɨɦrɨʔt͡ʃaʃ
"you have fed"


The Intransitiver:
This suffix, which acts like the causative in regards to placement, is θɨk, and causes transitive verbs to become intransitive.
qaɲɨsəm
"I look"
qaɲɨsθɨkəm
"I can see"


The Intensive:
This suffix is -(ʔ)ajr, that again comes between the root and person/number/tense suffix.

ʒˤɨɦajraɦ t'abˤɨ zamˤɨʔawq
"The married woman devoured apples"

dˤawʃaʒaj "It rained"
dˤawʃaʒajraj "it flooded"

k'aka "to kill"
k'akaʔajr "To slaughter; to kill in a cruel manner"
k'akaʔajrləʃ qaθaɦɨħawʔ
"You all have slaughtered snakes in a cruel manner"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 13 Nov 2017, 19:42

Valency part 3:
The reflexive is the suffix (ʔ)ɨj put between the stem and the person/number/tense suffix
k'akaʔɨjləjɦ
"S/he has commited suicide"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: M̟oḩaic Language Family Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 17 Nov 2017, 00:41

Pronouns:
I unabashdly stole the nominative personal pronouns from Hebrew, though they inflect very differently.
The personal pronouns, when used in the locative cases, mean "at" "to" or "from" "X's location at the time of speaking." and also can be used as demonstratives (see later in post), but this use died out in most of the daughterlangs
1P sing:
̥Nominative: /ʔanɨ/
Accusative: /nɨʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /nə/
Genitive: /nɨj/
Locative: /nɨm/
Allative: /nɨd/
Ablative: /nɨt'/

1P PLR:
̥Nominative: /ʔanaħnɨ/
Accusative: /naħnɨʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /naħnə/
Genitive: /naħnɨj/
Locative: /naħnɨm/
Allative: /naħnɨd/
Ablative: /naħnɨt'/

2P sing:
̥Nominative: /ʔata/
Accusative: /taʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /tə/
Genitive: /tɨj/
Locative: /tam/
Allative: /tad/
Ablative: /tat'/

2p plr:
̥Nominative: /ʔatəm/
Accusative: /təmɨʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /təmə/
Genitive: /təmɨj/
Locative: /təməm/
Allative: /təmɨd/
Ablative: /təmɨt'/

3p sing anim.:
̥Nominative: /hɨ/
Accusative: /hɨʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /hə/
Genitive: /hɨj/
Locative: /hɨm/
Allative: /hɨd/
Ablative: /hɨt'/

3p plr anim:
̥Nominative: /həm/
Accusative: /həmɨʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /həmə/
Genitive: /həmɨj/
Locative: /həməm/
Allative: /həmɨd/
Ablative: /həmɨt'/

3p sing inanim:
̥Nominative: /zə/
Accusative: /zəʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /zəʔə/
Genitive: /zɨj/
Locative: /zəm/
Allative: /zəd/
Ablative: /zət'/

3p plr inanim:
̥Nominative: /zəwt/
Accusative: /zəwtɨʔ/
Deutoroaccusative-Instrumental: /zəwtə/
Genitive: /zəwtɨj/
Locative: /zəwtəm/
Allative: /zəwtɨd/
Ablative: /zəwtɨt'/

Demonstratives are based on the appropriate 3p pronoun; locative for proximate, allaive for distal:
hɨm qaθaɦɨħ
"this snake"

həmɨd t'ad͡ʒas
"those gods"

zəm p'arəʕ
"this river"

zəwtɨd zamˤɨj
"Those apples"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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