Shàt scratchpad

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Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 24 Dec 2017, 08:48

Shàt is the major Chaskian language, a small language family spoken in the southwest part of M̟oḩa, near the Achanian branch of M̟oḩaic. It is spoken in the Kingdom of Shàt, whose culture is a mix of Achanian and native Chaskian. It has a significant amount of Achanian loanwords. It is inspired by both the Dravidian and Semitic languages.

Phonology:
/p t ʈ k/ <p t th k>
/s ɬ ʂ ꞎ h/ <s z sh zh h>
/m n ɳ/ <m n nh>
/j w/ <y w>
/l ɭ/ <l lh>

/i u e o a/ <i u e o a>
/i: u: e: o: a:/ <ī ū ē ō ā>
/ə/. <ë>

/˩ ˧ ˥/ <V̀ V V́>


EDIT: New Phonology:
/p t ʈ tʲ k/ <p t th c k>
/s ɬ ʂ ꞎ ɕ ɬʲ h/ <s z sh zh ś ź h>
/m n ɳ nʲ/ <m n nh ń>
/j w/ <y w>
/l ɭ lʲ/ <l lh ly>

/i u e o a/ <i u e o a>
/i: u: e: o: a:/ <ī ū ē ō ā>
/ə/. <ë>

/˩ ˧ ˥/ <V̀ V V́>

Nouns:
Nouns have no gender and inflect for three numbers, singular, dual and plural, and four cases, Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, and Oblique, the last of which is always followed by a preposition.
Example noun: Yṑt "Pickled vegetable"
Singular:
Nominative: Yṑt
Accusative: Yṑtū
Genitive: Yṑti
Oblique: Yṑtē

Dual:
Nominative: Yṑtat
Accusative: Yṑtatū
Genitive: Yṑtati
Oblique: Yṑtatē

Plural:
Nominative: Yṑtanh
Accusative: Yṑtënhū
Genitive: Yṑtënhi
Oblique: Yṑtënhē


Nouns are normally unmarked for definiteness, however, for emphasis the numeral <Zhū> "One" can be used as an indefinite article, while the the 3P/Deictic pronouns <Yo/Yonh/We/Wenh> "This/These/That/Those" can be used for a definite article.
Last edited by Shemtov on Mon 01 Jan 2018, 01:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 24 Dec 2017, 18:49

Verbs in Shàt consist of Biliteral and (less commonly) Triliteral roots, whose vowels change for voice, mood and finiteness (for these, I will borrow the Hebrew term "Binyan"). They also inflect for tense- past and non-past, and person and number.

In general these are the person and tense prefixes:
Non-Past:
1P Sing: -am
1P Dual Inclusive: -ānh
1P Dual Exclusive: -enh
1P Plural: -ūnh
2P Sing: -at
2P Dual:-eth
2P Plural: -ūth
3P Sing: -a
3P dual: -e
3P Plural: -ū

Past:
1P Sing: ma-
1P Dual Inclusive: nhā
1P Dual Exclusive: nhe
1P Plural: nhū
2P Sing: ta
2P Dual: tha
2P Plural: thū
3P Sing: ha
3P dual: he
3P Plural: hū


Binyan I: The Active Indicative Finite:
This Binyan has two biliteral forms, depending on the root.
CiC:
Sh-S "To gather"
Non-past
1P Sing: Shisam
1P Dual Inclusive: Shisānh
1P Dual Exclusive: Shisenh
1P Plural: Shisūnh
2P Sing: Shisat
2P Dual:Shiseth
2P Plural: Shisūth
3P Sing: Shisa
3P dual: Shise
3P Plural: Shisū

Past:
1P Sing: mashis
1P Dual Inclusive: nhāshis
1P Dual Exclusive: nheshis
1P Plural: nhūshis
2P Sing: tashis
2P Dual: thashis
2P Plural: thūshis
3P Sing: hashis
3P dual: heshis
3P Plural: hūshis

CuC
K-Lh "To eat"
Non-past
1P Sing: Kulham
1P Dual Inclusive: Kulhānh
1P Dual Exclusive: Kulhenh
1P Plural: Kulhūnh
2P Sing: Kulhat
2P Dual: Kulheth
2P Plural: Kulhūth
3P Sing: Kulha
3P dual: Kulhe
3P Plural: Kulhū

Past:
1P Sing: makulh
1P Dual Inclusive: nhākulh
1P Dual Exclusive: nhekulh
1P Plural: nhūkulh
2P Sing: takulh
2P Dual: thakulh
2P Plural: thūkulh
3P Sing: hakulh
3P dual: hekulh
3P Plural: hūkulh

Examples:
Makulh yṑtū
"I ate a pickled vegetable"

Wenh lhásat shise yṑtënhū
"Those two theives are gathering pickled vegetables"
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Tue 26 Dec 2017, 18:18

Binyan II: The Passive Indicative:
Pattern: CaC
K-Lh "To eat"
Non-past
1P Sing: Kalham
1P Dual Inclusive: Kalhānh
1P Dual Exclusive: Kalhenh
1P Plural: Kalhūnh
2P Sing: Kalhat
2P Dual: Kalheth
2P Plural: Kalhūth
3P Sing: Kalha
3P dual: Kalhe
3P Plural: Kalhū

Past:
1P Sing: makalh
1P Dual Inclusive: nhākalh
1P Dual Exclusive: nhekalh
1P Plural: nhūkalh
2P Sing: takalh
2P Dual: thakalh
2P Plural: thūkalh
3P Sing: hakalh
3P dual: hekalh
3P Plural: hūkalh

Yṑt hakalh
"A pickled vegetable was eaten"

Binyan III: The Intensive Indicative:
Pattern: Cu/iC:(e)
K-Lh "To eat"
Non-past
1P Sing: Kullham
1P Dual Inclusive: Kullhānh
1P Dual Exclusive: Kullhenh
1P Plural: Kullhūnh
2P Sing: Kullhat
2P Dual: Kullheth
2P Plural: Kullhūth
3P Sing: Kullha
3P dual: Kullhe
3P Plural: Kullhū

Past:
1P Sing: makullhe
1P Dual Inclusive: nhākullhe
1P Dual Exclusive: nhekullhe
1P Plural: nhūkullhe
2P Sing: takullhe
2P Dual: thakullhe
2P Plural: thūkullhe
3P Sing: hakullhe
3P dual: hekullhe
3P Plural: hūkullh

Makullhe yṑtū
"I devoured a pickled vegetable"
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Thu 28 Dec 2017, 03:17

NB: I intend for my scratchpads to be a public record of how I create my conlangs, and for constructive criticism from other conlangers, so I don't accidentally do something unnautralistic and have that "Canonized". I apologize if most of the community don't see it that way [:$]
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 29 Dec 2017, 05:07

Binyan IV: The Causative Indicative:
Pattern: CīC/CūC (ie. lengthening of the vowel of Binyan I)
Stem: P-N "To know"; In Binyan IV it means "To teach"
Non-past
1P Sing: Pīnam
1P Dual Inclusive: Pīnānh
1P Dual Exclusive: Pīnenh
1P Plural: Pīnūnh
2P Sing: Pīnat
2P Dual: Pīneth
2P Plural: Pīnūth
3P Sing: Pīna
3P dual: Pīne
3P Plural: Pīnū

Past:
1P Sing: mapīn
1P Dual Inclusive: nhāpīn
1P Dual Exclusive: nhepīn
1P Plural: nhūpīn
2P Sing: tapīn
2P Dual: thapīn
2P Plural: thūpīn
3P Sing: hapīn
3P dual: hepīn
3P Plural: hūpīn

Pīnū Nakī́zh
"They are teaching Nakī́zh"

Binyan V: The Reflexive Indicative:
Pattern (a)C:eC
1P Sing: appenam
1P Dual Inclusive: appenānh
1P Dual Exclusive: appenenh
1P Plural: appenūnh
2P Sing: appenat
2P Dual: appeneth
2P Plural: appenūth
3P Sing: appena
3P dual: appene
3P Plural: appenū

Past:
1P Sing: mappen
1P Dual Inclusive: nhāppen
1P Dual Exclusive: nhepīn
1P Plural: nhūppen
2P Sing: tappen
2P Dual: thappen
2P Plural: thūppen
3P Sing: happen
3P dual: heppen
3P Plural: hūppen

Appenat tízānënū
"You are learning languages"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 29 Dec 2017, 21:42

The Sub-Binyans of Binyan III:
Binyan III has three sub-Binyans, labled Binyan IIIa-IIIc. Shàt grammarians place them here on the basis that they are reletively recent devolopments, and grammarians of earlier stages of the language had alraedy labled Binyan III as such, and one needs to understand Binyans IV and V to understand the Sub-Binyans.
Binyan IIIa: The Intensive Passive: CaC:(e)
Nakī́zh mapanne
"I was contemplated by Nakī́zh"

Binyan IIIb: The Intensive Causative: CīC:e/CūC:e
Mapīnne Nakī́zh
"I thoroughly taught Nakī́zh"

Binyan IIIc: The Intensive Reflexive: (a)C:eC:(e)
Mappenne tízānënū
"I thoroughly learned languages"
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Frislander » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 16:47

Shemtov wrote:
Thu 28 Dec 2017, 03:17
NB: I intend for my scratchpads to be a public record of how I create my conlangs, and for constructive criticism from other conlangers, so I don't accidentally do something unnautralistic and have that "Canonized". I apologize if most of the community don't see it that way [:$]
Right, well, the inflection seems mostly fine, though generally if you have a distinction like clusivity in the dual you're pretty much guaranteed it in the plural as well. Also I'm slightly iffy with the consonants, having such a through-going retroflex series including the almost unattested retroflex lateral fricative while at the same time lacking anything like palatal or equivalent series is actually pretty damn rare if not unheard of.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Pabappa » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 22:00

Frislander wrote:
Sat 30 Dec 2017, 16:47
Shemtov wrote:
Thu 28 Dec 2017, 03:17
NB: I intend for my scratchpads to be a public record of how I create my conlangs, and for constructive criticism from other conlangers, so I don't accidentally do something unnautralistic and have that "Canonized". I apologize if most of the community don't see it that way [:$]
Right, well, the inflection seems mostly fine, though generally if you have a distinction like clusivity in the dual you're pretty much guaranteed it in the plural as well.
Hmm, I didnt know that ... I've used a similar setup before. At least one conlang (Láadan?) also did this and called the 1p dual inclusive pronoun the "intimate". I think there was one difference though: with the other cvonlang, the logic is basically that there are three duals: "1+2" (inclusive), "1+3" (exclusive), and "2+3" (which could be considerd equivalent to the 2nd person dual). But admittedly thats not the same. I still think the system is workable, if it could be shown to have come from some more ocmmonly attested setup.
Also I'm slightly iffy with the consonants, having such a through-going retroflex series including the almost unattested retroflex lateral fricative while at the same time lacking anything like palatal or equivalent series is actually pretty damn rare if not unheard of.
I think a phoneme inventory like this is perfectly nice as long as you can pronounce it ... Im a fan of nonconofmrist phonologies myself. That said, you did specifically mention that you want to avoid *accidentally* using something unnaturalistic (and why blush?) so I would agree that this phonology looks unrealistic.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Frislander » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 23:03

Pabappa wrote:
Sat 30 Dec 2017, 22:00
Frislander wrote:
Sat 30 Dec 2017, 16:47
Shemtov wrote:
Thu 28 Dec 2017, 03:17
NB: I intend for my scratchpads to be a public record of how I create my conlangs, and for constructive criticism from other conlangers, so I don't accidentally do something unnautralistic and have that "Canonized". I apologize if most of the community don't see it that way [:$]
Right, well, the inflection seems mostly fine, though generally if you have a distinction like clusivity in the dual you're pretty much guaranteed it in the plural as well.
Hmm, I didnt know that ... I've used a similar setup before. At least one conlang (Láadan?) also did this and called the 1p dual inclusive pronoun the "intimate". I think there was one difference though: with the other cvonlang, the logic is basically that there are three duals: "1+2" (inclusive), "1+3" (exclusive), and "2+3" (which could be considerd equivalent to the 2nd person dual). But admittedly thats not the same. I still think the system is workable, if it could be shown to have come from some more ocmmonly attested setup.
I have gone and looked for natlang precedent, and the closest I could find was languages which have a dual inclusive but no separate dual exclusive or plural inclusive (i.e. a minimal-augmented system where the augmented 1 and 1+2 forms are collapsed). I guess you could run with it, it's not overly egregious.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 31 Dec 2017, 01:01

Frislander wrote:
Sat 30 Dec 2017, 16:47
having such a through-going retroflex series including the almost unattested retroflex lateral fricative while at the same time lacking anything like palatal or equivalent series is actually pretty damn rare if not unheard of.
Toda, an endangered South Dravidian lang (threatened by Tamil, as far as I can tell) has/ꞎ/,and if one natlang has it, that's "naturalistic" in my book) but does have a Palato-alveolar series (it also has palatalized retroflexes. How do you even pronounce that?) Would adding / tʲ ɕ ɲ~nʲ ʎ~lʲ ɬʲ/ <c ś ń j~ly~ʎ ź> (the ~ here means "or" as I am unsure how best to romanize /ʎ / or if I want my nasal and lateral to be palatal or palatalized) make it look more natural?
Last edited by Shemtov on Sun 31 Dec 2017, 07:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 31 Dec 2017, 03:43

I've come up with a way that /ꞎ/ evolved. It has always been in the plan that the Proto-lang, Proto-Chaskian had syllable-final consonant clusters and geminates in nouns (and maybe in some non-finite triliteral Binyans) which sometimes evolved into /CəC/ <CëC> in Shàt. If the final cluster was /ɬʈ͡ʂ/, /ɬʈ/ or /ɬɳ/ it became /ꞎ/ in Shàt. This also explains the name Shàt: ʈ͡ʂ-s was a root meaning "to gather" (evolved into Shàt Sh-S) /ʈ͡ʂas/ was the passive. The suffix -k or -ak (after nasals and /k/) was a nominalizing suffix, so /ʈ͡ʂask/ meant "Those gathered together" or "Tribe" (evolving into "Nation" in Shàt). The -sk- assimilated into /t/, taking the first element's POA and the last element's MOA, and the loss of the fricative produced a low tone. Similarly, roots in Shàt that end in /p/ are nominalized by changing the /p/ into <ppë> /t/ by changing into ttë <th> by changing into <ththë>, <z> by changing into <t> <sh> by changing into <th> <h> by changing into <k> <l> by changing into <lëk> and <lh> by changing into <lhëk>.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Frislander » Sun 31 Dec 2017, 13:03

Shemtov wrote:
Sun 31 Dec 2017, 01:01
Frislander wrote:
Sat 30 Dec 2017, 16:47
having such a through-going retroflex series including the almost unattested retroflex lateral fricative while at the same time lacking anything like palatal or equivalent series is actually pretty damn rare if not unheard of.
Toda, an endangered South Dravidian lang (threatened by Tamil, as far as I can tell) has/ꞎ/,and if one natlang has it, that's "naturalistic" in my book) but does have a Palato-alveolar series (it also has palatalized retroflexes. How do you even pronounce that?)
With difficulty!
Would adding / tʲ ɕ ɲ~nʲ ʎ~lʲ ɬʲ/ <c ś ń j~ly~ʎ ź> (the ~ here means "or" as I am unsure how best to romanize /ʎ / or if I want my nasal and lateral to be palatal or palatalized) make it look more natural?
Yes, that's fine. If you want more on this go check out this thread on the ZBB.

Also those diachronics look great!
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 31 Dec 2017, 17:57

I've added some phonemes:
/p t ʈ tʲ k/ <p t th c k>
/s ɬ ʂ ꞎ ɕ ɬʲ h/ <s z sh zh ś ź h>
/m n ɳ nʲ/ <m n nh ń>
/j w/ <y w>
/l ɭ lʲ/ <l lh ly>

/i u e o a/ <i u e o a>
/i: u: e: o: a:/ <ī ū ē ō ā>
/ə/. <ë>

/˩ ˧ ˥/ <V̀ V V́>
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Tue 02 Jan 2018, 02:49

Binyans I-V (including Binyans IIIa-IIIc) are known as the "Vocal Binyans". Binyans VI-IX are known as the "Modal Binyans". Collectively, Binyans I-IX are the "Finite Binyans"
I will be using the root P-N "To know", throughout, and only showing the 3P past and non-past with the dummy subject Nakī́zh, and when needed, object tízānënū "languages" for each Binyan, as once you know how each one is formed, you can predict how the other person/numbers are formed. The Modal Binyans are much like Binyan III, in that they have sub-Binyans, one for each Vocal Binyan, written in the Following Manner: Binyan VI/I, Binyan VI/II, Binyan VI/III, Binyan VI/IIIa etc.
This post will only show Binyan VI, but the other Modal Binyans will be treated simiarly in future posts.

Binyan VI: The Negative:
Binyan VI/I:
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh payina
"Nakī́zh does not know"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapayin
"Nakī́zh did not know"

Binyan VI/II
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh payana
"Nakī́zh is not thought about"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapayan
"Nakī́zh was not thought about"

Binyan VI/III
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh payinna
"Nakī́zh does not understand"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapayinne
"Nakī́zh did not understand"

Binyan VI/IIIa
Nakī́zh payanna
"Nakī́zh is not contemplated"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapayinne
"Nakī́zh was not contemplated"

Binyan VI/IIIb
Nakī́zh payīnna
"Nakī́zh does not thouroughly teach"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapayīnne
"Nakī́zh did thoroghly teach"

Binyan VI/IIIc
Nakī́zh appayenna tízānënū
"Nakī́zh does not thoroughly learn languages"
Past:
Nakī́zh happayenne tízānënū
"Nakī́zh did not thoroughly learn languages"

Binyan VI/IV:
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh payīna
"Nakī́zh does not teach"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapayīn
"Nakī́zh did not teach"

Binyan VI/V:
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh appayena
"Nakī́zh does not learn"
Past:
Nakī́zh happayen
"Nakī́zh did not learn"
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by eldin raigmore » Wed 03 Jan 2018, 00:17

So:
will there be:
  • aspectual
  • modal (yes, already answered)
  • polar (yes, there're negative binyanim; already answered)
  • temporal (no, tenses will be shown by prefix; already answered)
  • diathetic or vocal (yes, just answered)
binyanim?

Which modalities, and/or modes, and/or moods, will be among the modal binyans?
Declarative? Interrogative? Imperative? Exclamatory?
Will "exclamatory" include mirativity or validationality? (If you even have an exclamatory!) ("Intensive" might be validational or mirative; I don't know.)
Will there be special binyanim for the protasis and/or for the apodosis of a conditional? WIll either of them vary depending on whether the protasis is realis or irrealis?
How do you show epistemic modality -- what is known vs what is not known, and who knows it -- the speaker, the addressee, both, or neither?
How do you show whether someone wants or doesn't want the clause to be true, and who?
How do you show that a clause is true because someone -- e.g. the speaker or the addressee -- wants it to be true?
Do you have a prohibitive -- the opposite of an imperative?
How do you show deontic modality -- "must" and "should"?


Or are all those questions either
  • already answered
  • premature
  • irrelevant
?

How do you indicate perfective vs imperfective, or any finer aspectual information?
How do you indicate reflexive and/or reciprocal voice? Or do you treat them as persons instead of as voices? (Looks like you have reflexive binyanim, among the "vocal" binyanim. Don't see any reciprocal anything.)

How do you show future tense? Since your binyanim don't separate present from future, either there's different morphology, or there's a lexical method such as a future auxiliary. Unless they just never talk about the future?


Will you indicate relative tense -- anterior vs posterior vs simultaneous?
Will you have past posterior or posterior past, or future anterior or anterior future?
WIll you have remote past vs recent past, or remote future vs near future, or anything like that?
Hodiernal past vs hesternal past vs pre-hesternal past?
Hodiernal future vs crastinal future vs post-crastinal future?

Will you have clause-chains like "Old Testament" Hebrew seems to have had? If so, will they have to break whenever some particular grammatical category changes -- like maybe polarity, or voice, or aspect? (ISTR Hebrew chains couldn't contain a negative clause, so whenever one came up the chain had to break.)




Maybe I'm asking too many questions. And I haven't even mentioned pluractionality! Nor applicative voice!
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Wed 03 Jan 2018, 01:24

I lot of the above questions will be answered later, especially once we get to non-finite binyans, which do have a perfective converb binyan.
eldin raigmore wrote:
Wed 03 Jan 2018, 00:17


How do you show future tense? Since your binyanim don't separate present from future, either there's different morphology, or there's a lexical method such as a future auxiliary. Unless they just never talk about the future?

There a few ways of talking about the Future, one of which is non-finite, and the other co-opts Binyan IX in the Non-Past. However, I want to talk about Binyans VII and VIII, first, as they are connected.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Wed 03 Jan 2018, 01:43

Binyans VII and VIII are only used in the non-past and second person, though Old Shàt allowed them to be used in other persons (this goes back to proto-Chaskian), and these are sometimes used in set phrases. Note that since I am using the root P-N, the passives are practicly never used, but they are used for other roots.
Binyan VII: The Imperitive:
Binyan VII/I:

Atpinat
"Know!"


Binyan VII/II
Non-Past:
Atpanat
"Be thought about!"


Binyan VII/III
Atpinnat
"Understand!"



Binyan VII/IIIa
Atpanna
"Be contemplated about!"


Binyan VII/IIIb
Atpīnna
"Thouroughly teach!"


Binyan VII/IIIc
Tappenna
"Thoroughly learn!"


Binyan VII/IV:
Atpīna
"Teach!"


Binyan VII/V:
Tappena
"Learn!




Binyan VII: The Negative Imperitive:
Binyan VIII/I:

Acpinat
"Do not know!"


Binyan VIII/II

Acpanat
"Do not be thought about!"


Binyan VIII/III
Acpinnat
"Do not Understand!"



Binyan VIII/IIIa
Acpanna
"Do not be contemplated about!"


Binyan VIII/IIIb
Acpīnna
"Do not thouroughly teach!"


Binyan VIII/IIIc
Cappenna
"Do not thoroughly learn!"


Binyan VIII/IV:

Acpīna
"Do not teach!"


Binyan VIII/V:
Cappena
"Do not learn!
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Thu 04 Jan 2018, 02:05

Binyan IX: The Optative:
This is used to express hopes and desires ("I hope..." "if only... ). Older speakers may use the 2P as a gentle version of Binyan VI, while younger speakers (below 35-40 in this context) have begun to use its non-past forms to express the future:
Binyan IX/I:
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh pazina
" I hope Nakī́zh knows"
or
"Nakī́zh will know"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapazin
"If only Nakī́zh knew"

Binyan IX/II
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh pazana
"I hope Nakī́zh is thought about"
Or
"Nakī́zh will be thought about"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapazan
"If only Nakī́zh was thought about"

Binyan IX/III
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh pazinna
"I hope Nakī́zh understands"
or
"Nakī́zh will understand"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapazinne
"If only Nakī́zh understood"

Binyan VI/IIIa
Nakī́zh pazanna
"I hope Nakī́zh is contemplated"
Or
"Nakī́zh will be contemplated"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapazinne
"If only Nakī́zh was contemplated"

Binyan IX/IIIb
Nakī́zh pazīnna
"I hope Nakī́zh thouroughly teaches"
or:
"Nakī́zh will thouroughly teach"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapazīnne
"If only Nakī́zh thouroughly taught"

Binyan VI/IIIc
Nakī́zh appazenna tízānënū
"I hope Nakī́zh thoroughly learns languages"
Or
"Nakī́zh will thouroughly learn languages"
Past:
Nakī́zh happazenne tízānënū
"If only Nakī́zh thoroughly learnt languages"

Binyan VI/IV:
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh pazīna
"I hope Nakī́zh teachs"
Or
"Nakī́zh will teach"
Past:
Nakī́zh hapazīn
"If only Nakī́zh taught"

Binyan VI/V:
Non-Past:
Nakī́zh appazena
"I hope Nakī́zh learns"
or
"Nakī́zh will learn"
Past:
Nakī́zh happazen
"If only Nakī́zh learnt"

This ends the Finite Binyans.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by eldin raigmore » Fri 05 Jan 2018, 00:53

Shemtov wrote:
Wed 03 Jan 2018, 01:43
....
Binyan VII: The Imperitive:
.....
I think I didn't find this because I looked for "Imperative" instead of "imperitive".

Do I understand you correctly, that you're going to get around to "how to ask questions (how to interrogate)" (among other things) later ?

I like this thread!
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 05 Jan 2018, 04:01

Before I move on to the non-Finite Binyans I want to discuss basic syntax, but before we do that, I need to post the use of the Oblique Case. The Oblique works a lot like the Russian prepositional case, requiring a preposition before the noun.
The dative preposition: El
El Nakī́zh
"To Nakī́zh"
Now that we have a preposition we can form a basic sentence. The order for what we have right now is (Genitive) (Subject) Verb (Genitive) (Object) (Preposition) (Genitive) (Oblique)

Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god]"

Locative (interior): Pi
Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe pi Atōnpańńake
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he pi Atōnpańńak-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL LOC.INT Atōnpańńak -OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] in Atōnpańńak [the Shàt capital]"

Locative (exterior): Āly:
Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe aly pańaki kṑke
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he aly pańak-i kṑk-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL LOC.EXT building-GEN roof-OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] on the roof the building"

Lative-Instrumental: Li
Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] with [his] finger"

Ablative-Causal: Men
Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe men huttëhe
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he men huttë-he
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL Causal Thanks-OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] out of thanks"

Essive-Comparitive: Ki
Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe ki puwake
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li puwak-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL ESS sinner-OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] as a sinner [would]"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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