Shàt scratchpad

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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 08 Jan 2018, 03:33

Polar questions:
Simple polar questions are formed by following a positive Binyan with its Binyan VI equivalent:
Nakī́zh hatinne hatayinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu ha-tayinne el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give PST.3P-INT.NEG\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Did Nakī́zh offer agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] with [his] finger?"

However, older speakers and when speaking to people in power the conjuction ō "or" is used:
Nakī́zh hatinne ō hatayinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
"Did Nakī́zh offer agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] with [his] finger?"

To question a certain noun in the sentence the intterogative particle ńā́z is attached:
Nakī́zhńā́z hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Nakī́zh-ńā́z ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Nakī́zh-INT PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Was it Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] with [his] finger>"

Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhuńā́z el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu-ńā́z el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC-INT DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Was it agave that Nakī́zh offered to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] with [his] finger?"

Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìheńā́z li wilhale
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he-ńā́z li wilhal-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL-INT INSTR finger-OBL
"Was it Śotaykatahì that Nakī́zh offered agave to with [his] finger?"
[NB: Despite Śotaykatahì demanding exclusive worship, some practice the "old ways"; this question may be threatening, as every century or so Śotaykatahìan extremists rebel against the Shàt king's practice of religious tolerance and take control of a city, village, or neighborhood, depending on their strength and kill all "old way infidels"]

Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhaleńā́z
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e-ńā́z
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL-INT
"Was it with his with [his] finger that Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì?"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Shemtov
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Wed 10 Jan 2018, 02:19

Negation of nouns:
Nouns can be negated by putting the particle Lō before them. They do not take oblique case.
Lō Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Lō Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
NEG Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"It was not Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [his] finger"

The corellative conjunction Aź.....lō means "Neither...nor". The second noun is in the oblique
Aź Parūk lō Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Aź Parūk lō Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Neg Parūk NEG Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"It was neither Parūk or Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [his] finger"

The correlative conjuction <Aź....elya> means "Not X but Y":
Aź Parūk elya Nakī́zhē hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Aź Parūk elya Nakī́zh-ē ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Neg Parūk NEG Nakī́zh-OBL PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"It was not Parūk, but Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [his] finger"


The Conjugation Wa means "and. The second item is in oblique case:
Parūk wa Nakī́zhē hetinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Parūk wa Nakī́zh-ē he-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Parūk and Nakī́zh-OBL PST.DUAL.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Parūk and Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [their] finger"

The Conjugation Ō means "or"
Parūk ō Nakī́zhē hetinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Parūk ō Nakī́zh-ē ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Parūk or Nakī́zh-OBL PST.DUAL.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"It was Parūk or Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [his] finger"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 12 Jan 2018, 02:39

The Non-Finite Binyans do not inflect for person or tense.
Binyan X: The Adjectival Binyan
This Binyan is placed here, before the Converbial Binyans, instead of with the Verbal Noun and Infinitive at the end, as Shàt grammarians (wrongly) associated it with being an extension of Binyan II, some (also wrongly) believing that it originally had a Finite usage of the same meaning as Binyan IIIa, thus being a linkage between the finites and the non-finites.
Pattern CāC

This is used, as its name implies, to turn verbs into adjectives. They come after the noun, and for most verbs mean "The X who/which is Y-ing", however, there are some Roots, known as X-centered roots, whose only Finite form is Binyan IV (showing ī/ū alternation based on root).

Example:
Henṓś kālh
"The man who is eating"

Henṓś kālh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Henṓś kālh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
man ADJ\eat PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"The man who is eating offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] with [his] finger"


X-centered roots:
Example:
Cāp "red"
Nakī́zh hatinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe aly pańaki cāp kṑke
Nakī́zh ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he aly pańak-i cāp kṑk-e
Nakī́zh PST.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL LOC.EXT building-GEN red roof-OBL
"Nakī́zh offered agave to Śotaykatahì [the monotheistic Shàt snake god] on the roof of the red building"

Using this as Binyan IV (the only finite Binyan this root can take):
Cīpam henṓśi śan źēholhū
Cīp-am henṓś-i śan źēholh-ū
CAUS\red-1P man-GEN ADJ\sleep hair-ACC
"I turn [dye] the sleeping man's hair red"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 15 Jan 2018, 01:42

Introduction to Converbs:
Converbs in Shàt always have to be bound to a finite verb which take the person/tense/voice (though the later category, ussaully doesn't affect the converb's mean. It is semantics-sensitive). This means if the two verbs have different person/tense/voices, the converb has to be bound to a "Light Verb" which depends on the transitivity of the converb. Verbs of motion take Ź-K "To go" as their Light Verb, other intransitives M-Ly "To stand", transitives W-Sh "To make", and Ditransitives T-N "to give". Some converbs also take these Light Verbs for other purposes. They can also form "Converb Chains" where multiple Converbs, sometimes of different Binyans are chained together to add to the finite.

Binyan XI: The Plain Converb
Pattern: ńaCōC
Ńakōlh appena
"He eats while he learns"


Ńakōlh wusha yṑtënhū, appenūnh
"He eats pickled vegetables, while we study!"

Binyan XII: The Perfective converb.
Pattern ńeCēC
This has multiple meanings. Followed by a finite verb, it means "Before"
Ńekēlh appena
"Before he learns, he eats."


Ńekēlh wusha yṑtënhū, appenenh
"He eats pickled vegatables before we two study [together]!"

When followed by a Binyan XI plus light verb (based on Binyan XI), it infuses the entire clause with perfective aspect. The Light verb must be past-tense:
Ńekēlh appena hamily
"He has eaten while learning"

If there is only one verb, perfective aspect is marked by repeating the Light Verb, the first time in Binyan XI, the second in past-tense:
Ńekēlh ńawōsh hawush yṑtënhū
"He has eaten pickled vegatables"
The first Light Verb is ommited in colloquial speech, when there is no second clause with a different Person/Tense:
Ńekēlh hawush yṑtënhū
"He has eaten pickled vegetables"

Followed by a light verb in the non-past, when there is no second clause with a different Person/Tense, it takes a future meaning, in formal speech:
Ńekēlh wusha yṑtënhū
"He will eat pickled vegetables"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Thu 18 Jan 2018, 03:27

Binyan XIII: The Conditional Converb
Pattern: CīCīź
Use: Protasis of a conditional clause:
Źīkīź macuc pańakënhū]
"If I would have came, I would have seen the buildings"

Kīlhīź wusha yṑtënhū, kazusham
"If he eats pickled vegetables, I will scream"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 22 Jan 2018, 00:44

Binyan XIV: The Infinitive
Pattern: CawëC
This has three uses:
1. To show the reason for the Finite Verb. This is sometimes labeled by native grammarians as "the reverse converb":
Maźik kawëlh yṑtū li Nakī́zhi kawṓzhē
"I went to Nakī́zh's house to eat pickled vegetables

2. As an Infinitive. With two different person/numbers, the object comes between the finite verb and the Infinitive and is accusative.
Sunnam Nakī́zhū kawëlh
"I despertly want Nakī́zh to eat"

If the verb is transitive, the "Subject" of the infinitive clause takes li OBL, thus Dative.
Sunnam li Nakī́zhē kawëlh yṑtū
"I despertly want Nakī́zh to eat pickled vegetables"

3. If a Verbal noun has become a regular noun, this can act as a verbal noun. If the meaning is Passive/Reflexive it takes the suffix -ūzh. If it is Intensive Causative (All of which have shifted to mean "Person who does") it is followed by the Intensive Indicative Verbal Noun of W-sh "Wusshek"
Śotaykatahì sunne shawësūzhū
"Śotaykatahì desires a gathering"

Sunam pawëk wusshekū
"I want a major teaching"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 22 Jan 2018, 05:28

Binyan XV: The Verbal Noun.
This is unusual, because though I borrow the Hebrew term "Binyan" Shàt Binyan XV is not a "Binyan" in the Hebrew sense, as it can be formed from any Binyan, and in most cases involves changes to the last radical.
These are the general rules:
Take any Verb in any Finite Binyan, except Binyan III and its sub-Binyans- including the /III of the Modal Binyans, without its person/number marker. If the last radical is a stop, geminate it and add <ë>. If it is <s> or <z> change it to <t> and make the final vowel low tone. If it is <sh> change it to <th>and make the final vowel low tone. If it is <ś> or <ź> change it to<c> and make the final vowel low tone. If the last radical is an approximent, or a lateral approximant, add <ëk>. If it is a nasal, <k>, or <h>, add <ak>.
For Binyan III and its sub-binyans, and the /III of the modal Binyans, always add <ēk>after the last radical.
Nhayupam Nakī́zhi kulhëkū
"I dislike Nakī́zh's eating [habits]"

Maśum Nakī́zhi pīnakū
"I heard Nakī́zh's teaching"

Cāppë wulam
"The red thing is alive [lit. "lives"]"

Binyan IIIb always means x-er in Binyan XV, and thus requires Binyan XIV+Wusshek to be a true verbal noun:
Pīnnēk
"Teacher"

Shīssēk
"Gatherer"

Kūllhēk
"Eater"


etc.
These are the 15 Binyans of Shàt
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by eldin raigmore » Sun 18 Mar 2018, 06:31

Shemtov wrote:
Wed 10 Jan 2018, 02:19
The Conjugation Wa means "and. The second item is in oblique case:
Parūk wa Nakī́zhē hetinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Parūk wa Nakī́zh-ē he-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Parūk and Nakī́zh-OBL PST.DUAL.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Parūk and Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [their] finger"

The Conjugation Ō means "or"
Parūk ō Nakī́zhē hetinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Parūk ō Nakī́zh-ē ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Parūk or Nakī́zh-OBL PST.DUAL.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"It was Parūk or Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [his] finger"

Could you have been meaning “conjunction” instead of “conjugation” just there?
If not; please elucidate the meaning.
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Re: Shàt scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 18 Mar 2018, 18:09

eldin raigmore wrote:
Sun 18 Mar 2018, 06:31
Shemtov wrote:
Wed 10 Jan 2018, 02:19
The Conjugation Wa means "and. The second item is in oblique case:
Parūk wa Nakī́zhē hetinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Parūk wa Nakī́zh-ē he-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Parūk and Nakī́zh-OBL PST.DUAL.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"Parūk and Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [their] finger"

The Conjugation Ō means "or"
Parūk ō Nakī́zhē hetinne nipùhu el Śotaykatahìhe li wilhale
Parūk ō Nakī́zh-ē ha-tinne nipù-hu el Śotaykatahì-he li wilhal-e
Parūk or Nakī́zh-OBL PST.DUAL.3P-INT\give agave-ACC DAT Śotaykatahì-OBL INSTR finger-OBL
"It was Parūk or Nakī́zh that offered agave to Śotaykatahì with [his] finger"

Could you have been meaning “conjunction” instead of “conjugation” just there?
If not; please elucidate the meaning.
I did mean "conjugation"; I misspelled it at first, and my sell-check assumed I meant "Conjugation ". As I not,this is currently what i call an "inactive" conlang, one which I set aside to work on other projects. Please check out my three "active" languages- my most recently posted ones.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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