Sáhötan'ővan

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Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Thu 25 Jan 2018, 07:23

Sáhötan'ővan /sahœtə̃ʔøʋə̃/ is a member of the Archipelagoan Branch of Wanian. Wanian is the language family in the world of Fuhe with the largest spread- from its Urheimat in Niija, it spread (North)west to off the SE coast of Fuhe, and Northeast to near SW M̟oḩa (Though Aunna, which is possibly an Isolate may be a Wanian Language with heavy M̟oḩaic and Chaskian influence), thus being seperated only by M̟oḩa, Seivǔhk, Fuhe, and an unnamed continent south of Fuhe- this being about the east-west distance from IRL Alaska eastward to Greenland, thus Wanian covers an area in the east-west direction that IRL is covered by Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania, though it is mostly contained in the Southern Hemisphere. It is divided Into the Continental branch- Niija and other Wanian languages on that continent and surrounding islands- Southwest and Northwest, which are descended from two separate migrations to the Southern half of and the Northern half of Mitwan Island, respectively, and Archipelagoan, which spread Northeast of Niija.
Sáhötan'ővan is spoken on the island of Hötan'ővan. Some notes on Hötan'ővanian society, that is needed to understand the language:
Hötan'ővan is governed by a democratically-elected council, headed by a Tó'a who is elected for life, and sons of old Tó'as cannot be elected as Tó'a. Only men may vote, and only men may join the council or be Tó'a, except for the Man-Woman, chosen by the Tó'a as a young girl to be in perpetual virginity (Under pain of death to her, her parents, her brothers, sisters-in-laws and fraternal nephews and neices), who can vote in the council. Women, except the Man-Woman, and only then in Council debates, must replace some roots with "feminine language" under penalty of death.

Phonology and Romanazation:
/ t ʔ/ <t '>
/m n / <m n>
/ s h/ <s h>
/ʀ/ <r>
/l / <l>
/j ʋ/ <y v>

/i e ø o ə œ ɔ a / <i é ő ó a ö o á>
/ ə̃ ɛ̃ œ̃ ɔ̃ / <an en ön on>
All non-high non-nasal vowels may be followed in a diphthong by /i u/.
There is limited vowel harmony, a front triad /ø œ œ̃ / versus a back triad/o ɔ ɔ̃ /. All other vowels are neutral.
Phonotactics CV(ʔ/h). Final consonants can only occur word-finally, and not after nasal vowels.

Nouns:
Nouns do not inflect for case, but have Five Genders, which inflect for number, of which there are three, Singular, paucal (2-5) and Plural. Gender I does not inflect for number. All nouns must be proceeded by an article, the indefinate 'an, and the definate vö, though Gender I must take vö.

Gender I: Proper Names:
Sing: Vö Tonsontá

Gender II: Masculine non-Proper humans:
"Sontá" "Man" (male use only)
Sing: 'an sontá
Pauc. 'an tansontá
Plr: 'asontá

Gender III: Feminine non-Proper humans:
"''avi" "Woman" (male use only)
Sing: 'an 'avi
Pauc. 'an tan'avi
Plr: 'avi'avi

Gender IV: Non-proper location words:
"Hö'" "Lake"
Sing: 'an hö'
Pauc. 'an tanhö'
Plr: 'an hahö'

Gender V: Everything else:
"'i'en" "Fish"
Sing: 'an 'i'en
Pauc. 'an tan'i'en
Plr: 'i'i'en
Last edited by Shemtov on Fri 26 Jan 2018, 05:33, edited 4 times in total.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: Sáhőtan'övan

Post by gestaltist » Thu 25 Jan 2018, 11:34

I'm amazed by the amount of conlangs you post here. I gotta ask: how well fleshed out are they? Are they only sketches? If they aren't, what's you job? I am working on one conlang and it's barely functional after half a year. I feel like I'd have to work on conlangs full time to match your output.
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Re: Sáhőtan'övan

Post by Shemtov » Thu 25 Jan 2018, 16:16

I am a college student, but the fall semester I was on sabbatical after getting my AA; last spring semester my schedule was such that I had time to conlang and do my work (Basically, I took all four courses on two days a week, so I had four days a week that I was unoccupied or wasn't my Sabbath). This Semester, it looks like I'll have less time, but I'll still have Sundays to conlang. Some of my languages (Shàt for example) are scratchpads, though I had a pretty good idea of what I wanted to do. I have a pretty good idea of Sáhőtan'övan morphology, though some things in the syntax need to be worked out; I basically want it to be an Oceanic language adapted to what I have already established about the Wanian languages, with SVO word order. And I won't model it after one specific Oceanic language; I will put features from one onto others, and for the SVO word order to work, I'm taking heavy inspiration from Mandarin.
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Thu 25 Jan 2018, 21:26

Pronouns are unusual as they have a non-Nominative form, and a clitic form for possesion and verbs, but the clitic will not be discussed here.
Nominative:
1P singular: Ve (Masc) Ve'a (Fem)
1P Dual Inclusive: Veven
1P Dual Exclusive Tanmö
1p plr exclusive: Mö
1P plr inclusive: Ha
2P sing Ven
2P plr: Ti
3p sing: Tá
3P plr: Se

Non-Nominative:
1p sing: Von (masc) Vona
1P Dual Inclusive: Vomon
1P Dual Exclusive Taman
1p plr exclusive: Mon
1P plr inclusive: Man
2P sing: Ven
2P plr: Nen
3p sing: Tá
3P plr: Sen

Numbers 1-10:
1. Sá'i
2. Hinan
3: 'átila
4. 'i'ó
5. Van
6. Hita
7. Hótó
8. 'óvi
9. Tóhi
10: 'ávan

Nouns take counters after numbers, except for Gender I. The counters take the place of the article; there is no distinction for numbered nouns for definites. The nouns do not inflect for number, except for emphasis. The counters are based on Gender:
Gender II: Son
Gender III: 'a
Gender IV: Vá
Gender V: Yő

Tóhi son tó'a
"Nine men" (Female speaker- their word for Tó'a is 'ötő'a)

Van 'a me'á
"Five girls"

'átila vá hö
"Three lakes"

'i'ó yő tó'á
"Four boats"
Last edited by Shemtov on Fri 26 Jan 2018, 05:34, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Fri 26 Jan 2018, 05:10

Verbs:
Verbs come in two kinds: Intransitive and Transitive. Some verbs are naturally transitive like 'i'óvi "To insult", but others are Intransitive like Háta'á "To die". The latter take the transitiviser -'an: Hota'á'an "To Kill", but there are some irregulars that take the prefix van- "'ahónti" "to come" "Vanahónti" "to Enter" Van- is a prefix, not a clitic, as can be seen from the previous example, the nasal vowel becomes /ən/ before /ʔ/.
There are aspect-mood prefixes, that in addition to sometimes being subject to /ʔ/ to /n/ (denoted by (N)), also follow the front-back harmony, with the base vowel being denoted by Ó O or O(N).
These prefixes are:
'O(N): Perfective
'e: Habitual
Sá: Conditional
Ti: Subjunctive
Use of the last two (Modal prefixes) will be considered in another post.

There are also Person-Number suffixes, which when applicable follow vowel harmony:
1P singular: Va
1P Dual Inclusive: ven
1P Dual Exclusive mO
1p plr exclusive: MO
1P plr inclusive: Ha
2P sing Van
2P plr: Ta'
3p sing: Ta
3P plr: Sa

Sentences are always SVO
'an 'avi'avi 'oni'óvi vö tó'a háta'á'anta sen
/ʔə̃ ʔəʋiʔəʋi ʔɔniʔoʋi ʋœ toʔə hatəʔaʔə̃tə sɛ̃/
'an 'avi'-avi 'on-i'óvi vö tó'a háta'á-'an-ta sen
INDEF woman-PLR PERF-insult DEF chief die-TRANS-3P 3P.PLR.OBL
"Some women insulted the chief; he killed them."
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Fri 26 Jan 2018, 05:19

NB: Changed the name of the language, and the root for "Lake".
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Evynova » Fri 26 Jan 2018, 12:16

I really like the concept of having different roots that change depending on the sex of the speaker. Though this begs the question: what about trans people? Are they recognised, and if so, do they have to change their speech?

I'm looking forward to seeing more. I like what I've seen so far :)
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Fri 26 Jan 2018, 17:16

Evynova wrote:
Fri 26 Jan 2018, 12:16
Though this begs the question: what about trans people? Are they recognised, and if so, do they have to change their speech?

They are not recognized, though the concept of the Man-Woman does have overlap with the idea of trans, being a Woman (Temporarily) treated as a man, though it being chosen by an authority figure instead of being born that way makes a difference. There are some Archipelagoan cultures where Men-Women are chosen by simply being transmen.
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Sun 28 Jan 2018, 02:33

Shemtov wrote:
Fri 26 Jan 2018, 17:16
Evynova wrote:
Fri 26 Jan 2018, 12:16
Though this begs the question: what about trans people? Are they recognised, and if so, do they have to change their speech?

They are not recognized, though the concept of the Man-Woman does have overlap with the idea of trans, being a Woman (Temporarily) treated as a man, though it being chosen by an authority figure instead of being born that way makes a difference. There are some Archipelagoan cultures where Men-Women are chosen by simply being transmen.
See here for more details:
viewtopic.php?f=24&t=5910&p=272445#p272445
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Mon 29 Jan 2018, 04:56

Possesion is divided into alienable and inalienble possesion.
Inalienable possesion is formed by putting the same person-number suffixes as the verbs onto the noun:
Voni " Right Hand"
Voniva "My right hand"

If the possesed noun belongs to a specific person, the noun takes the 3P.SING suffix <-ta> followed by that person. The article comes first:
Vö vonita tó'a
"The Tó'a's right hand"

Example:
'an 'avi 'oraháváta vö vonita tó'a
'an 'avi 'o-rahává-ta vö voni-ta tó'a
INDEF woman PERF-stab-3P.SING DEF right.hand-3P.SING chief
"A woman has stabbed the Tó'a's right hand"

Alienable possions are marked by the particle 'ó after the possesed with the the same person-number suffixes as the verbs being put onto it:
'avi'avi 'óva
"My wives"

If the possesed noun belongs to a specific person, <'ó> takes the 3P.SING suffix <-ta> followed by that person. The article comes first:
Vö 'avi'avi 'óta tó'a
"The Tó'a's wives"

Example:
'an he'a 'oraháváta vö 'avi'avi 'óta tó'a
'an me'a 'o-rahává-ta vö 'avi-'avi 'ó-ta tó'a
INDEF girl PERF-stab-3P DEF woman-PLR POSS-3P.SING
"A girl has stabbed the Tó'a's wives"
Last edited by Shemtov on Fri 02 Feb 2018, 20:42, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Thu 01 Feb 2018, 19:33

Verbs can be negated by the particle <Han>:
'an 'avi'avi 'oni'óvi vö tó'a han háta'á'anta sen
/ʔə̃ ʔəʋiʔəʋi ʔɔniʔoʋi ʋœ toʔə hə̃ hatəʔaʔə̃tə sɛ̃/
'an 'avi'-avi 'on-i'óvi vö tó'a han háta'á-'an-ta sen
INDEF woman-PLR PERF-insult DEF chief NEG die-TRANS-3P 3P.PLR.OBL
"Some women insulted the chief; [but] he did not kill them."

Polar questions are formed by the final particle 'e:
'onháta'á'anta sen 'e?
"Has he killed them?"

Negative questions are formed, not by putting <han> before the verb, but before 'e:
'onháta'á'anta sen han 'e?
"Has he not killed them [already]?"
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Fri 02 Feb 2018, 20:46

WH-Questions are formed by using the apropiate Interrogative pronoun, four of which have a non-Nominative form.
What (Masculine): Ye'
What (feminine) 'e'örah
Who (masculine): Yőh
Who (Feminine) 'etó'á (if the person asked about is for sure a woman it is 'eme'á)
Where: 'isá
Why: Ya'
How: Yen


The first four have non-nominative forms, regular formed by the suffix (')On:
What (Masculine): Ye'on
What (feminine) 'e'öra'ön
Who (masculine): Yön
Who (Feminine) 'eto'á'on (if the person asked about is for sure a woman it is 'eme'á'on)

These four, when DO, have WH-Fronting; in general WH-pronouns, and phrases containing them, come first.
Yöh 'oni'óvi vö tó'a
"Who insulted the chief?"

'eto'á 'oni'óvi vö 'otő'a?
"Who insulted the chief?" (Female speaker)

Yön 'an 'avi'avi 'oni'óvi ?
"Who did the women insult?"

'etó'a 'an me'áme'á 'oni'óvi
"Who did the women insult?" (Female speaker)

Ye' 'anáhó'i 'ehota'á'an
"What kills wanderers?"

'e'örah 'anáhó'i 'ehota'á'an
"What kills wanderers? (Female speaker)

Ye'on tá 'onhota'á'an?
"What did they kill?"

'eto'á'on tá 'onhota'á'an?
"What did they kill?" (Female speaker)

'isa 'an he'a 'oraháváta vö 'avi'avi 'óta tó'a
"Where did a girl stab the Tó'a's wives?"

Ya' 'an he'a 'oraháváta vö 'avi'avi 'óta tó'a
"Why did a girl stab the Tó'a's wives?"

Yen 'an he'a 'oraháváta vö 'avi'avi 'óta tó'a
"How did a girl stab the Tó'a's wives?"
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Fri 09 Feb 2018, 05:03

Derivational morphology:
Verbs can be nomanalized with the the suffix -ti'. This has two meanings, depending on whether the verb is transitive- where it is like the English suffix -er- or intransitive- where it means "The one who underwent VERB X":
Háta'áti'
"The dead"
Hota'á'anti'
"Murderer"
'ahóntiti'
"the one who comes"
Vanahóntiti'
"Guest"
'i'óviti'
"Mocker"

The suffix tO means "place where VERB X happens":
Vanahóntito
"Entrance"
Hota'á'anto
"Execution grounds"
Háta'á
"Devastated area"

Nouns can be augmented in size by the prefix 'O:
'öhö
"Big lake"

This is often used when the feminine speech replaces a noun with a noun of higher status, to mean that noun of higher status:
Sontá "Man (masc. speech)"
Tó'a "Chief (Masc. speech); Man (Fem. speech)
'otó'a "Chief (fem. speech)

The diminutive is the prefix Há-. This can be either in size or status:
Háhö
"Pond"
Hátó'a
"Council member"
Hásontá
"Man-woman"
Há'i'en
"Small fish [unfit for eating because of size]"

The suffix -ha' means "Noun pertaining to base noun; noun naturally controlled by base noun; Abstract of base noun"
Hátó'aha' "Council"
Tó'aha' "The office of Chief"
Höha'
"Environs of a lake"
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Fri 09 Feb 2018, 20:47

Subordinate clauses diffrentiate between if the first clause's subject is diferent from the second.
If they are different, the particle <mé> is put between them:
Vö tó'a 'oni'onvita, mé 'an 'avi'avi 'oni'óvisa tá
"The chief thought some women insulted him"

If they are the same, the second clause doesn't take Person-Number marking, and there is a unique difference between "semi-masculine" and "semi-feminine" forms. "This means that while a male can use the "semi-feminine" with no consequences, unless he is in or in front of a council meeting or the chief, but it is preffered he use the "semi-masculine", a woman has the same taboo on using the "semi-masculine" as "masculine speech". The ""semi-masculine" is also unique in that it changes between a masculine and feminine subject, and failure to distinguish this is considered "feminine speech" unless the man retracts it within the same time it takes to make the "wrong" utterance.
"semi-feminine": Particle <há>
"semi-masculine": <há sa'i son/'a.
<Son> is used for male reference, while 'a for feminine.
Vö tó'a 'oni'onvita há tiháta'á'an sen
"The chief thought he might kill them"

Vö tó'a 'oni'onvita há sa'i son tiháta'á'an sen
"id."
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Sun 11 Feb 2018, 05:01

Sáhötan'ővan has two demonstratives that do not inflect for number (though, as we shall soon see, Masculine speech uses the MWs to mark plural). The proximal is <Hahá> and the distal is <Hanhé>.
In feminine speech these do not mark any change for number:
Hahá vö 'otő'a
"This is the Chief"
Hanhé 'an 'i'en
"That is a fish"
Hanhé 'an 'i'i'en
"Those are fish"

Masculine speech uses counters to mark plural/paucal:
Hanhé hátó'a
"That council member"

Hanhé son tanhátó'a
"Those few council members"

Hahá 'an 'i'en
"This Fish"

Hahá yő 'an 'i'i'en
"These fish"

Copular sentences are marked by a null copula:
Vé vö to'a
"I am the chief"

Ven mé'a
"You are a woman" (Feminine)

However, regardless of number or gender of the speaker, counters are used with demonstratives:
Hahá yő 'an 'i'en
"This is a fish"

Hanhé son tanhátó'a
"Those are a few council members
or (Masc. speech only):
"Those few council members"
Context often can sort out ambiguities, though some men prefer to add a number in the latter case:
Hanhé 'átila son tanhátó'a
"Those three council members"
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Mon 12 Feb 2018, 04:52

Oblique nouns:
Nouns have no case, the utterance following a strict SVO order. However, nouns that are neither subject or direct object are called Oblique nouns, and take oblique particles before them.
Dative or benefactive: Né:
Ve 'o'ihatava 'an ré'ah né 'avi'avi 'óva
"I gave my wives ambergris"

Ve'a 'ehila'i né vö 'otó'a
"I [fem] often sing for the chief"

Intrumental: Vi:
Ve hota'á'anva 'an hen'i'en vi 'avá óva
"I am killing a shark with my spear"

Locative: Hi
Ve 'o'ihatava 'an ré'ah né 'avi'avi 'óva hi tasi óva
"I gave my wives ambergris in my house"

Directional movement is formed by a. using a verb of motion b. if it is not the verb "come" <'ahónti> or "go" <mótó'>, these verbs are placed before the main verb, as adverbs, the former being lative, and the latter being ablative c. putting <hi> before the location:

Vö tó'a 'ahónti 'etáhóta hi vö hahö'
"The chief often walks to the lakes"

Vö tó'a mótó 'otáhóta hi vö hö'
"The chief walked back from the lake"
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Ghoster » Tue 13 Feb 2018, 00:22

I really like the phonetics, they're simple yet original. Creating phonological system that is both small and recognizable is a very hard thing to do. Lots of glottal stops also give it a nice flavor, although the apostrophe doesn't look very appealing in the latin script repeated so many times; some mayan-inspired conscript would fit great for this one, or anything seal-script related. It has a strong Rapa Nui feeling to it.
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Re: Sáhötan'ővan

Post by Shemtov » Sun 18 Feb 2018, 04:18

The Verbal Noun is formed by adding the prefix mÓ- to the verb root. one of the uses of this will be considered later in this post.
Predicative Adjectives are simply a verb:
Vö 'i'en hálahata
"The Fish is red"
Attributive adjectives are either instrumental nouns put between the article and the main noun or the Verbal Noun of a Predicative Adjective in the same position, though it doesn't need to be instrumental:
'an hen'i'en vi 'avá
"A shark-stabbing spear"

Vö móhalaha 'i'en
"The red fish"

Nouns can only take one attributive adjective at a time. Multiple adjectives require a ART ADJ COUNTER sequence after the first adjective phrase:
Vö móhalaha 'i'en vö mővö'e' yő vö molásá yő
"The big red tasty fish"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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