Phenglộl

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 215
Joined: Wed 09 Mar 2016, 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Phenglộl

Post by Vlürch » Mon 05 Feb 2018, 23:16

This is just some kind of an attempt at making a tonal conlang mainly inspired by South- and Southeast Asian languages.

PHENGLỘL /pʰɛ̄ŋl̪ôːʊ̯l̪/ - bird language (reason for why it's called that, and more, in this post)

Phonology

/m n̪ ɳ ɲ ŋ/ <m n ṇ ny ng>
/p b t̪ d̪ ʈ ɖ k g/ <p b t d ṭ ḍ k g>
/pʰ bʱ t̪ʰ d̪ʱ ʈʰ ɖʱ kʰ gʱ/ <ph bh th dh ṭh ḍh kh gh>
/t͡s d͡ʒ k͡s k͡ʃ/ <c j x ẋ>
/t͡ʂʰ/ <ch>
/s̪ ʂ/ <s ṣ>
/ʋ ɻ j h/ <v ẓ y h>
/r ɽ/ <r ṛ>
/d͡r/ <dr>
/l̪ ɭ/ <l ḷ>

/ā ɛ̄ ī ɔ̄ ū/ <a e i o u>
/ə̀ ə́ ɯ̀/ <à è ì>
/ə̄ː/ <ê>
/áː éː íː/ <á é í>
/ɒ̀ː òː ùː/ <â ô û>
/ěɪ̯ ǒʊ̯/ <ẹ ọ>
/ɑ̌ːə̯/ <ậ>
/âə̯ îɘ̯/ <ạ î>
/êːɪ̯ ôːʊ̯/ <ệ ộ>


/ěɪ̯ ǒʊ̯ ɑ̌ːə̯ âə̯ îɘ̯ êːɪ̯ ôːʊ̯/ are [ɚ̌ː ǒɚ̯ ɑ̌ːɚ̯ æ̂ɚ̯ îɚ̯ êːɚ̯ ôːɚ̯] before retroflex consonants
As a general rule, back vowel have low tones and front vowels have high tones. There are some exceptions to this, however, such as the schwa and the nasalised vowels detailed below.

/t͡ʂʰ/ is not treated as a retroflex consonant
/ɽ/ can be trilled [ɽ͡r], especially word-initially
/pʰ t̪ʰ kʰ/ can be [ɸ θ x] before the unaspirated stops /p b t̪ d̪ ʈ ɖ k g/

~

There are special nasalised syllables, the vowels of which have no tone independently but take the tone opposite of the preceding syllable except when the preceding syllable has a mid tone; in that case the front vowels within the nasalised syllable take a high tone and the back vowels take a low tone. When they are the first syllable of a word, the same rule applies.

The structure of these syllables is always CṼÑ
C = any consonant
Ṽ = any of the nasalisable vowels (shown below)
Ñ = any of the special consonants (shown below)

/◌̃m(◌ʷ/◌̃) ◌̃ŋ(◌ˠ/◌̃)/ <◌̃m ◌̃g>
/◌̃ʴːɻ̃(◌ʴ/◌̃) ◌̃ːh̃(◌ʰ/◌̃)/ <◌̃r ◌̃h>

/ɑ ɛ i ɔ u/ <a e i o u>

They can only be followed by syllables beginning with vowels or these consonants, considered "weak consonants" that take on the characteristics defining the nasal endings. The vowels following them also nasalise if the syllable begins with a vowel or nasal consonant. These processes are considered phonemic. (Compounds where a word ends in one of these syllables and the following word begins with a regular syllable are an exception; in them there is no change in the initial syllable.)

/m n/ <m n>
/t d/ <t d>
/t͡s/ <c>
/s/ <s>
/r/ <r>
/l/ <l>

When aspirated, /m/ becomes devoiced /m̥ʰ/
When aspirated, /n/ becomes devoiced /n̥ʰ/
When aspirated, /r/ becomes devoiced /r̥/
When aspirated, /l/ becomes voiceless fricative /ɬ/
When aspirated, /ʋ/ becomes voiceless bilabial /ɸ/

For example,
chághãrtè /t͡ʂʰáːgʱɑ̃ʴːɻ̃tə́/ > /t͡ʂʰáːgʱɑ̃̀ʴːɻ̃ʈə́/ - /t/ becomes retroflex
khẽmej /kʰɛ̃mɛ̃̄d͡ʒ/ > /kʰɛ̃́mɛ̃̄d͡ʒ/ - initial syllable's /ɛ̃/ has high tone
nãhra /n̪ɑ̃ːh̃rʰā/ > /n̪ɑ̃̀ːh̃r̥ā/ - /r/ is devoiced, /ɑ̃ː/ has low tone
àrẽhlà /ə̀rɛ̃h̃lʰə̀/ > /ə̀rɛ̃́h̃ɬə̀/ - /l/ is devoiced and fricated, /ɛ̃/ has high tone
ḍũglâ /ɖũŋl̪ˠɒ̀ː/ > /ɖũ̀ŋɫ̪ɒ̀ː/ - /l/ is velarised

Nouns

SINGULAR - DUAL - PLURAL
indefinite: -Ø, -Ø, -à/-yà (after consonant/vowel)
definite: -èto/-to, -èta/-ta, -á/-yá (after consonant/vowel)

nominative: -Ø, -ka, -ko
accusative: -Ø, -Ø, -m
agentive: -kè, -kâba, -kabôl
genitive: -l, -la, -kal
dative: -s, -kas, -kus
instrumental: -ya, -ki, -kiya
comitative: -yãg, -kĩg, -kiyãg
vague locative: -rô, -kora, -krol
benefactive: -rî, -kirá, -kirô
vocative: -Ø, -kâ, -kô
temporal: -xê, -kèsâ, -kesô

The agentive is only used when the object of a verb is directly affected by the action. For example, it is used with verbs like "punch" or "give", but not with verbs like "look" or "listen".

The vague locative can be used instead of any of the other locative cases. It may be used to imply that whatever being referred to is only temporarily in the location it is currently in or that it is constantly moving, but this isn't necessarily always true; it can be used for intentionally vague statements, or expressing uncertainty over the exact location or relationship the noun it modifies has with wherever it is located.

LOCATIVE CASES

adessive (near): -rãh, -ràng, -kèrâng
inessive (inside): -yé, -yạẓ, -kàyíṛê
superessive (on top): -bhô, -bhâl, -kèbhôl
subessive (below): -khu, -khũr, kíghũr
antessive (in front): -thô, -thoṇ, -kèthôṇ
postessive (behind): -vâ, -vậm, -kàvậm

allative (to near): -rãhèm, -ràngẹm, -kèrângẹm
illative (to inside): -yém, -yẹm, -kíyệm
superlative (to top): -bhôm, -bhâlẹm, -kèbhôlẹm
sublative (to below): -khûm, -khũrtẹm, kíghũrtẹm
antelative (to front): -thôm, -thõrèm, -kèthõrèm
postlative (to behind): -vâm, -vãrèm, -kàvãrèm

ablative (from near): -rãhèl, -ràngọl, -kèrângộl
elative (from inside): -yél, -yộl, -kàyíṛộl
superelative (from top): -bhôl, -bhâlọl, -kèbhọlộl
subelative (from below): -khûl, -khũrtọl, kíghũrtộl
anteelative (from front): -thôl, -thõrtọl, -kèthõrtộl
postelative (from behind): -vâl, -vãrọl, -kàvãrộl

POSSESSED CASES
These are optional. They can be used either with or without pronouns, but more commonly without them; they're much more commonly dropped if a pronoun is used.

1st person possessed nominative: -m, -mak, -mô
2nd person possessed nominative: -t, -tak, -tô
3rd person possessed nominative: -v, -vak, -vô

1st person possessed accusative: -m, -mák, -môm
2nd person possessed accusative: -t, -ták, -tôm
3rd person possessed accusative: -v, -vák, -vôm

1st person possessed agentive: -mìkè, -mìbâ, -mabô
2nd person possessed agentive: -tìkè, -tìbâ, -tabô
3rd person possessed agentive: -vìkè, -vìbâ, -vabô

1st person possessed genitive: -mìl, -mìkâl, -mûl
2nd person possessed genitive: -tìl, -tìkâl, -tûl
3rd person possessed genitive: -vìl, -vìkâl, -vûl

1st person possessed dative: -mìs, -mìkâs, -mûs
2nd person possessed dative: -tìs, -tìkâs, -tûs
3rd person possessed dative: -vìs, -vìkâs, -vûs

1st person possessed instrumental: -mìya, -mî, -míya
2nd person possessed instrumental: -tìya, -tî, -tíya
3rd person possessed instrumental: -vìya, -vî, -víya

1st person possessed comitative: -mìyãg, -mĩg, -míyãg
2nd person possessed comitative: -tìyãg, -tĩg, -tíyãg
3rd person possessed comitative: -vìyãg, -vĩg, -víyãg

1st person possessed vague locative: -marô, -morâ, -mìrol
2nd person possessed vague locative: -tarô, -torâ, -tìrol
3rd person possessed vague locative: -varô, -vorâ, -vìrol

1st person possessed benefactive: -mî, -mrá, -mirô
2nd person possessed benefactive: -tî, -trá, -tirô
3rd person possessed benefactive: -vî, -vrá, -virô

1st person possessed vocative: -m, -mâ, -mô
2nd person possessed vocative: -t, -tâ, -tô
3rd person possessed vocative: -v, -vâ, -vô

1st person possessed temporal: -màxè, -mèxâ, -mesô
2nd person possessed temporal: -tàxè, -tèxâ, -tesô
3rd person possessed temporal: -vàxè, -vèxâ, -vesô

For the specific locative cases, the regular forms are used after these simple possessive suffixes:
1st person: -m-
2nd person: -t-
3rd person: -v-

ADJECTIVES
comparative: -obìr/-bìr (after consonant/vowel)
superlative: -omir/-mir (after consonant/vowel)

Verbs

plain: Ø-
polite: ve-

imperative: hì-/hày- (before consonant/vowel)
hortative: hí-/hèy- (before consonant/vowel)
hypothetical/potential: sà-/sày- (before consonant/vowel)
dubitative: bà-/bày- (before consonant/vowel)
admirative: bî-/bîr- (before consonant/vowel)

past: -nè
present: -Ø
future: -né

affirmative: -lâ
interrogative: -Ø

positive: -Ø
negative: -gì

Vocabulary

ngèkoṣ - cat
pheng - bird
lộl - language, speech
jaḷmàh - face, appearance, being
ḍhẹḍhà - insect, bug
ḍhêdh - beetle, scarab, etc.
chághãrtè - betrayal
khẽmej - trust, friendship
khẽm - friend
nãhra - truth
àrẽhlà - lie, untruth
lãg - person, human, individual
aṛâ - people, tribe, culture, nation
lèṇà - woman, girl
làṇè - man, boy
lèṇáḷà - girl, child
làṇéḍà - boy, child
ḍhộm - world
ṭhộdhộḷ - earth, ground, soil
ḷámḷích - ocean, sea
mâḷá - water
mâḷáẋãh - river
tộngkhûṇẋãhàchộdrà - large-scale human migration
tộngkhûṇẋãh - small-scale human migration
lãgẋãh - immigration of an individual
ẋãh - movement, motion, flow
chộdrà - distribution, network
lãgẋãho - immigrant
ḍhẽrḍột - profession, job, occupation, work, skill
mêṇḷìm - meat, flesh
yémmêṇḷìm - fat, soft tissue
iḍhengà - memory loss, dementia
iḍhengè - oblivion, state of being forgotten
abhộṇ - flower
abhộṇhôḍh - garden
hôḍh - place of leisure
lộlhôḍh - lounge
sordrhôḍh - restaurant
lèṇàhôḍh - brothel (used by men), salon (used by women)
mêṇḷìmhôḍh - vagina (sexually euphemistic), womb (childish)
mâḷáhôḍh - bathhouse, hot spring, etc.
híbh - neighbour
híbhhôḍh - neighbourhood
phãrâ - head
koṇ - eye
rậng - limb
nyạrậng - arm
mạrậng - leg
nyèṛê - tongue
jậkhtâ - penis
ôjaghí - vagina
drâng - origin
cháng - birth
ṣõm - death
ḍhũm - will, determination, desire, courage
thãmḷâ - understanding, knowledge
athãmḷâ - ignorance, stupidity
gẹbh - texture, surface, quality, appearance
ḍôj - hole
bôkh - detail
koṇbôkh - iris
koṇḍôj - pupil
koṇḷámḷích - sclera
gẹbhbôkh - visual detail, a tiny part of a whole
põmbhâ - obesity, being fat
põmbhô - obese person, fat person
tìṛâ - thinness, being skinny
tìṛô - thin person, skinny person
ghọ - food, meal
bhộth - pleasure, enjoyment
pộph - liquid, slime, goo
chãr - vein, artery
xệch - country, nation, state
bhèṇ - effect, result
khệyãh - festival, celebration
ḍhuṭh - island
tãhvêṣ - whale
chèp - any small fish
dhuv - any large fish
ṇulâ - deity, god
ṇulá - deity, goddess
bhám - baby
bhámpộphbộr - abortion
bhámcĩgjâkh - baby-snatcher, child abductor
cĩgjâkh - abductor, kidnapper
nyộch - question
nyõg - answer
droc - power, strength, force
drocẋaṭh - royalness, monarchial power
ôruẋaṭh - king
âviẋaṭh - queen
ẋaṭh - monarch
ṇulẋaṭh - emperor, empress, divine ruler
ẋaṭhrậng - royal, relative of a monarch
vêṇṇádh - city
ngìdr - damage, wound, tear, crack
nyãmṭôb - performance
drocṭàbh - abdication, resignation
ẋevê - light
khãm - sun
dãh - moon
khãmẋevê - sunlight
dãhẋevê - moonlight
Ẋevêtol Ôruẋaṭh - the sun as a deity
Ẋevêtol Âviẋaṭh - the moon as a deity
phi - wind
saḷ - passage, way, path, road
ẓĩm - mound, hill
yábãh - terrace, balcony
mâḷáẋãh - voyage (on a ship by sea)
phiẋãh - voyage (on a ship by air)
mekâṛ - glory, triumph
gãh - west
mãg - east
phân - feeling, perception, experience

pìrèng - beautiful, pretty, cute
sordrâ - delicious, appetising
sordrô - fragrant
ḍũglâ - ugly, hideous, nasty
vẽhel - happy
phãhcâ - sick, ill, diseased
tộngkhûṇ - people's, human
yém - soft, flabby, weak
iḍhengâ - forgotten, lost, doomed
iḍhengô - forgetful, demented, senile
híbhâ - neighbourly
híbhô - neighbouring
koṇâ - having good eyesight
koṇô - visible, obvious
akoṇâ - blind
akoṇô - invisible, hidden
nyèṛêyâ - eloquent
nyèṛêyô - famous, much talked about
anyèṛêyâ - mute, reserved, speechless
anyèṛêyô - unknown, unspoken
nyạ - upper, above
mạ - lower, below
bèthậchâ - flexible, open-minded (of a person)
bèthậchô - flexible (of a material)
abèthậchâ - stiff, close-minded (of a person)
abèthậchô - stiff, hard (of a material)
drâng - original, primordial
drângè - original, innovative
ṣõm - dead
ḍhũma - strong-willed, determined
ḍhũmo - weak-willed, submissive
aḍhũma - overindulgent, indecisive, pathetic (derogatory)
aḍhũmo - overindulgent, dictatorial, dominant (derogatory)
ngêlãhèth - stealthy, careful, cautious
põmbhî - obese, fat, overweight
tìṛî - skinny, thin, underweight
ẋaṭha - royal, monarchial
ngìdra - wounded, hurt, torn, cracked
ngìdro - fragile, breakable
khãmô - jubilant, optimistic
dãhô - melancholic, pessimistic
khãmẋevô - sunlit
dãhẋevô - moonlit
vêṇṇádho - urban
droca - strong, powerful
anyõgô - mysterious, unanswered
mekâṛu - glorious, triumphant
gãhu - western
mãgu - eastern
phâna - felt, perceived, experienced

bộrâ - to make, do, cause
xáṭha - to look
xáṭho - to be looked at
lộlì - to speak
ẋãhà - to move, flow
ṣíḍa - to hit, punch, strike
rákhà - to get dressed
arákhà - to get undressed
thộve - to sit, land, stop
ṭhâḷpha - to love
ṭhâḷpho - to be loved
xègháṭà - to wake up
xègháṭò - to be woken up
axègháṭà - to go to sleep
axègháṭò - to be knocked out
iḍhengé - to forget
koṇâ - to see, notice
koṇô - to be seen, noticed
akoṇâ - to be blind
akoṇô - to be blinded
akoṇu - to blind (transitive)
drângâ - to invent, create
drângô - to originate (intransitive)
chángâ - to give birth
chángô - to be born
bunchángâ - to give birth to someone's reincarnation
bunchángô - to be reborn
ṣõmâ - to die
nèhu - to come, move closer, arrive
ṭàbhu - to go, move farther, leave
drocṭàbhu - to abdicate, resign
drocṭàbhô - to be overthrown
drocṭàbhâ - to overthrow
ngìdrâ - to damage, wound, hurt
ngìdrô - to be damaged, wounded, hurt
nyộchu - to ask
nyõgu - to answer
phâ - to feel, perceive, experience

dâ - when
dâdâ - when (interrogative)
ngé - where
ngèngé - where (interrogative)
ním - why
nìnním - why (interrogative)
bun - again
cîm - so, thus
xim - as, in the form/shape/role of, being, etc. (used with genitive)

sê - before, preceding
jê - during, at present
cà - after, following, because

AFFIXES
-àrí/-rí - forms adverbs from nouns and adjectives
-ikhí/-khí - forms nouns denoting an action, "-(is)ation"
-ikho/-kho - forms verbs denoting a process resulting in the noun or adjective, "-ise"
-u/-hu - forms verbs from nouns meaning "to act like" the noun

~

Pronouns only have singular and plural.

mo, mô - I, we (nominative)
mì, mộ - me, us (accusative)
mè, môl - I, we (agentive)
mô, mâl - my, our (genitive)
mès, môs - to me, to us (dative)
mèrô, màrô - on/in me, on/in us (locative)
mèya, màkí - with me, with us (comitative)

to, tô - you, you (nominative)
tì, tộ - you, you (accusative)
tè, tôl - you, you (agentive)
tô, tâl - your, your (genitive)
tès, tôs - to you, to you (dative)
tèrô, tàrô - on/in you, on/in you (locative)
tèya, tàkí - with you, with you (comitative)

vo, vô - it, they (nominative)
vì, vộ - it, them (accusative)
vè, vôl - it, they (agentive)
vô, vâl - its, their (genitive)
vès, vôs - to it, to them (dative)
vèrô, vàrô - on/in it, on/in them (locative)
vèya, vàkí - with it, with them (comitative)

àvo, àvô - he, they (nominative)
àvì, àvộ - him, them (accusative)
àvè, àvôl - he, they (agentive)
àvô, àvâl - his, their (genitive)
àvès, àvôs - to him, to them (dative)
àvèrô, àvàrô - on/in him, on/in them (locative)
àvèya, àvàkí - with him, with them (comitative)

evo, evô - she, they (nominative)
evì, evộ - her, them (accusative)
evè, evôl - she, they (agentive)
evô, evâl - her, their (genitive)
evès, evôs - to her, to them (dative)
evèrô, evàrô - on/in her, on/in them (locative)
evèya, evàkí - with her, with them (comitative)

DUAL, PLURAL
vâṇâ, vânî - each other (nominative/accusative)
vâṇâl, vânêl - each other's (genitive)
vâṇôn, vânîn - to/on/in/with each other (dative/locative/comitative)

Numerals
xâṇ - one
àrèṣ - two
khâr - three
phán - four
tãhàn - five
bhâṇ - six
ághát - seven
ḍhák - eight
bôṣ - nine
ngâṣ - ten

~

Word order is fairly free, the only requirement being that the subject comes before the object in sentences where neither is marked, but even that isn't always necessarily required if context makes it clear which is which.

Adjectives usually follow the noun they modify, but again, there is no rule prohibiting them from coming first.

A handful of random sentences:

Ngèkoṣ xáṭhanèlâ pheng.
/ŋə́kɔ̄ʂ k͡sáːʈʰān̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː pʰɛ̄ŋ/
ngèkoṣ-Ø-Ø xáṭha-nè-lâ-Ø pheng-Ø-Ø.
cat-indef.sg-nom.sg look-pst-aff-pos bird-indef.sg-acc.sg
A cat looked at a bird.

Ngèkoṣáko xáṭhanèlâ pheng sordrâ.
/ŋə́kɔ̄ʂáːkɔ̄ k͡sáːʈʰān̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː pʰɛ̄ŋ s̪ɔ̄rd͡rɒ̀ː/
ngèkoṣ-á-ko xáṭha-nè-lâ-Ø pheng-Ø-Ø sordrâ.
cat-def-nom.pl look-pst-aff-pos bird-indef-acc.sg appetising
The cats looked at an appetising bird.

Ḍhẹḍhàyàko thộvenèlâ jaḷmàhtorô pìrèng evô.
/ɖʱɚ̌ːɖʱə̀jə̀ t̪ʰôːʊ̯ʋɛ̄n̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː d͡ʒāɭmə̀ht̪ɔ̄ròː pɯ̀rə́ŋ ɛ̄ʋòː/
ḍhẹḍhà-yà-ko thộve-nè-lâ-Ø jaḷmàh-to-rô pìrèng evô
bug-indef.pl-nom.pl land-pst-aff-pos face-def.sg-loc.sg pretty her
Some bugs landed on her pretty face.

Hìṣíḍanèlâgì jaḷmàhto mè!
/hɯ̀ʂíːɖān̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ːgɯ̀ d͡ʒāɭmə̀ht̪ɔ̄ mə́/
hì-ṣíḍa-nè-lâ-gì jaḷmàh-to-Ø mè
imp-punch-pst-aff-neg face-def.sg-acc.sg my
Don't punch my face!

Lèṇàka sàṭhâḷphalâ vâṇâ.
/l̪ə́ɳə̀kā sə̀ʈʰɒ̀ːɭpʰāl̪ɒ̀ː ʋɒ̀ːɳɒ̀ː/
lèṇà-Ø-ka sà-ṭhâḷpha-Ø-lâ-Ø vâṇâ
woman-indef.du-nom hyp-love-pres-aff-pos each other-nom/acc
Two women can love each other.

Làṇèka sàṭhâḷphalâ vâṇâ.
/l̪ə̀ɳə́kā sə̀ʈʰɒ̀ːɭpʰāl̪ɒ̀ː ʋɒ̀ːɳɒ̀ː/
làṇè-Ø-ka sà-ṭhâḷpha-Ø-lâ-Ø vâṇâ
man-indef.du-nom hyp-love-pres-aff-pos each other-nom/acc
Two men can love each other.

Dâ arákhànélâ mo, vehìxáṭhanégì?
/d̪ɒ̀ː āráːkʰə̀n̪éːl̪ɒ̀ː mɔ̄ ʋɛ̄hɯ̀k͡sáːʈʰān̪éːgɯ̀/
dâ arákhà-né-lâ-Ø mo, ve-hì-xáṭha-né-gì
when undress-fut-aff-pos I, pol-imp-look-fut-int-neg
When I get undressed, could you please not look?

Dâdâ mo sàyaxègháṭàné?
/d̪ɒ̀ːd̪ɒ̀ː mɔ̄ sə̀jāk͡sə́gʱáːʈə̀n̪éː/
dâdâ sày-axègháṭà-né-Ø-Ø
when I hyp-go to sleep-fut-int-pos
When can I go to sleep?

To vẽhel?
/t̪ɔ̄ ʋɛ̃́ːh̃ɛ̃̄l̪/
to vẽhel
you happy
Are you happy?

Tè mì phãhcâ bộrâlâ.
/t̪ə́ mɯ̀ pʰɑ̃̀h̃t͡sʰɒ̀ː bôːʊ̯rɒ̀ːl̪ɒ̀ː/
tè mì phãhcâ bộrâ-Ø-lâ-Ø
you-agt.sg I-acc.sg sick make-pres-aff-pos
You make me sick.

Phãrâyákomkàvãrộl bînèhunè?
/pʰɑ̃̀rɒ̃̀ːjáːkɔ̄mkə̀ʋɑ̃́rôːʊ̯l̪ bîɘ̯n̪ə́hūn̪ə́/
phãrâ-yá-ko-m-kàvãrộl bî-nèhu-nè-Ø
head-def.pl-1st.poss-1st.pl.postel mir-come-pst-int
Wow, did they come from behind our heads?

Mô ṣõm cà abhộṇkal xim sàbunchángônélâ.
/mòː ʂɔ̃̀m t͡sə̀ ābʱôːʊ̯ɳkāl̪ k͡sīm sə̀būn̪t͡ʂʰáːŋòːn̪éːl̪ɒ̀ː/
mô ṣõm-Ø-Ø cà abhộṇ-kal xim sà-bunchángô-né-lâ
we death-indef.sg-nom flower-gen.pl as after hyp-reborn-fut-aff
We could be reborn as flowers after death.

Khẽmtavabô akoṇunèlâ bhámcĩgjâkhto ẋevêyàkiya.
/kʰɛ̃́mt̪ʷāʋābòː ākōɳūn̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː bʱáːmt͡sĩ̀ŋd͡ʒˠɒ̀ːkʰt̪ō k͡ʂɛ̄ʋə̄ːjə̀kījā/
khẽm-ta-vabô akoṇu-nè-lâ-Ø bhámcĩgjâkh-to ẋevê-yà-kiya
friend-indef.du-3rd.poss.agt.pl blind-pst-aff-pos baby-snatcher-def.sg light-indef.pl.instr
Their two friends blinded the baby-snatcher with lights.

EDIT: Added the new consonant phonemes /ɲ ɻ ɽ/ <ny ẓ ṛ> and new vowel phonemes /ɑ̌ːə̯ âə̯/ <ậ ạ>. Also updated with more phonological details.
EDIT2: Added a new locative case system, more vocabulary and two new sentences.
EDIT3: Added possessive suffixes, new vocabulary, more sentences, a few phonological details.
EDIT4: Added a couple of new words and the comparative and superlative suffixes for adjectives.
Last edited by Vlürch on Tue 20 Feb 2018, 22:42, edited 10 times in total.
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4400
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: Phenglộl

Post by Creyeditor » Mon 05 Feb 2018, 23:31

Are tones dependent on vowel quality? If so, which language in particular was the inspiration?
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 215
Joined: Wed 09 Mar 2016, 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: Phenglộl

Post by Vlürch » Tue 06 Feb 2018, 00:05

Creyeditor wrote:
Mon 05 Feb 2018, 23:31
Are tones dependent on vowel quality? If so, which language in particular was the inspiration?
Yeah, I guess, except for the schwa. That wasn't inspired by any language, at least consciously (I don't even know if any real language does that), but rather my inability to easily pronounce back vowels with a high tone or front vowels with a low tone. [:P] At least in speech. In singing, that's not a problem... so, I guess it's just that I'm not used to tones and as such suck at tonal languages. Why I even want to mess with them in conlanging, I don't know.

EDIT: Fixed a major brain fart.
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4400
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: Phenglộl

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 06 Feb 2018, 00:28

Just struck me as something unusual. You should probably describe the regularities somewhere, if it is really dependent on vowel backness, which I find fascinating.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 215
Joined: Wed 09 Mar 2016, 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: Phenglộl

Post by Vlürch » Wed 07 Feb 2018, 02:49

Creyeditor wrote:
Tue 06 Feb 2018, 00:28
Just struck me as something unusual. You should probably describe the regularities somewhere, if it is really dependent on vowel backness, which I find fascinating.
I updated the first post with that and some other phonological details, as well as expanding the phonemic inventory a little bit.

One thing I'm kinda unsure about is whether or not there should be a very limited amount of derivational affixes. Right now, the only thought-out ones are the prefix <a-> à la various Indo-European languages, the suffixes <-â>, <-ô>, <-a> and <-o> for deriving adjectives and verbs, the meanings of which aren't really set in stone and just make whatever noun into an adjective and/or verb in whatever way I feel like makes sense. I guess something like <-A> being active and <-O> being passive could be a thing (A and O being any vowels that are "A-ish" and "O-ish" respectively, regardless of tone or length, etc.) but I don't really want to restrict my options by assigning overly specific meanings to affixes that are bound morphemes.

On the other hand, having vague "adjectival and/or verbal suffixes" is inevitably going to lead to a lot of irregularities. I'm not a fan of irregularities since they make languages harder to learn, but it wouldn't matter since this is a random ass conlang (and a kinda weird one at that), and as long as there's some logic behind them that could be handwaved as being the result of historical mergers or splits or whatever, it could even make it more naturalistic...

I'm also considering the addition of an extensive locative case system I came up with for another conlang that I've pretty much scrapped. The reason I'd kind of want to implement it in this language is that it would be really easy given the tones and nasal syllables, allowing me to keep the actual case endings relatively short. If I did, that would leave the non-locative cases feeling pretty boring, though.
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 215
Joined: Wed 09 Mar 2016, 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: Phenglộl

Post by Vlürch » Thu 15 Feb 2018, 02:44

The first post is now updated with the larger locative case system and possessive suffixes, more vocabulary and a few example sentences. I kept the old locative case as a "vague locative" because I like the idea of having a specific case for intentional ambiguity or uncertainty over the exact location of something, and it's something I'm not sure many (if any) real languages have explicitly.

Some conculture/conworld stuff... [:P]

For thousands of years the people who speak Phenglộl, calling themselves Phengaṛâ (Bird People), have lived on Akoṇḍhuṭh (Invisible Island), a mountainous island covered in thick forests and waterfalls, largely cut off from the rest of the world. Their only contact with outsiders for a long time was with a people they called Ḍhêdhaṛâ (Beetle People) living on an island to the north. About three centuries ago, however, the island was discovered by sailors who spoke Standard Average European and introduced things like money, junk food, prostitution, etc. to the natives. There was a war against the invading settlers, resulting in victory thanks to intervention by a mysterious skyfaring race of giants who were fed up with the SAE expansion. As soon as the sailors left, intending to return with proper battleships and state-of-the-art weaponry of the time, the island was pulled out from the sea by the sky giants. Ever since then, the Phengaṛâ have lived in the clouds and only descended to the surface once every fifty years to hunt a whale for their most important religious feast, called Tãhvêṣkhệyãh (Whale Festival).

The purpose of Tãhvêṣkhệyãh is to celebrate life, as in the Phengaṛâ creation myth Tãhvêṣṇulá (Whale Goddess) gave birth to the world after swallowing an egg dropped by Phengṇulá (Bird Goddess). In it, the entire island's population come together and each village sends their strongest man to the surface to work together to kill a whale with their bare hands (whether they actually use only their bare hands is a matter of debate among the rest of the population), which is then lifted up to the island by ropes and eaten amidst the grandest festivities of the half-century. Some believe that the dropping of Phengṇulá was in fact not an egg but excrement, but that's a minority view.

Even though they haven't had any contact with Standard Average Europeans for over three centuries, some of their influence still remains: the limited number of coins the sailors left behind still circulate among the Phengaṛâ, being used on brothels, hair salons and fast food restaurants. Since there are no sexually transmitted diseases, there is no taboo on promiscuity and prostitution is considered a legitimate job with no stigma; however, extramarital sex without payment is viewed negatively if the woman is married and/or has children. Male prostitutes do exist, but as they are expected to get paid much less due to women not having as much money as men to spend and most men being heterosexual, it is not common for it to be a man's sole profession.

Fast food restaurants are widespread. Most of the food is literal junk food, stolen leftovers from surface restaurants brought up to Akoṇḍhuṭh by the only truly distinguished social class besides royalty: the Phãhchâpõmbhôyáko (Sick Fat People). They're heavily discriminated against and regularly face violence at the hands of everyone else, not due to them being overweight but because they're perceived as continuing in the footsteps of the western invaders; on the other hand, they form an important part of society due to the fact that they're the only concrete reminder of the horrors of the past. So, killing them is considered an even greater crime than killing a person belonging to the majority. The regular punishment for murder is being pushed down into the sea, but for killing a Phãhchâpõmbhô it is being cannibalised by the remaining Phãhchâpõmbhôyáko.

An important rite of passage held at every person's fiftieth birthday is Híbhxãhkhệyãh (Neighbour Flow Festival), where the vast majority of one's material wealth is distributed evently among the rest of the villagers. If the person is not married and has no children, they are sent down to the surface at whichever location they choose so that they can find a suitable partner. If they find one and get married within ten years, both them and their spouse are allowed ascent to Akoṇḍhuṭh from the same place the now-sixty-year-old was left off a decade earlier. The spouse is introduced to Phengaṛâ culture and if they assimilate (and acclimate) well enough, a celebration called Lãgẋãhkhệyãh (Immigration Festival) is held. It's a small but important celebration of acceptance, reminding all of the Phengaṛâ that they could not survive forever if they were completely isolated.

Because the people who have to descend from Akoṇḍhuṭh to find a partner are so old and as such usually don't have kids, all children born in the next ten years are allowed to go down to the surface to find their own partner if they don't find one on the island by the time they're twenty. They are then allowed ascent ten years later with their spouse if they found one, as well as their children if they've had any.

Beauty is important to the Phengaṛâ. Both men and women emulate the feathers of birds in their hairstyles and clothing. Although surface fashion has recently started spreading among the youth in Phivêṇṇádh (Wind City), the largest city on the island located on the shore that's easiest to dock in with an airship, it remains common for everyone to wear traditional clothing at festivals and formal gatherings. The capital city, Mekâṛvêṇṇádh (Glory City), is still very old-fashioned and not only do people dress in ways that imitate the appearance of birds but the streets are lined with bird statues. This respect for birds is why the people call themselves Phengaṛâ and their language Phenglộl.

Although they generally stick to their island, the Phengaṛâ have become master craftsmen when it comes to building functional airships that can be steered just like ships in the oceans below. They owe this technology to the giants since one of their ships was shot down by the Europeans in the war and left behind on the island for the people to reverse engineer, although their own seafaring knowledge made it much easier for them, basing their new airships on the old ships they used to explore the ocean and voyage to faraway islands once upon a time, long before their isolation; for many centuries, they only sailed just far enough to satisfy their fishing needs and to hunt small animals from small uninhabited islands nearby. The reason they stopped sailing farther than that was out of fear of the increasingly warlike Ḍhêdhaṛâ. Now, they sail the skies without anyone knowing...

~

I'll probably also make the languages of the sky giants and Ḍhêdhaṛâ sooner or later. If I do, I'll post about them in this same thread.
User avatar
Vlürch
sinic
sinic
Posts: 215
Joined: Wed 09 Mar 2016, 21:19
Location: Finland
Contact:

Re: Phenglộl

Post by Vlürch » Tue 20 Feb 2018, 23:26

COLOURS

Colour terms are identical regardless of whether they're used as nouns or adjectives. However, to say that something is a certain colour (ie. predicative adjectives), the following special copulas are used. They come before the colour and after the noun:

a (dark colours; all those marked (D) below)
i (light colours; all those marked (L) below)
e (neutral colours; all those marked (N) below)

màl - white (L)
gâv - black (D)
dhìr - dark grey (D)
dhír - light grey (L)
bâḷ - dark red (D)
bál - bright red (L)
khâv - orange (N)
ṇâv - gold (N)
náv - yellow (L)
nîvâl - lime, chatreuse (N)
vâḷ - dark green (D)
vál - bright green (L)
mìv - dark blue (D)
mív - bright blue (L)
mìḷ - dark purple (D)
míl - bright purple (L)
sîv - pink (L)
mîvâḷ - turquoise (N)
dhân - dark brown (D)
dhán - bright brown (L)
nãhpál - beige (N)
yìldhir - any unspecified shade of grey (N)
yìl - colour, any unspecified colour (N)
dhir dhir - various shades of grey, monochrome (N)
yìl yìl - various colours, multicolour (N)

For example:
Koṇḍôj a gâv, koṇḷámḷích i màl, koṇbôkh e yìl.
/kɔ̄ɳɖòːd͡ʒ ā gɒ̀ːʋ kɔ̄ɳɭáːmɭíːt͡ʂʰ ī mə̀l̪ kɔ̄ɳbòːkʰ ɛ̄ jɯ̀l̪/
koṇḍôj-Ø a gâv, koṇḷámḷích-Ø i màl, koṇbôkh-Ø e yìl
pupil-indef.du cop black, sclera-indef.du cop white, iris-indef.du cop colour
Pupils are black, scleras are white, irises can be any of a variety of different colours.

So, in case it isn't clear enough, the general term for colour is the same as the term for "any unspecified colour", yìl.

~

I also added a few things to the first post, mostly a couple of suffixes and a handful of new words, and fixed a couple of typos.

~

Two random sentences...

Ṇulâyákal ṇulẋaṭhètokè ngìdrânèlâ khẽmètov cà ḍhẹḍhàhunèlâ.
/ɳūl̪ɒ̀ːjáːkāl̪ ɳūl̪k͡ʂāʈʰə́t̪ɔ̄kə́ ŋɯ̀d͡rɒ̀ːn̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː kʰɛ̃́mə̃́t̪ɔ̄ʋ t͡sə̀ ɖʱěɪ̯ɖʱə̀hūn̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː/
ṇulâ-yá-kal ṇulẋaṭh-èto-kè ngìdrâ-nè-lâ khẽm-èto-v cà ḍhẹḍhà-hu-nè-lâ-Ø
god-def.pl-gen.pl emperor-def.sg-agt wound-pst-aff friend-def.sg-3.poss.acc because insect-act-past-aff-pos
The emperor of the gods wounded his friend for acting like an insect.

Làṇèto nyèṛêyô anyõgôrí ṣõmânèlâ
/l̪ə̀ɳə́t̪ɔ̄ ɲə́ɽə̄ːjòː āɲɔ̃̀ŋõ̀ːríː ʂɔ̃̀mɒ̃̀ːn̪ə́l̪ɒ̀ː/
làṇè-to-Ø nyèṛêyô anyõgô-rí ṣõmâ-nè-lâ-Ø
man-def.sg-nom famous mysterious-adv die-pst-aff-pos
The famous man died mysteriously.

~

Then a few questions: is there any point in glossing the unmarked stuff at all? I mean, considering the nominative and accusative are identical in the singular, it feels kinda weird typing all those glosses with them anyway and having all those Øs everywhere... also, I'm reconsidering the marking of definiteness; would it be weird for it to be entirely optional or something? Like, I don't want to get rid of it completely and I like how it makes words longer and stuff, but at the same time it causes the problem that everything definite gets really repetitive and messy. Having it be context-dependent is a valid option, right?
Post Reply