Barqian

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Omzinesý
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Barqian

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 21 Feb 2018, 14:58

Barqian is my newest project. Its phonology is borrowed from my older project though.


A very messy phonology section

p t k <p t k>
b d g ɢ <b d g q>
s ʃ <s ş>
z ʒ <z ʐ>
m n ŋ <m n ň> (pnoetically /ŋ/ is rather nasalization of the preceding vowel, but segmentally it's easier to analyse it as a phoneme)
l ʟ <l l'>
ʋ j <v j>

Monophthongs:
y, i, u <y, i, o/ó>
e, o <e, o>
æ ɒ <a á>

Diphthongs:
yi <y>
ei <e>
æy, æi, ɒu <? a, á>

It's a matter of analyses is there is a length distinction of monophthongs.

Phonotaxis
CSVC (S standing for a semi-vowel)

Stressed closed syllables only have short monophthongs
Streesed open syllables only have long monophthongs or diphthongs
Unsressed syllables can only have two vowels: the high one /i-ɪ-ɨ-ɪ̈/ or the mid-low one /ɛ-ɜ/


The vowel shift of stressed vowels
Pre-language had
i, u
e, o
æ, ɒ
au

1. fronting of /u/ and /au/
u -> y
æ -> æy
2. Diphthongization of front-vowels if the syllable was open the following syllable had /e/ or /i/. (This does not affect /i/ because it already kind of had a yotic glide.)
y -> yi / _.(C)i/e
e -> ei / _.(C)i/e
æ -> æi / _.(C)i/e
2. Diphthongization of back-vowels if the syllable was open and the following syllabe had /o/ or /u~y/.
o -> ou / _.(C)o/u
ɒ -> ɒu / _.(C)o/u
3. Rising and monophthongization of /ou/
ou -> u
4. Merger of unstressed vowels
/u~y/ -> i /V[-stress]
e, o, æ, ɒ -> ɜ /V[-stress]
5. Development of (phonetic) vowel-harmony
i -> ɨ /V[-front](Cn)_
ɜ -> ɛ /V[+front](Cn)_

The merger of unstressed vowels makes the stressed diphthongs phenemic.

<a, e> of open syllables are pronounced [æ:] and [e:] if the following syllable has <a> or <y>
<a, e> of open syllables are pronounced [æi] and [ei] if the following syllable has <e> or <i>
<a> is pronounced [æy] if the following syllable has <o> (there is no historical cause for that. It's just an orthographic convention.)

<á> and <o> of open syllables are pronounced [ɒ:] and [o:] if the following syllable has <e> or <i>
<á> and <o> of open syllables are pronounced [ɒu] and [u:] if the following syllable has <o> or <y>

<y> and <i> of open syllables are always pronounced [i:] and [yi]

Vowel letters of closed syllables have but one pronunciation each.
<y, i, ó> [y, i, u]
<e, o> [e, o]
<a, á> [æ, ɒ]
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Omzinesý
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Re: Barqian

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 28 Feb 2018, 15:20

Nouns

There are four noun cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, and Instrumental. They are quite agglutinative.

Nom -zero (last vowel sometimes dropped)
Acc -zero (lost vowel always preserved)
Gen -ň
Instr -l


Geminate stem with /i/

NOM sap
ACC sappi
GEN sappiň
INSTR sappil


Geminate stem with /a/
NOM tor
ACC torra
GEN torraň
INSTR torral


Non-geminated stem with /i/
NOM vo:si
ACC vo:si
GEN vo:siň
INSTR vos:il


Non-geminated stem with /a/
NOM me:la
ACC me:la
GEN me:laň
INSTR me:lal


Plural

Nom -k
Acc/Instr -h
Gen -ki (added to the vocalic stem if such one exists)


Geminate stem with /i/

NOM sappik
ACC sappih
GEN sapki
INSTR sappih

Geminate stem with /a/
NOM torrak
ACC torrah
GEN torki
INSTR torrah

Non-geminated stem with /i/
NOM vo:sik
ACC vo:sih
GEN vo:siki
INSTR vos:ih

Non-geminated stem with /a/
NOM me:lak
ACC me:lah
GEN me:laki
INSTR me:lah
Edit: Nouns having two internal consonants, excluding word-finally permitted clusters.

Singular
NOM mepyr
ACC mepre
GEN mepreň
INSTR meprel

Plural
NOM meprek
ACC mepreh
GEN mepyrki
INSTR mepreh


Singular
NOM hebyn
ACC hebni
GEN hebniň
INSTR hebnil

Plural
NOM hebnik
ACC hebnih
GEN hebynki
INSTR hebnih
Last edited by Omzinesý on Wed 28 Feb 2018, 16:15, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Barqian

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 28 Feb 2018, 15:40

Verb morphology

Personal inflection

SG1 -zero
SG2 -d
SG/PL3 -s
PL1 -ll'e
PL2 -dde

vyse 'I swim'
vyse-d 'You swim'
vyse-s 'He/She/it swims'

vyse-ll'e 'we swim'
vyse-dde 'you all swim'
vyse-s 'they swim'


The antipassive markers are -n (for inanimate complements) and -m (for animate complements). The last vowel of the stem is elided before the antipassive in the first and second persons if the stem has only one vowel before it and the stressed vowel is not a diphthong.
Antipassive can be formed only of transitive verbs. It codes that the clause has an indefinite object or no object at all. The indefinite object is coded by Instrumental.

Rebli nira. 'I buy the jewel.'
jewel-ACC buy.SG1

Reblil nirna. 'I buy a jewel.'
jewel.INSTR buy.ANTIP.SG1

Nirna. 'I buy (something).'

nira 'buy' Active
SG1 nira 'I buy it'
SG2 nirad
SG/PL3 niras
PL1 nirall'i
PL2 niraddi

nira 'buy' Antipassive inanimate
SG1 Nir-n-a 'I buy something'
SG2 Nir-n-ad
SG/PL3 Nira-n
PL1 Nir-n-all'e
PL2 Nir-n-adde

nira 'buy'' Antipassive active
SG1 Nir-m-a 'I buy someone'
SG2 Nir-m-ad
SG/PL3 Nira-m
PL1 Nir-m-all'e
PL2 Nir-m-adde
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Re: Barqian

Post by Omzinesý » Wed 28 Feb 2018, 16:06

Adjective morphology

Adjectives distinguish three forms: Nominal (inflecting) forms, Restrictive Modifier form, and Non-Restrictive Modifier form.
An restrictive adjective affects the specification of the referent of the noun, while an non-restrictive adjective just gives some extra information.

The modifier forms precede their heads. They don't agree or inflect.

Restrictive Modifier marker is -e (or a)
And Non-Restrictive Modifier marker is -i (or y)

lavz-e pája-ň
good-NRM do-MASDAR
'good act'

lavz-i pája-ň
good-NRM do-MASDAR
'an act, which is good'


The Nominal form which is used like a noun (mostly as an predicative).
Most adjectives are derived by suffixes -r or -l (called Comitative and Genitive in Vtayn grammar but are less grammaticalized in Barqian). Their nominal form is always the stem, ending is -yr/yl (SG NOM, PL GEN) or -ra/la (all other case forms).

NOM ses-yr
ACC ses-r-a
GEN ses-ra-ň
INSTR ses-ra-l

The Nominal form or some adjectives is identical to the Non-Restrictive Modifier form.

Pája-ň lavzi náş 'The action was good.'
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Re: Barqian

Post by Omzinesý » Fri 02 Mar 2018, 12:13

Omzinesý wrote:
Wed 28 Feb 2018, 15:40
Verb morphology

Personal inflection

SG1 -zero
SG2 -d
SG/PL3 -s
PL1 -ll'e
PL2 -dde

vyse 'I swim'
vyse-d 'You swim'
vyse-s 'He/She/it swims'

vyse-ll'e 'we swim'
vyse-dde 'you all swim'
vyse-s 'they swim'


The antipassive markers are -n (for inanimate complements) and -m (for animate complements). The last vowel of the stem is elided before the antipassive in the first and second persons if the stem has only one vowel before it and the stressed vowel is not a diphthong.
Antipassive can be formed only of transitive verbs. It codes that the clause has an indefinite object or no object at all. The indefinite object is coded by Instrumental.

Rebli nira. 'I buy the jewel.'
jewel-ACC buy.SG1

Reblil nirna. 'I buy a jewel.'
jewel.INSTR buy.ANTIP.SG1

Nirna. 'I buy (something).'

nira 'buy' Active
SG1 nira 'I buy it'
SG2 nirad
SG/PL3 niras
PL1 nirall'i
PL2 niraddi

nira 'buy' Antipassive inanimate
SG1 Nir-n-a 'I buy something'
SG2 Nir-n-ad
SG/PL3 Nira-n
PL1 Nir-n-all'e
PL2 Nir-n-adde

nira 'buy'' Antipassive active
SG1 Nir-m-a 'I buy someone'
SG2 Nir-m-ad
SG/PL3 Nira-m
PL1 Nir-m-all'e
PL2 Nir-m-adde
Help! Ideas!
How to form Past Tense?


In 3rd person the marker could be -ş that replaces -s of Present.

niras 'He buys it.'
niraş 'He bought it.'

But what about the other tenses?
What about the antipassives?

niran. 'He buys something.'

? Niranş 'He bought something.' doesn't sound good.
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