Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

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Porphyrogenitos
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Fri 10 Nov 2017, 00:53

Just a series of sound changes I came up with, based on various languages, including, loosely, some changes in my variety of AmEng:

Starting from

/a e i o u/
/aː eː iː oː uː/

e o realized as ɛ ɔ

aː > oː > uː > ɨu̯

eː > iː > ai̯

i u > ə ə

ɨu̯ ai̯ > ɨu̯k͜xʷ ai̯c͜ç / _#

ɨu̯R ai̯R > ɨu̯ɨR ai̯aR / _$

Contrastive length is lost.

We get (with some allophony):

/a ɛ ɔ ə/
/o i u ai̯ ɨu̯/
Bachgen_o_Gymru
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Bachgen_o_Gymru » Fri 10 Nov 2017, 04:56

A phonology for an as of yet unnamed conlang that I'm working on:

Code: Select all


    CONSONANTS:
                  LAB.   ALV.  PAL.  VEL.  UVUL.
    PLOSIVE        p     t      ȶ     k     q
    EJECTIVE       pʼ    tʼ     ȶʼ    kʼ    qʼ
    FRICATIVE      ɸ     s ɬ    ɕ     x     χ
    NASAL          m     n      ȵ     ŋ
    APPROXIMANT    w     ɹ l    j     ɰ     ʁ
    TRILL                r


    VOWELS:
             FRONT    CENTR.  BACK
            UNR. ROU.  UNR.   ROU.
    CLOSE   i i: y y:         u u:
    MID     e e: ø     ə ə:   o o:
    OPEN    æ æ: œ     a a:   ɔ ɔ:


    TONES:
    Rising, level, falling, dipping

[/size]
Syllable structure is C(L)V(V)+T, where 'L' stands for a liquid consonant which can be /l/ or /r/, and 'T' stands for tone. All roots are monosyllabic.
Permitted onset consonant clusters are as follows: pl, pr, tr, kl, kr, ɸl, ɸr, sl, ɕl, xl, xr, ml, mr, ŋl
Permitted nuclear vowel clusters are as follows: ea, eo, æi, œi, əo, ai, ae, ao, ɔi, oe, oə, oa
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Frislander
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » Sat 11 Nov 2017, 23:37

/p t c k/
/ⁿb ⁿd ⁿɟ ⁿg/
/m n ɲ ŋ/

/ɨ ə a/

/p t c k/ are realised as [β ɾ ʝ ɣ] intervocalically. Word-finally the prenasalised consonants are devoiced.

Syllable structure is (C)V(C), with the only vowel-onset syllables consisting of word-initial /a/. However no consonant clusters are permitted word-internally, and when they would occur due to morphology an epenthetic [ɨ] is inserted.

Non-low vowels are realised as front-unrounded vowels before palatals, as front-rounded vowels before labials after palatals, as back-rounded vowels before labials after other consonants, and as central vowels otherwise.
Osia
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Osia » Sun 12 Nov 2017, 18:35

Two phonologies I've been sitting on for a while, one I'm thinking of making a neighbour of the Lyran family.

/p t k/
/tθ' t' ts' tɬ' k' q' ʔ/
/θ s ɬ ʁ h/
/m n l r j w/
/m' n' l' r' j' w'/

/e a ə əj~i əj'~iʔ əw~u əw'~uʔ/

Syllable structure is also very Salishan, with sequences of glottal stop and obstruent contrasting with glottalized but not for sonorants.

The schwa by far is the most common vowel, and is the only one that can occur in unstressed and stressed syllables. The vowels /e/ and /a/ become schwa in unstressed syllables, and sequences of unstressed schwa and sonorant become syllabic.

Stress is contrastive, and many affixes change stress when attached to roots. Most roots are disyllabic.



/t tʰ tɬ k kʰ kʟ̥̝/
/t' ts' tɬ' k' kx' kʟ̥̝' ʔ/
/s ɬ x ʟ̥̝ h/
/ɹ l ɣ ʟ/
/n j w ʕ/

There are no phonemic vowels, but phonetic /i/, /u/, /ə̃/, /a/, /ɚ/, occur as syllabic allophones of /j/, /w/, /n/, /ʕ/, and /ɹ/.

There is a strong lateral harmony according to the following pairs of consonants.

/t/ /tɬ/
/k/ /kʟ̥̝/
/t'/ /tɬ'/
/k'/ /kʟ̥̝'/
/s/ /ɬ/
/x/ /ʟ̥̝/
/ɹ/ /l/
/ɣ/ /ʟ/
English: :mrgreen:
Spanish: [:'(]
Want to Learn: All other languages [:P]

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ʰ ʷ č λ š ł x̌ ʕ ą į ų ́
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Frislander
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » Tue 14 Nov 2017, 22:07

/p t~ɾ s x/
/pː tː t͡s kː/
/m n ŋ/
/mː nː ŋː/
/w j/

/i iː u uː/
/e eː o oː/
/æ æː ɑ ɑː/

Syllable structure is CV. Additionally, geminate consonants are not found word-initially, and /t/ is realised as [ɾ] intervocalically.
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Shemtov
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Shemtov » Wed 15 Nov 2017, 10:10

A language spoken in an archipelago between M̟oḩa and Fuhe:
/p~ʋ ʰp p: ɓ~b t~ɹ ʰt t: ɗ~d tɬ~l ʰtɬ t:ɬ ɗɮ c~j ʰc c: ʄ~ɟ k~h ʰk k: ɠ~g kʷ~w ɠʷ/ <p~v hp pp b t~r ht tt d tl~l htl ttl dl c~y cc j k~h hk kk g q~w gq>
/s/ <s>
/m ʰm m: n ʰn n: ɲ ʰɲ ɲ: ŋ ʰŋ ŋ: ŋʷ/ <m hm mm n hn nn ñ hñ ñ ñ ń hń ńń ńw>

/i u ɯ/ <i u ǔ>
/ə/ <e>
/a/ <a>

Plain unvoiced stops become approximants intervocally, plus kʷ become w syllable-finally. Implosives become regular voiced stops syllable-finally; however affricates and voiced labiovelars do not occur syllable finally. preasperated consonants may be realized as /ħC/ or /xC/ depending on dialect. Geminated stops only occur intervocally.
Last edited by Shemtov on Wed 15 Nov 2017, 18:40, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Davush » Wed 15 Nov 2017, 16:15

Trying to decide on a phonology for the proto-language spoken in Qutrus (before Qutrussan). Phonologically and aesthetically, I want the proto-language to be quite different, although the present-day languages have been greatly influenced by Qutrussan. There will be two surviving languages from this family, but they will have diverged a lot by the time Qutrussan is dominant to the extent that it would be difficult to spot a family resemblance. This time I will try and work forward from a protolanguage to create these two.

My idea so far is:

/p t ʈ k/
/b d ɖ g/
/p' t' ʈ' k'/
/m n ŋ/
/f s s' ʂ χ/ (yes ejective /s/)
/ɻ j w/

/a e i o/
/ã ẽ õ/

/i/ becomes /e/ in closed syllables. Nasalized vowels are lowered slightly /ɑ̃ ɛ̃ ɔ̃/.

Some examples:
/gaen/
/ɖomoʂ/
/ɻoʈ'/
/wãs/
/kaɻwɔ̃/
/mɔ̃k'ɔ̃s'ai/
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Frislander
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » Wed 15 Nov 2017, 18:08

/b t t͡ʃ k/
/m ŋ/
/w ɾ/

/iː ɨ u uː/
/a ɔː/

Syllable-structure is (C)V(C), where any consonant may appear in either onset of coda (however /w/ may not appear after /u uː/). /t͡ʃ/ is realised as [ʃ] before stops (oral and nasal), while /b/ is devoiced before unvoiced consonants and unvoiced consonants voiced before /b/.

Main stress is generally word-initial, unless the initial syllable has a short vowel and the post-initial syllable has a long vowel, in which case the stress is on the post-initial syllable. Secondary stresses are then assigned to successive even-numbered syllables following the stressed syllable.
Last edited by Frislander on Thu 16 Nov 2017, 01:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by opipik » Wed 15 Nov 2017, 21:13

/p t ʨ k/ <p t c k>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n j ŋ>
/s ç x ħ/ <s z x h>
/β ð j ɣ ʕ/ <b d y g q>
/ⱱ ɾ/ <v r>

/ɪ u ə a/ <i u e a>
/iː oː ɛː aː/ <ii oo ee aa>

All consonants can be geminated. /ⱱ/ geminates to [ʙː] and /ɾ/ geminates to [rː].
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DesEsseintes
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DesEsseintes » Thu 16 Nov 2017, 03:17

Frislander wrote:
Wed 15 Nov 2017, 18:08
/b t t͡ʃ k/
/m ŋ/
/w ɾ/
Hmm... add /kʷ/?

Code: Select all

b t t͡ʃ k kʷ
m r    ŋ w
Ta-dah!
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Void
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Void » Thu 16 Nov 2017, 03:36

Just a close cousin of my current conlang.

Nasal: /m n/ ⟨m n⟩
Plosive: /p b t d c ɟ k g q/ ⟨p b t d tj-ť dj-ď k g q⟩
Fricative: /s z ʃ ʒ ħ h ɦ/ ⟨s z š ž h⟩
Approximant: /w l j ɰ/ ⟨w l j qh⟩
Trill: /r/ ⟨r⟩

Close: /i i: y y: ɨ ɨ: u u:/ ⟨i ii ü üü y yy u uu⟩
Mid: /ɛ eː ø øː ɔ oː/ ⟨e ee ö öö o oo⟩
Nasal mid: /ɛ̃ ẽː ø̃ ø̃ː ɔ̃ õː/ ⟨ę ęę ǫ̈ǫ̈ ǫ ǫǫ⟩
Open: /a a:/ ⟨a aa⟩
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Porphyrogenitos
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Thu 16 Nov 2017, 05:26

Frislander wrote:
Tue 14 Nov 2017, 22:07
/p t~ɾ s x/
/pː tː t͡s kː/
/m n ŋ/
/mː nː ŋː/
/w j/

/i iː u uː/
/e eː o oː/
/æ æː ɑ ɑː/

Syllable structure is CV. Additionally, geminate consonants are not found word-initially, and /t/ is realised as [ɾ] intervocalically.
Hm. I'm imagining some kind of case system marked largely through mutation of the root-initial consonant, e.g.

historical

kala (the/a) house
at kala to (the/a) house
in kala for (the/a) house
o kala of (the/a) house
as kala from (the/a) house
isi kala towards (the/a) house
la kala in (the/a) house
aj kala! O (the/a) house!

became

xaː house.ɴᴏᴍ
akːaː house.ᴀᴄᴄ
iŋːaː house.ᴅᴀᴛ
oxaː house.ɢᴇɴ
atːaː house.ᴀʙʟ
isixaː house.ʟᴀᴛ
waxaː house.ɪɴᴇ
æxaː house.ᴠᴏᴄ
quixoticxenoglot
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by quixoticxenoglot » Fri 17 Nov 2017, 15:17

Code: Select all

m  n          ɳ   ȵ   ŋ~ɴ       |  m n          nr  ň  ng
p  t  tɬ  ts  tʂ  tɕ  k   q  ʔ  |  p  t  tł  c  cr  č  k  q  ’
pʰ tʰ tɬʰ tsʰ tʂʰ tɕʰ kʰ  qʰ    |  ph th tłh ch chr čh kh qh
b  d  dɮ  dz  dʐ  dʑ  ɡ         |  b  d  dl  ʒ  ʒr  ǯ  g
f     ɬ   s   ʂ   ɕ   x~χ    h  |  f     ł   s  sr  š  x     ħ
          z   ʐ   ʑ   ɣ~ʁ    ɦ  |            z  zr  ž  ğ     h
w     l       ɽ   j             |  w     l      r   y      
                                ǀ
i ɪ e ɛ ɛj ɛw                   ǀ  í i é e ei eu
u ʊ o ɔ ɔj ɔw a aj aw           |  ú u ó o oi ou a ai au
I was aiming for size, but also balance and believability here. I probably won't do much more with it, but you never know!
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Frislander
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » Fri 17 Nov 2017, 19:06

/p t t͡s t͡ʃ k/
/pː tː kː/
/t’ t͡s’ t͡ʃ’ k’ ʔ/
/ɬ s ʃ h/
/ɬː sː ʃː/
/m n ŋ/
/mː nː ŋː/
/w l j/
/lː/

/i u/
/a/
/ie ea uo oa/

Syllable structure is CV(F), where F is one of /p t k ɬ s ʃ m n ŋ l/. Additionally /h/ is deleted when it would appear as the second member of a cluster, while /ʔ/ merges with a preceding consonant to form a geminate. Additionally geminate consonants are only found intervocalically.

Stress falls on the first diphthong, or the initial syllable if none is present.

----
DesEsseintes wrote:
Thu 16 Nov 2017, 03:17
Hmm... add /kʷ/?

Code: Select all

b t t͡ʃ k kʷ
m r    ŋ w
Ta-dah!
Perfect! [<3]

I'm also tempted to consider adding a long /aː/ to the vowel system as well.
Porphyrogenitos
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Sat 18 Nov 2017, 06:39

Frislander wrote:
Fri 17 Nov 2017, 19:06
DesEsseintes wrote:
Thu 16 Nov 2017, 03:17
Hmm... add /kʷ/?

Code: Select all

b t t͡ʃ k kʷ
m r    ŋ w
Ta-dah!
Perfect! [<3]

I'm also tempted to consider adding a long /aː/ to the vowel system as well.
Hm, I kind of like how the vowel inventory is set up now, since it looks like it evolved from /i iː u uː a aː/ (that is, to /ɨ iː u uː a ɔː/)

And the consonant inventory is nice, but do you suppose the two rows just correspond to each other in terms of overall phonological balance, or do you think there's alternations between the two? And if the latter's the case, why do some consonants become nasals, and others not, and why does t͡ʃ have no voiced counterpart? I mean, it doesn't have to have one. But there might be a specific explanation for it, like /j/ was lost (perhaps akin to pre-Greek?) or unconditionally fortited to /t͡ʃ/.

Come to think of it, if there was an /aː/, perhaps it might be connected with the loss of /j/ (if there was previously a /j/). E.g. rhyme /aː/ > /ɔː/ and then /aj/ > new /aː/ (and maybe /uj/ merges with original /uː/ which hasn't shifted) and remaining /j/ fortites to /t͡ʃ/.

I also imagine that maybe in contexts where /w/ is affixed after /u/, it simply results in /uː/ (with no change presumably happening in the case of /uː/ + /w/) - and maybe there are some /ɨ/ > /iː/ alternatiosn resulting from historical /i/ + /j/.
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Frislander
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » Sat 18 Nov 2017, 16:42

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
Sat 18 Nov 2017, 06:39
Frislander wrote:
Fri 17 Nov 2017, 19:06
DesEsseintes wrote:
Thu 16 Nov 2017, 03:17
Hmm... add /kʷ/?

Code: Select all

b t t͡ʃ k kʷ
m r    ŋ w
Ta-dah!
Perfect! [<3]

I'm also tempted to consider adding a long /aː/ to the vowel system as well.
Hm, I kind of like how the vowel inventory is set up now, since it looks like it evolved from /i iː u uː a aː/ (that is, to /ɨ iː u uː a ɔː/)

And the consonant inventory is nice, but do you suppose the two rows just correspond to each other in terms of overall phonological balance, or do you think there's alternations between the two? And if the latter's the case, why do some consonants become nasals, and others not, and why does t͡ʃ have no voiced counterpart? I mean, it doesn't have to have one. But there might be a specific explanation for it, like /j/ was lost (perhaps akin to pre-Greek?) or unconditionally fortited to /t͡ʃ/.

Come to think of it, if there was an /aː/, perhaps it might be connected with the loss of /j/ (if there was previously a /j/). E.g. rhyme /aː/ > /ɔː/ and then /aj/ > new /aː/ (and maybe /uj/ merges with original /uː/ which hasn't shifted) and remaining /j/ fortites to /t͡ʃ/.

I also imagine that maybe in contexts where /w/ is affixed after /u/, it simply results in /uː/ (with no change presumably happening in the case of /uː/ + /w/) - and maybe there are some /ɨ/ > /iː/ alternatiosn resulting from historical /i/ + /j/.
Hm, yes that is interesting, I think perhaps there would be alternations, but they would be quite opaque and subject to a fair bit of analogy, and actually I'm not so sure whether I'd incorporate the nasals as part of those now you mention it, though I do have ideas as to how I would go about it. Perhaps at some point single intervocalic stops lenited and clusters simplified, and then maybe later there were some deletions of /ɨ/ so that there were new clusters/word-final consonants formed. Maybe the original long vowels could be created by losing some of the original sonorants. I'm definitely enticed by the prospect of yod-deletion as well.

And yeah I was thinking that long /aː/ would be a secondary development, though probably from several sources, like *ajV and *Vja sequences. I don't think I'll go in for fortition though, I think I'd prefer just deletion.

Damnit you've got me seriously thinking about this!
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Sun 19 Nov 2017, 04:44

Again, not an inventory, but a series of changes. This time it's this idea I've had for a while for developing pitch-accent:

Very simply,

ˈV > ˈV́
ˈV́C₁əC₁ > ˈV̂C₁

That is, initially, by default, primary stressed syllables have high tone. However, in ˈVC₁əC₁ sequences, such as [ˈleɹəɹ] [ˈkanən] [ˈfuləl], the unstressed rhyme is deleted, but the tonal pattern of the stressed vowel followed by the unstressed vowel (high-low) remains on the stressed vowel, creating a falling tone.

This was inspired by my attempts to understand how exactly pitch-accent came about in the Scandinavian languages, and by my pronunciation of the word terror, in which the two syllables are kind of slurred together, distinguishable from tear partially by length and partially by tone.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Frislander » Sun 19 Nov 2017, 18:14

/t t͡s k ʔ/
/s x h/
/m n ŋ/
/w r j/

/i ɨ u/
/e ə o/
/a/
/ai au/

Syllable structure is (C)CV(C), where initial CC clusters consist of oral obstruent + /r/, oral consonant + /w j/ and /s/ + /t k m n ŋ/. Final consonants are restricted to /t t͡s k s x m n ŋ/.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Tue 21 Nov 2017, 15:03

/p t k/
/b d g/
/ts tɬ/
/f s ɬ h/
/l ɾ/
/w j/

/a e i o u/
/ai̯ au̯/

Syllable structure is (C)V(n); coda /n/ may only appear word-medially and assimilates to the place of the following consonant.

Historically, there was a shift /i u e o/ > /ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ/ > /e o ai̯ au̯/ before coda /n/; this was phonemicized when word-final coda /n/ dropped.

After /n/, stops were voiced and fricatives and sonorants were fortited, like so:

/p t k/ > /b d g/
/f s ɬ x/ > /pf ts tɬ kx/ > /p ts tɬ k/ (/x/ later became /h/)
/l ɾ/ > /dl dɾ/ > /d d/

These changes were phonemicized when final coda /n/ was dropped but its sandhi effects remained, resulting in a system of initial mutations.
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