Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Shemtov » Mon 09 Jul 2018, 19:02

An Indo-Iranian Language, forming a fourth branch, spoken along the Daying River Valley in China and Myanmar:
/p pʰ t tʰ t͡s t͡ɕ k kʰ/ <b p d t c q g k>
/f s ɕ/ <f s x>
/m n -ŋ/ <m n ng>
/l/ <l>
/j w/ <y w>

/i u/ <i u>
/e o/ <ei o>
/ə ɚ/ <e r>
/a/ <a>

/˧ ˥ ˩ ˧˥ ˩˧/ <V V̄ Ṽ V̋ V́>

Example words:

Sĩm-"Snow"
r̄k- "Wolf"
Ōk-"To say"
Xēip- "night"
Ēit- "Eight"
Qa- "and"
Brt- "Brother"
Wāk- "Voice"
Be̋t- "Father"
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Shemtov » Wed 18 Jul 2018, 06:51

A isolate language spoken on an island to the west of the Ngǂamian languages.
/p pʲ pˠ t tʲ tˠ c k q/ <p py pp t ty tt c k q>
/ pç px tʰ tç tx cç kx qX/ < pç px th tç tx cc kk qq>
/m mʲ mˠ n nʲ nˠ/ <m my mm n ny nn>
/çm xm ʰn çn xn/ /hm çm xm hn çn xn/
/θ θʲ θˠ s sʲ sˠ ç x X/ <z zy zz s sy ss ç x ẍ>
/l lʲ ɫ/ <l ly ll>
/j ɹ w/ <y r w>

/ə/ <a>
/ə:/ <aa>
/˩ ˧ ˥ ˩˧ ˧˩ ˧˥ ˥˧/ <à a á àa aà aá aá/


The vowel changes based on the initial (the phonotactics are CV(:)). Using the plain stop series:
[pɵ] [pʲø] [pˠo] [tə] [tʲe] [tˠɤ] [ce] [kɤ] [qʌ]
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by shimobaatar » Sun 22 Jul 2018, 00:16

It's probably been about 2 years now since I've posted anything in this thread. Anyway, I've been thinking about rebooting Project Steppe. I'd like to call it something else, but the original name of the language, Kwenti, sounds a little too Elvish to me now.

Here's something I've come up with for the new version of the language. I'm not sure if I like it.

/p t k kʷ/ <p t k kw>
/s h/ <s h>
/t͡s/ <c>
/m n ŋ ŋʷ/ <m n g gw>
/j w/ <j w>
/l/ <l>

/i iː u uː/ <i ī u ū>
/ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː/ <e ē o ō>
/ɑ ɑː/ <a ā>

/ɑ ɑː ˈɑ ˈɑː/ <a ā á ā́>

Phonotactics: (C)V(C)

C = any consonant
V = any vowel
C = any consonant

The sequences /kʷu ŋʷu wu ji/ are all disallowed. Essentially any two consonants can form a cluster. However, /kw ŋw kʷw ŋʷw ts/ are resolved as [kʷ ŋʷ kʷ ŋʷ t͡s]. Vowel clusters are not allowed. Two identical vowels, ignoring length, become a long vowel. For example, /ii iːi iiː/ > [iː iː iː]. When two non-identical vowels come into contact, if the first is /i(ː) ɛ(ː)/, /j/ is inserted between them. If the first is /u(ː) ɔ(ː)/, /w/ is inserted between them. If the first vowel is /ɑ(ː)/, /l/ is inserted between them. For example, /ɛːu ɔi ɑuː/ > [ɛːju ɔwi ɑluː].

Stress is unpredictable. Underlyingly, all roots have a single stressed syllable. Some affixes attract stress, while others are unstressed. Stressed syllables tend to be pronounced with a higher pitch than surrounding syllables.

Allophony:

Before other consonants and word-finally, /kʷ ŋʷ/ are often realized as [kʷʊ̆ ŋʷʊ̆].

/ɛ(ː) ɔ(ː)/ approach [e(ː) o(ː)] word-initially, word-finally, and, for some speakers, in all open syllables.

/i(ː)j ɛ(ː)j u(ː)w ɔ(ː)w ɑ(ː)l/ often become [iː ɛː uː ɔː ɑː] word-finally and before consonants.

Before /j/ or syllables containing /j/, /kʷ ŋʷ w u ɔ ɑ/ are sometimes realized as [kʉ̯ ŋʉ̯ ʉ ɞ ä]. Similarly, before /w/ or syllables containing /w/, /j i ɛ/ are sometimes realized as [ɥ y œ].

Most consonants are lightly palatalized before /i j/.

Stops are usually unreleased word-finally and before other stops, oral or nasal, and the affricate.

Following nasals, and occasionally when between vowels, obstruents are often voiced. Vowels are lightly nasalized before nasal consonants.

Geminate obstruents tend to be somewhat aspirated, and geminate sonorants are sometimes devoiced.

/l/ is pronounced as a fricative by many speakers when geminated and when adjacent to obstruents. For some speakers, /l/ is more rhotic, but for most, it is something like [ɫ~lˤ], especially around /ɑ(ː)/.

The exact realization of /h/ can vary greatly from speaker to speaker, but it is almost universally post-velar.


Examples:

<tótko> /ˈtɔtkɔ/ [tɔ˥t̚ko] "rope, cord, connection"
<kallúl> /kɑlˈlul/ [kɑɬˈɬˤul˥] "falcon"
<mī́gi> /ˈmijŋi/ [ˈmʲĩː˥ŋʲi] "moon"
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Thu 02 Aug 2018, 22:21

/n/
/t k kʷ ʔ/
/s h/
/w/

/i a o/

syllable structure is (C)V

/ti/ is impermissible and is always replaced by /si/
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DesEsseintes » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 04:31

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
Thu 02 Aug 2018, 22:21
/n/
/t k kʷ ʔ/
/s h/
/w/

/i a o/

syllable structure is (C)V

/ti/ is impermissible and is always replaced by /si/
[+1] [tick]

Reminded me of Núta until I noticed the phonotactics.

Are /kʷo ko/ distinct?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Birdlang » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 11:19

/p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ ʔ/ p b t d k g ʾ
/ɓ ɗ ɠ/ ḃ ḋ ġ
/m n ŋ/ m n ŋ
/ɸ β f v s z θ̪͆ ð̪͆ ɕ ʑ ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ X ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ/ ᵽ ƀ f v s z þ đ ś ź š ž ŝ ẑ ꝁ ǥ ꝗ ƣ ḥ ʿ h ɦ
/pɸ bβ p̪f b̪v ts dz t̪͆θ̪͆ d̪͆ð̪͆ tɕ dʑ ʧ ʤ cç ɟʝ kx ɡɣ qX ɢʁ ʡʜ ʔh/ꝓ ꞗ ꝑ ḇ c j ꝥ ꞓ ć ȷ́ č ǰ ĉ ĵ ꞣ ꞡ ꝙ ᵹ ꜧ ɦ
/ʋ ɹ j̊ j ɥ ɰ ʍ w/ ỽ r ỿ y ꝡ ꝩ ꝯ w
/l ʎ/ l ɫ
/ɺ/ ƚ
/ɬ ɮ ʎ̝̊ ʎ̝ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝/ ɬ ⱡ ḷ ḻ ḽ ỻ

/i iː e eː a aː u uː o oː/ i ī e ē a ā u ū o ō
/ã ãː/ ą ą̄
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Void » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 11:37

Following my love of Caucasian (mostly Northeast) languages and a need for a grim proto-language, I've developed the following two potential proto-phonologies:

Jheurłachi
Spoiler:
Nasals: /m n ŋ/ ⟨m n ṇ⟩

Voiceless plosives: /p pˤ t tˤ k kˤ q qˤ/ ⟨p ṗ t ṭ k ḳ q q̇⟩

Voiced plosives: /b bˤ d dˤ g gˤ ɢ ɢˤ/ ⟨b ḅ d ḍ g ġ gh ġh⟩

Aspirated plosives: /pʰ pˤʰ tʰ tˤʰ kʰ kˤʰ qʰ qˤʰ/ ⟨ph ṗh th ṭh kh ḳh qh q̇h⟩

Ejective plosives: /pʼ pˤʼ tʼ tˤʼ kʼ kˤʼ qʼ qˤʼ/ ⟨p’ ṗ’ t’ ṭ’ k’ ḳ’ q’ q̇’⟩

Voiceless and voiced affricates: /ts tsˤ dz dzˤ tʃ tʃˤ dʒ dʒˤ/ ⟨c c̣ j jh č č̣ ǰ ǰh⟩

Aspirated and ejective affricates: /tsʰ tsˤʰ tsʼ tsˤʼ tʃʰ tʃˤʰ tʃʼ tʃˤʼ/ ⟨ch c̣h cʼ c̣ʼ čh č̣h čʼ č̣ʼ⟩

Voiceless fricatives: /s sˤ ʃ ʃˤ x xˤ χ χˤ/ ⟨s ṣ š ṣ̌ x x̣ xh x̣h⟩

Voiced fricatives: /z zˤ ʒ ʒˤ ɣ ɣˤ ʁ ʁˤ/ ⟨z ẓ ž ẓ̌ ǧ ǧh ř řh⟩

Approximants, laterals, and trills: /w j l lˤ ɬ ɬˤ ɮ ɮˤ r rˤ/ ⟨w y l ḷ lh ḷh ł łh r ṙ⟩

Monophthongs: /i iː u uː ə əː a aː/ ⟨i ī u ū e ē a ā⟩

Diphthongs: /ai̯ au̯ ui̯ əi̯ əu̯ ɛː ɔː iː ɨː ʉː/ ⟨ay au uy ey eu ē ō ī ey eu⟩
Something more sensible and friendly to my ears:
Spoiler:
Nasals: /mˤ m n nˤ ŋ ŋˤ/ ⟨m ṃ n ṇ ŋ ꜧ⟩

Voiceless plosives: /p pˤ t tˤ k kˤ/ ⟨p ṗ t ṭ k ḳ⟩

Voiced plosives: /b bˤ d dˤ g gˤ/ ⟨b ḅ d ḍ g ġ⟩

Ejective plosives: /pʼ pˤʼ tʼ tˤʼ kʼ kˤʼ/ ⟨p’ ṗ’ t’ ṭ’ k’ ḳ’⟩

Affricatives: /ts dz tsʼ tʃ dʒ tʃʼ/ ⟨c j cʼ č ǰ čʼ⟩

Voiceless fricatives: /s sˤ ʃ x xˤ/ ⟨s ṣ š x x̣⟩

Voiced fricatives: /z zˤ ʒ ɣ ɣˤ/ ⟨z ẓ ž ǧ ǧʼ⟩

Approximants, laterals, and trills: /w j l lˤ ɬ ɬˤ ɮ ɮˤ r rˤ/ ⟨w y l ḷ ł ł̣ ꝣ ꝣʼ r ṙ⟩

Monophthongs: /i iː u uː ɨ ɨː ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː a aː/ ⟨i ī u ū ï î e ē o ō a ā⟩

Diphthongs: /ai̯ au̯ ɔi̯ ɛu̯/ ⟨ai au oi eu⟩
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 13:17

consonants:
/m n nˤ ŋ/
/ɓ t tˤ ɗ k qˤ ʔ/
/f v s sˤ z x ɣ ʕ/
/r l j/

vowels:
/ɑ ɛ ɪ i ɔ u/

syllable structure: CV(C)(C)
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Porphyrogenitos » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 13:26

DesEsseintes wrote:
Fri 03 Aug 2018, 04:31
[+1] [tick]

Reminded me of Núta until I noticed the phonotactics.

Are /kʷo ko/ distinct?
Yep, they are.

I'm thinking it maybe ought to have one additional syllable template, since the possibilities are currently very restrictive. (In fact, I created it to satisfy my 26-syllable challenge, but now I'm thinking it deserves a little more.)

Maybe sCV or hCV, or perhaps (C)Vʔ or (C)Vh, or even CʔV. Any opinions?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by k1234567890y » Fri 03 Aug 2018, 13:29

Porphyrogenitos wrote:
Fri 03 Aug 2018, 13:26
DesEsseintes wrote:
Fri 03 Aug 2018, 04:31
[+1] [tick]

Reminded me of Núta until I noticed the phonotactics.

Are /kʷo ko/ distinct?
Yep, they are.

I'm thinking it maybe ought to have one additional syllable template, since the possibilities are currently very restrictive. (In fact, I created it to satisfy my 26-syllable challenge, but now I'm thinking it deserves a little more.)

Maybe sCV or hCV, or perhaps (C)Vʔ or (C)Vh, or even CʔV. Any opinions?
maybe all of them? (:

btw, the proposals remind me of Khmer
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by LinguoFranco » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 02:17

I'm trying to design a personal language, but I'm still figuring out a lot of the phonemes. Here's what I have so far:

/m n ɲ/
/p b t d k g c/
/s ɕ ʑ ɸ x/
/l r j w~ʋ ʍ ʟ/
/t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/

/a ã e ẽ i ĩ o õ u ũ/

I really like palatals and liquids and semi-vowels, and I think my plosive inventory may be a bit too bulky for my tastes, but I won't do anything to it just yet. I'm also unsure of my fricative inventory. Nasals can occur word final, even /ɲ/. Other consonants are permitted as well, since the language is mora timed and there is syllable weight.

Thoughts, opinions, or suggestions?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 05:56

looks fine by me
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by DesEsseintes » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 19:25

This is Čawač, an idea for an a priori Algonquianino that I came up with because I can’t sleep.

/n/ n
/t t͡s t͡ʃ k/ t c č k
/θ s ʃ/ θ s š
/r j w/ r y w

/a e i o u/ a e i o u
/aː eː iː oː uː/ ā ē ī ō ū

Fairly free clustering, normally restricted to two consonants.
Last edited by DesEsseintes on Mon 06 Aug 2018, 04:15, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 23:02

Phonology of Culet:

/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p pʰ t tʰ c cʰ k kʰ/
/f v s z ʃ x ɣ/
/w r l j/

/a ie i o ɤ u/

consonants can form initial and final clusters

also, there are consonant mutations related to morphological processes.
DesEsseintes wrote:
Sun 05 Aug 2018, 19:25
This is Čawač, an idea for an a priori Algonquianino that I came up with because I can’t sleep.

/n/ n
/t t͡s t͡ʃ k/ t c č k
/θ s ʃ/ θ s š
/r j w/ r y w

/a e i o u/ a e i o u
/a e i o u/ ā ē ī ō ū

Fairly free clustering, normally restricted to two consonants.
nice (:

seems that Čawač is a language without labials? (:
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by sangi39 » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 23:35

k1234567890y wrote:
Sun 05 Aug 2018, 23:02
Phonology of Culet:

/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p pʰ t tʰ c cʰ k kʰ/
/f v s z ʃ x ɣ/
/w r l j/

/a ie i o ɤ u/
Was this inspired by Nivkh at all? The vowels are really familiar.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by k1234567890y » Sun 05 Aug 2018, 23:45

sangi39 wrote:
Sun 05 Aug 2018, 23:35
k1234567890y wrote:
Sun 05 Aug 2018, 23:02
Phonology of Culet:

/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p pʰ t tʰ c cʰ k kʰ/
/f v s z ʃ x ɣ/
/w r l j/

/a ie i o ɤ u/
Was this inspired by Nivkh at all? The vowels are really familiar.
yes

it is inspired by Nivkh
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Linguifex » Mon 06 Aug 2018, 00:12

/m n/
/p b t d tʲ dʲ k g/
/ɾ j w/
/ʎ ʟ/

/i e a ɨ o u/
/ь ъ m̩ n̩/ (I guess the nasals here are considered yers)

(K)(X)(C)(R)V(U) syllable structure, where:
  • K = One of /k g j w ʎ ʟ ь ъ/
  • X = One of /p t tʲ k n ɾ m w j ь ъ/
  • C = Any consonant, or /ь ъ/
  • R = One of /ɾ j w ʎ ʟ/
  • U = One of /p b t d tʲ dʲ k g ɾ j w ʎ ʟ/
Other stuff:
  • Before /ʎ j i ь/, /t d/ become [tʲ dʲ].
  • Most initial geminate sequences simply degeminate. With coronals, it's a bit more complex. There's some progressive voicing assimilation for coronal stops that happens, and then the sequences /ttʲ ddʲ tʲt dʲd/ become [stʲ zdʲ ʃt ʒd].
  • The yers tend to signify that something has screwed up, especially when /r/ gets involved as it is low on this language's sonority hierarchy—more plosive-like than resonant-like. In the typical case the yers crop up due to a violation of the sonority hierarchy, but are technically phonemic because there's only really four of them, and even then most of the time [m̩] assimilates to [n̩]. Palatal phones become /ь/, while velars become /ъ/, and the nasals just syllabify and assimilate to a following labial or coronal.
The yers do various things in various languages. In some they are reflected as spirantization or voicing. In others, you end up with palatalization or labialization/velarization, as appropriate. In still others they simply drop, while they are "promoted" to full vowels in others still. Add vowel dissimilation or centering into the mix in some languages and you have a recipe for disaster awesomeness.
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by shimobaatar » Mon 06 Aug 2018, 03:06

DesEsseintes wrote:
Sun 05 Aug 2018, 19:25
This is Čawač, an idea for an a priori Algonquianino that I came up with because I can’t sleep.

/n/ n
/t t͡s t͡ʃ k/ t c č k
/θ s ʃ/ θ s š
/r j w/ r y w

/a e i o u/ a e i o u
/a e i o u/ ā ē ī ō ū

Fairly free clustering, normally restricted to two consonants.
Looks like a good start. Are there initial and/or final clusters, or are clusters exclusively word-internal? Does "Algonquianino" mean anything specific, or is it just a random corruption of "Algonquian"? Also, if you'll excuse my nit-picking, I assume you meant something like /aː eː iː oː uː/ for ā ē ī ō ū?
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by Linguifex » Mon 06 Aug 2018, 03:28

shimobaatar wrote:
Mon 06 Aug 2018, 03:06
Does "Algonquianino" mean anything specific, or is it just a random corruption of "Algonquian"?
If I may interject: I don't think it's a "random corruption", it looks like a diminutive (cf. neutrino, plutino).
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Re: Random phonology/phonemic inventory thread

Post by shimobaatar » Mon 06 Aug 2018, 03:38

Linguifex wrote:
Mon 06 Aug 2018, 03:28
shimobaatar wrote:
Mon 06 Aug 2018, 03:06
Does "Algonquianino" mean anything specific, or is it just a random corruption of "Algonquian"?
If I may interject: I don't think it's a "random corruption", it looks like a diminutive (cf. neutrino, plutino).
Sure. Just making sure it's not an establish term in English that I'm not familiar with.
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