The door opened, the door was opened... (voice)

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marvelous
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Re: The door opened, the door was opened... (voice)

Post by marvelous » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 10:30

This is a perfect exercise for Htoleiþe.

:con: Htoleiþe

1) Peter opened the door.

Piter taihkuçne husikeir.
/ˈpiteɹ tɑɪ̯ˈˀkuçne ˈʔuʃikeɪ̯ɹ/
Piter t<ai>hk-uç-ne hus-ik-eir
Peter be.open<PST>-3SG.AN2-CAUS gate-DIM-DEF.ACC
Peter made-open the-door.

2) The door opened.

Husike taihkoçxa.
/ˈʔuʃike tɑɪ̯ˈˀkoçxɑ/
hus-ik-e t<ai>hk-oç-xa
gate-DIM-DEF.NOM be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN-INCH
The-door became-open.

3) The door was opened.

Husike tohklaiçne.
/ˈʔuʃike toˈˀklɑɪ̯çne/
hus-ik-e t<o>hk<laiç>-ne
gate-DIM-DEF.NOM be.open<PST.PAS.3SG.INAN>-CAUS
The-door was-made-open.

4) The door was opened by Peter.

For most purposes, a rearranged version of 1) suffices here:

Husikeir taihkuçne Piter.
/ˈʔuʃikeɪ̯ɹ tɑɪ̯ˈˀkuçne ˈpiteɹ/
hus-ik-eir t<ai>hk-uç-ne Piter
gate-DIM-DEF.ACC be.open<PST>-3SG.AN2-CAUS Peter
The-door(OBJ) made-open Peter(SBJ).

The passive from 3) is usually used without an agent, but an agent can be specified with the preposition ra + the instrumental:

Husike tohklaiçne ra Pitereið.
/ˈʔuʃike toˈˀklɑɪ̯çne ɹɑ ˈpiteɹeɪ̯ð/
hus-ik-e t<o>hk<laiç>-ne ra Piter-eið
gate-DIM-DEF.NOM be.open<PST.PAS.3SG.INAN>-CAUS PREP.ELA Peter-DEF.INS
The-door was-made-open by Peter.

Finally, it is also possible to use 2) with an agent in the bare instrumental.

Husike taihkoçxa Pitereið.
/ˈʔuʃike tɑɪ̯ˈˀkoçxɑ ˈpiteɹeɪ̯ð/
hus-ik-e t<ai>hk-oç-xa Piter-eið
gate-DIM-DEF.NOM be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN-INCH Peter-DEF.INS
The-door became-open through-Peter.

5) The door opened itself.

Husike taihkoçnelye toçeirlye.
/ˈʔuʃike tɑɪ̯ˈˀkoçneʎe ˈtoçeɪ̯ɹʎe/
hus-ik-e t<ai>hk-oç-ne-lye toç-eir-lye
gate-DIM.DEF.NOM be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN-CAUS-REFL PRO.3SG.INAN-DEF.ACC-REFL
The-door made-open itself.

6) Peter made John open the door.

Piter Soneið taihkuçne husikeir.
/ˈpiteɹ ˈʃoneɪ̯ð tɑɪ̯ˈˀkuçne ˈʔuʃikeɪ̯ɹ/
Piter Son-eið t<ai>hk-uç-ne hus-ik-eir
Peter John-DEF.INS be.open<PST>-3SG.AN2-CAUS gate-DIM-DEF.ACC
Peter through-John made-open the-door.

EDIT: 7) Peter opened.

Piter taihkuçne.
/ˈpiteɹ tɑɪ̯ˈˀkuçne/
piter t<ai>hk-uç-ne
Peter be.open<PST>-3SG.AN2-CAUS
Last edited by marvelous on Mon 01 Jan 2018, 18:01, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The door opened, the door was opened... (voice)

Post by Void » Sat 30 Dec 2017, 15:27

Image Süm jaroz

Ohpol Peter ahparas.
[ˈɔxpɔl ˈpɛtɛr ˈɑxpɑrɑs]
open-3SG.PST peter door-ACC
Peter opened the door.

Ohpolmag ahpar.
[ˈɔxpɔlmɑg ˈɑxpɑr]
open-3SG.PST-REFL door
The door opened.

Ohpolok ahpar.
[ˈɔxpɔlɔk ˈɑxpɑr]
open-PASS-3SG.PST door
The door was opened.

Ohpolok ahpar Petrre.
[ˈɔxpɔlɔk ˈɑxpɑr ˈpɛtrɛ]
open-PASS-3SG.PST door peter-INST
The door was opened by Peter.

Ohpol ahpar magjas.
[ˈɔxpɔl ˈɑxpɑr ˈmɑgjɑs]
open-3SG.PST door-ACC self-3SG.POSS-ACC
The door opened itself.

Hatúngol Peter Ihanas ahparas ohpal.
[ˈxɑtuːŋɔl ˈpɛtɛr ˈixɑnɑs ˈɑxpɑrɑs ˈɔxpɑl]
cause-3SG.PST peter john-ACC door-ACC open-INF
Peter made John open the door.

Ohpol Peter.
[ˈɔxpɔl ˈpɛtɛr]
open-3SG.PST peter
Peter opened.
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Re: The door opened, the door was opened... (voice)

Post by marvelous » Mon 01 Jan 2018, 18:39

:con: Ðeneydabus

1) Peter opened the door.
Petereyð rayxojz ne huçe.
/ˈpeteɾeɪ̯ð̠ ˈɾɑɪ̯xoʝ ne ˈhuçe/
Peter-eyð r<ay>x-ojz ne huç-e
Peter-DEF.ERG be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN PART.CAUS door-DEF

2) The door opened.
Huçe rayxojz ga.
/ˈhuçe ˈɾɑɪ̯xoʝ gɑ/
huç-e r<ay>x-ojz ga
door-DEF be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN PART.INCH

3) The door was opened.
Ne huçe rayxojz.
/ne ˈhuçe ˈɾɑɪ̯xoʝ/
ne huç-e r<ay>x-ojz
PART.CAUS door-DEF be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN

4) The door was opened by Peter.
Ne huçe rayxojz Petereyð.
/ne ˈhuçe ˈɾɑɪ̯xoʝ ˈpeteɾeɪ̯ð̠/
ne huç-e r<ay>x-ojz Peter-eyð
PART.CAUS door-DEF be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN Peter-DEF.ERG

5) The door opened itself.
Huçeyð rayxojz ne xorrojz.
/ˈhuçeɪ̯ð̠ ˈɾɑɪ̯xoʝ ne ˈxoɾːoʝ/
huç-eyð r<ay>x-ojz ne xor-rojz
door-DEF.ERG be.open<PST>-3SG.INAN PART.CAUS PRO.DIST-PRO.3SG.INAN

6) Peter made John open the door.
Petereyð cçaylojz ço Joneyð raynxojz ne huçe.
/ˈpeteɾeɪ̯ð̠ ˈc͡çɑɪ̯loʝ ço ˈɟoneɪ̯ð̠ ˈɾɑɪ̯nxoʝ ne ˈhuçe/
Peter-eyð cç<ay>l-ojz ço Jon-eyð r<ayn>x-ojz ne huç-e
Peter-DEF.ERG cause<PST>-3SG.INAN COMP John-EF.ERG be.open<PST.PRF>-3SG.INAN CAUS door-DEF

7) Peter opened.
Peter rayxenuç.
/ˈpeteɾ ˈɾɑɪ̯xenuç/
Peter r<ay>x-en-uç
Peter open<PST>-AP-3SG.AN2
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