Complementiser vs relativiser

A forum for translations, translation challenges etc. Good place to increase your conlang's vocabulary.
User avatar
Imralu
greek
greek
Posts: 843
Joined: Sun 17 Nov 2013, 22:32

Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Imralu » Sun 31 Jul 2016, 06:37

I keep seeing a lot of instances of people glossing what is obviously a complementiser as REL. This is fine, of course, if the same morpheme is used for both, as that can be in English, but I suspect a lot of it is from native speakers of English (and other languages that merge them) not realising these are different roles and they are frequently different words in different languages.

:eng:
(1) I know that Jack built the house.
(2) I know that that's the house that Jack built.

:swe:

(1) Jag vet att Jack byggde huset.
1s.NOM know.PRES C Jack build.PST house-DEF.SG

(2) Jag vet att det där är huset som Jack byggde.
1s.NOM know.PRES C DEM.SG.NEUT there be.PRES house-DEF.SG REL Jack build.PST

:deu:

(1) Ich weiß, dass Jack das Haus gebaut hat.
1s.NOM know.PRES.1s C Jack DEF.SG.NEUT.ACC house PP-build-PP have.PRES.3s

(2) Ich weiß, dass das das Haus ist, das Jack gebaut hat.
1s.NOM know.PRES.1s C DEM.SG.NEUT.NOM DEF.SG.NEUT.NOM house be.PRES.3s REL.SG.NEUT.ACC Jack PP-build-PP have.PRES.3s



_________________________________

:con: :png: Wena:

(1) Na i mu zyu Dyagi e zye (zyi) mba.
1s COP know.AG GEN.C Jack PRED cause (GEN.DEF.E) house
Zyi may be omitted. Zye mba is roughly equivalent to "house builder" and zye zyi mba is roughly equivalent to "builder of the house".

Wena doesn't really have a separate grammatical structure equivalent to relative clauses. In simple cases, an attributive construction can be used, which may need to be passivised as in this case.

(2) Na i mu zyu hi e mba ye (zi) ne zye (zyi) Dyagi.
1s COP know.AG GEN.C DEM.E COP house ATTR (prior.E) PASS.E cause GEN.DEF.E Jack
Zyi may be omitted for the same reason as above.

There is another method, which may be used in this case (and must be used in more complex cases), which makes use of an adverbial clause introduced by u. Superficially, it may look like u indicates a relative clause which contains a resumptive pronoun/noun but u clauses have a wide range of uses and don't quite match up with relative clauses.

(2) Na i mu zyu hi e mba u Dyagi e (zi) zye (zyi).
1s COP know.AG GEN.C DEM.E COP house ADV Jack COP (prior.E) cause (GEN.DEF.E)
In this case, the zyi can be left out because it's clear from context. The sentence is more or less equivalent to "I know that that is the house, Jack being the builder (of it)."
Last edited by Imralu on Mon 26 Jun 2017, 02:49, edited 2 times in total.
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
________
MY MUSIC
User avatar
Adarain
greek
greek
Posts: 664
Joined: Fri 03 Jul 2015, 14:36
Location: Switzerland, usually

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Adarain » Sun 31 Jul 2016, 13:00

:che: Swiss German, like the standard, distinguishes the two, but has a different (immutable) relative pronoun:

(1) I waiss, dass dr Jack das Hus baut het.
1s.NOM know.1s, C DEF.M Jack DET.N house build.PTCP have.3s

(2) I waiss, dass das ds Hus isch, wo dr Jack baut het.
1s.NOM know.1s, C DEM.N DEF.N house be.3s, REL DEF.M Jack build.PTCP have.3s

(damn, not a single piece of concatenative morphology here)

:con: Lxelxe has the same word for both, but it was a concious decision.

(1) Qune Jack k'up'laka biftixaz mokim
Qune Jack k'up'la-ka bif-tix-az mok-im
C Jack house-ACC make-PST-3s know-1s


(2) Qune kja k'up'la qune Jack biftixaz homaz mokim
Qune kja k'up'la qune Jack bif-tix-az hom-az mok-im
C DEM.DIST house REL Jack make-PST-3s be-3s know-1s


It also uses qune together with question words if appropriate:

(3) Pes qune k'up'laka Jack biftixaz mokim.
pes qune k'up'la-ka Jack bif-tix-az mok-im
what C house-ACC Jack make-PST-3s know-1s

"I know what house Jack built"
Last edited by Adarain on Sun 31 Jul 2016, 14:15, edited 1 time in total.
At kveldi skal dag lęyfa,
Konu es bręnnd es,
Mæki es ręyndr es,
Męy es gefin es,
Ís es yfir kømr,
Ǫl es drukkit es.
Ebon
sinic
sinic
Posts: 431
Joined: Sat 02 Jul 2016, 19:55

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Ebon » Sun 31 Jul 2016, 13:49

Nereifa:

(1) I know that Jack built the house.
Ryetou re so avui tama Saka so kuigweor zenneor.
know.1SG.PRES 1SG DEF past_aux.3SG build.PART Jack DEF house.ACC complementiser.ACC

Nereifa's complementiser is an auxiliary noun, zenne, and the phrase is its subclause. It always takes the definite article, can be in any case and can appear in any position too:

Rei sui avui tama Saka so kuigweor zenne felleal.
be.3SG.PRES DEF past_aux.3SG build.PART Jack DEF house.ACC complementiser.NOM good
That Jack built the house is good.


(2) I know that that's the house that Jack built.
Ryetou re so rei sui avui tama Saka kuigwa zenneor.
know.1SG.PRES 1SG DEF.ACC be.3SG.PRES DEF past_aux.3SG build.PART Jack house.NOM complementiser.ACC

Nereifa doesn't have a relativiser word, since it creates relative clauses by putting the phrase between article and noun. I opted to color the relative clause itself instead.
Last edited by Ebon on Tue 02 Aug 2016, 09:57, edited 2 times in total.
clawgrip
MVP
MVP
Posts: 2399
Joined: Sun 24 Jun 2012, 06:33
Location: Tokyo

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by clawgrip » Sun 31 Jul 2016, 14:34

:jpn:
The complementizer is generally to for regular complements and ka for interrogative-based complements. However, the Japanese equivalents to English "know" do not normally take the regular complementizer. Rather, the known fact will be nominalized and marked as a topic (or the complementized phrase can be topicalized in some cases):

(1) I know that Jack built the house.
ジャックがその家を建てたのは知っている。
Jakku ga sono ie o tateta no wa shitte iru.

Jack NOM DEM.MED house ACC build-PST N TOP know-CONJ LOC.COP.ANIM

Changing the verb from "know" to "say" allows us to use the complementizer to:
(1b) I said that Jack built the house.
ジャックがその家を建てた言った。
Jakku ga sono ie o tateta to itta.

Jack NOM DEM.MED house ACC build-PST COMPL say-PST

Changing "house" to an interrogative allows for the complementizer ka:
(1c) I know what Jack built.
ジャックは何を建てた知っている。
Jakku wa nani o tateta ka shitte iru.

Jack TOP what ACC build-PST COMPL/Q know-CONJ LOC.COP.ANIM

There is no relative pronoun of any kind. Any verb occurring immediately before a noun becomes a relative clause:
(2) I know that that's the house that Jack built.
それはジャックが建てた家だは知っている。
Sore wa Jakku ga tateta ie da to wa shitte iru.

DEM.MED TOP Jack NOM build-PST house COP COMPL TOP know-CONJ LOC.COP.ANIM
User avatar
GrandPiano
runic
runic
Posts: 2650
Joined: Sun 11 Jan 2015, 23:22
Location: Ohio, USA

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by GrandPiano » Sun 31 Jul 2016, 19:02

:chn: Mandarin

Mandarin doesn't have a complementizer; instead, it does exactly what English does when the complementizer is omitted:

我知道杰克建了那所房子。 (simplified)
我知道傑克建了那所房子。 (traditional)
Wǒ zhīdào Jiékè jiàn le nà suǒ fángzi.
[wɔ˨˩ ʈ͡ʂʐ̩˥tɑʊ̯˥˩ t͡ɕjɛ˧˥kʰɤ˥˧ t͡ɕjɛn˥˩ lɤ̆˩ nä˥˩ swɔ˨˩ fɑŋ˧˥t͡sz̩̆˨]
1[SG] know Jack build PFV that CL house
I know that Jack built the house. (literally "I know Jack built that house")

Relative clauses are normally formed by treating the clause as an adjectival phrase, marked with the genitive particle 的 de. In more formal situations, the verb of the relative clause can also be preceded with 所 suǒ.

我知道那是杰克()建了房子。 (simplified)
我知道那是傑克()建了房子。 (traditional)
Wǒ zhīdào nà shì Jiékè (suǒ) jiàn le de fángzi.
[wɔ˨˩ ʈ͡ʂʐ̩˥tɑʊ̯˥˧ nä˥˧ ʂʐ̩˥˩ t͡ɕjɛ˧˥kʰɤ˥˩ (swɔ˨˩) t͡ɕjɛn˥˩ lɤ̆˩ dɤ̆˩ fɑŋ˧˥t͡sz̩̆˨]
1[SG] know that COP Jack (REL) build PFV GEN house
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

:esp: Spanish

Spanish, on the other hand, is the same as English, using que as both a complementizer and a relativizer:

que Jack construyó la casa.
[se ke d͡ʒak konstɾuˈjo la ˈkasa]
que Jack construy-ó la casa-Ø
know.1SG.PRS.IND C Jack build-3SG.PRT.IND DEF.F.SG house-SG
I know that Jack built the house.

que esa es la casa que Jack construyó.
[se ke ˈesa es la ˈkasa ke d͡ʒak konstɾuˈjo]
que esa es la casa-Ø que Jack construy-ó
know.1SG.PRS.IND C that.F.SG COP.3SG.PRS.IND DEF.F.SG house-SG REL Jack build-3SG.PRT.IND
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

(I'm not sure how "Jack" would be pronounced in Spanish, so I took a guess)
Last edited by GrandPiano on Tue 02 Aug 2016, 10:40, edited 2 times in total.
:eng: - Native
:chn: - B2
:esp: - A2
:jpn: - A2
User avatar
Imralu
greek
greek
Posts: 843
Joined: Sun 17 Nov 2013, 22:32

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Imralu » Mon 01 Aug 2016, 21:29

Adarain wrote::che: Swiss German, like the standard, distinguishes the two, but has a different (immutable) relative pronoun:
wo REL
A good friend of mine tends to use wo to introduce relative clauses. Sometimes I worry that I'll pick it up off her but I haven't picked up saying gell? yet, so I'm probably safe, lol.
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
________
MY MUSIC
User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4465
Joined: Tue 14 Aug 2012, 18:32

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Creyeditor » Tue 02 Aug 2016, 16:11

:idn: :nld: :png: :aus: :deu: (and probably several others) Papuan Malay

(1) Sa tahu Yacob buat rumah itu.
sa tahu Yacob buat rumah itu
1SG know COMPL Jack make house DEM.DIST
I know that Jack built the house.


(2) Sa tahu itu rumah yang Yacob buat.
sa tahu itu rumah yang Yacob buat
1SG know COMPL DEM.DIST(COP) house REL Jack make
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

In Indonesian there are several complementizers, but I never heard any of them being used in Papua, except when people where hesitating. The relative particle <yang> does not inflect for anything.
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]
clawgrip
MVP
MVP
Posts: 2399
Joined: Sun 24 Jun 2012, 06:33
Location: Tokyo

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by clawgrip » Tue 02 Aug 2016, 16:44

:con: Yiyenmore
This language has multiple complementisers but only one relative pronoun, which is identical to one of the complementisers.

Image
Min ti rime yasi Chaka kanti chama i fon.
1 DEF.INAL know C Jack PST.IND.DEF.INAL.INTEN build the house
I know that Jack built the house.

Image
Min ti rime yasi unse hin i fon chotu Chaka kanti chama.
1 DEF.INAL know C 3.DIST.INAN be the house REL Jack PST.IND.DEF.INAL.INTEN build
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

Depending on the verb and meaning, various other complementisers are used:

Image
Min kanti kapi osi Chaka kanti chama i fon.
1 PST.DEF.INAL.INTEN say C Jack PST.IND.DEF.INAL.INTEN build the house
I said that Jack built the house.

Image
Min kanti kapi antu Chaka ti chama i fon.
1 PST.DEF.INAL.INTEN say C Jack DEF.INAL build the house
I told Jack to build the house.

Image
Min kanti tsomisewu chori Chaka ti chama i fon.
1 PST.DEF.INAL.INTEN suggest C Jack DEF.INAL build the house
I suggested that Jack build the house.

Image
Min kanti kutu chotu Chaka kanti chama i fon.
1 PST.DEF.INAL.INTEN show C Jack PST.IND.DEF.INAL.INTEN build the house
I showed that Jack built the house.

Image
Min kanti uyo kasa Chaka onto chama i fon.
1 PST.DEF.INAL.INTEN say C Jack PST.IND.DEF.INAL.INTEN build the house
I asked if Jack built the house.

I made some error with some image files but I am too tired to fix it. Will fix later.
User avatar
k1234567890y
runic
runic
Posts: 2960
Joined: Sat 04 Jan 2014, 04:47
Contact:

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by k1234567890y » Tue 02 Aug 2016, 17:43

:con: Lonmai Luna:

(1)
se dinta hir alen Djak kabap bales on.
1.SG know COMP PND Jack build house the
I know that Jack built the house.

(2)
se dinta hir alor bales on mal alen Djak kabap.
1.SG know COMP that.NEUT.PRON house the REL PND Jack build
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

:con: Urban Basanawa:

(1)
吾知いいとだとジャック建うとだ屋
/ɪk wi:t dat dʒak baʊt də haʊs/(pronunciation)
吾 知いいと だと ジャック 建う-と だ 屋
1.SG.NOM know.PRES.1.SG COMP Jack build-PRET.3.SG the house(interlinear)
I know that Jack built the house.

(2)
吾知いいとだと彼いすだ屋ジャック建うと
/ɪk wi:t dat dat ɪs də haʊs dʒak baʊt/(pronunciation)
吾 知いいと だと 彼 いす だ 屋  ジャック 建う-と
1.SG.NOM know.PRES.1.SG COMP that be.PRES.3.SG the house REL Jack build-PRET.3.SG(interlinear)
I know that that's the house that Jack built.
私のアツい人工言語活動!言カツ!始まります!!
clawgrip
MVP
MVP
Posts: 2399
Joined: Sun 24 Jun 2012, 06:33
Location: Tokyo

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by clawgrip » Wed 03 Aug 2016, 00:34

k1234567890y, what's PND?
User avatar
k1234567890y
runic
runic
Posts: 2960
Joined: Sat 04 Jan 2014, 04:47
Contact:

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by k1234567890y » Wed 03 Aug 2016, 00:37

clawgrip wrote:k1234567890y, what's PND?
Proper Noun Determiner

I saw the glossing PND in the Wikipedia page for Chamorro language
私のアツい人工言語活動!言カツ!始まります!!
User avatar
k1234567890y
runic
runic
Posts: 2960
Joined: Sat 04 Jan 2014, 04:47
Contact:

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by k1234567890y » Wed 03 Aug 2016, 21:03

Double post(=_=")

:con: Q'eb

Q'eb has no relativizer, the -ka/-ga is the nominalizer suffix.
(1) Djaeki a zev χstsarzga dʁzida
Djaek-i a zev χ-stsar-z-ga d-χ-zed-a
Jack-ERG that house 3.SG.P-build.PFV-3.SG.A-NMLZ 1.SG.A-3.SG.P-know-IPFV
I know that Jack built the house.

(2) a Djaeki χstsarz zev χaska dʁzida
a Djaek-i χ-stsar-z zev χa-s-ka d-χ-zed-a
that Jack-ERG 3.SG.P-build.PFV-3.SG.A-COMP house be.IPFV-3.SG.A-NMLZ 1.SG.A-3.SG.P-know-IPFV
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

:con: Hux Kham

Hux Kham has two strategies to relativize a noun, the first is to use an internally-headed relative clause, and in this case, the relative clause ends with the nominalizer -ta; the second is to direct put the relativized verbal phrase before the noun, the second strategy is used here.

The nominalizer -ta suffix is also used as the complementizer.

(1) Drak satam toh witam duh se
Drak sat=am toh wi-ta-m du-h se
Jack house ACC.DEF build PFV.3.SG-NMLZ-ACC.DEF PRES-1.SG know
I know that Jack built the house.

(2) hwa amta Drak toh sattam duh se
hwa-amta Drak toh sat-ta-m du-h se
that Jack build house-NMLZ-ACC.DEF PRES-1.SG know
I know that that's the house that Jack built.
私のアツい人工言語活動!言カツ!始まります!!
User avatar
chridd
rupestrian
rupestrian
Posts: 22
Joined: Sun 17 Apr 2016, 20:56
Location: the internet
Contact:

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by chridd » Wed 10 Aug 2016, 04:36

Image Lwaitel
Lú kiusteng hem an Jack chus-en al húnel.
[ˌlu ˈkɪʉs.tŋ̩ hm̩ ˌan ˈdʒæk ˈtʃʉs-n̩ ˌal ˈhu.nl̩]
VERB know C PROX Jack make-PROX MED house.
I know that Jack made the house.

Lú kiusteng hem súshli swaim al húnel hes suit Jack.
[ˌlu ˈkɪʉs.tŋ̩ hm̩ ˈsuʃ.ʎɨ ˌswɑɪm ˌal ˈhu.nl̩ hə̆s ˌsʊɨt ˈdʒæk]
VERB know C here be-OBV MED house REL make.INV Jack.
I know that this is the house that Jack made.

(Normally, though, the complementizer would be omitted in Lwaitel.)
~ chri d. d. /ʧɹɪ.di.di/ (Phonotactics, schmphonotactics) · they (for now, at least) · My conlangs · Searchable Index Diachronica
User avatar
marvelous
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 146
Joined: Sun 26 Jun 2016, 10:34

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by marvelous » Wed 10 Aug 2016, 11:04

:con: Tasza

I know that Jack built the house.
Déxaj tesz Jack-de (taga) nít tímolótenge.
/de'xaɖ͡ʐ ʈɛʂ ɖ͡ʐak dɛ (ta'ga) nit timɔlo'tɛŋɛ/
know-GNO.3S.ABS<1S.ERG C PR-PN.3S.ERG (DEM.ADJ.ABS) house-ABS build-PRF.3S.ABS-3S.ERG

:con: I know that that's the house that Jack built.
Déxaj tesz tesz nít, ko Jack-de tímolótenge.
/de'xaɖ͡ʐ ʈɛʂ ʈɛʂ nit kɔ ɖ͡ʐak dɛ timɔlo'tɛŋɛ/
know-GNO.3S.ABS<1S.ERG C DEM-ABS house-ABS REL.ABS PR-PN.3S.ERG build-PRF.3S.ABS-3S.ERG
I am happy to receive constructive criticism.
User avatar
MrKrov
banned
Posts: 2414
Joined: Thu 12 Aug 2010, 01:47
Location: /ai/ > /a:/
Contact:

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by MrKrov » Tue 06 Sep 2016, 03:43

In NoseBark:

sib-ur-zu j̃u egrahi-r-ru puhõ-tu jɛk
sib=ur=zu j̃u e-grahi=r=ru puhõ=t-u jɛk
know=3F=1 COMP PST-make=3=3 house=DEF-M
I know that Jack built the house.

sib-ur-zu j̃u min-ur puhõ-tu tim egrahi-r-ru jɛk botuki
sib=ur=zu j̃u min=ur puhõ=t-u tim e-grahi=r=ru jɛk botuki
know=3F=1 COMP be=3F house=DEF-F REL PST-make Jack that
I know that that's the house that Jack built
Last edited by MrKrov on Wed 07 Sep 2016, 05:59, edited 3 times in total.
User avatar
Lao Kou
korean
korean
Posts: 5661
Joined: Sun 25 Nov 2012, 10:39
Location: 蘇州/苏州

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Lao Kou » Tue 06 Sep 2016, 14:12

Image Géarthnuns

Sí la, Jaks lé chö béöbsöt höikwöl sho, sferül.
1SG-NOM AUX.PRES, CONJ Jack-NOM AUX.PAST DEF house-ACC build-DISC PTCL, know
I know that Jack built the house.

Sí la, chö helkebs la chö béöbs, chöböt Jaks lé kwöl sho, höinöi sho, sferül.
1SG AUX.PRES, CONJ DEF that.one-NOM AUX.PRES DEF house-NOM, REL.ACC Jack-NOM AUX.PAST build PTCL, be-DISC PTCL, know
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

Image Japoné語

私 oué j'ga 知ttèrë que Jacques ga 建téta l'家.
Ouétachi oué j'ga chittèrë que Jacques ga tatéta l'hiée.
1SG TOP 1SG=NOM know CONJ Jacques NOM build-PAST DEF=house
I know that Jack built the house.

私 oué j'ga 知ttèrë que celle-等 ga c'est l'家 qu'au Jacques ga 建téta.
Ouétachi oué j'ga chittèrë que celle-rà ga c'est l'hiée qu'au Jacques ga tatéta.
1SG TOP 1SG=NOM know CONJ that.one NOM it=is DEF=house REL.ACC Jacques NOM build-PAST
I know that that's the house that Jack built.
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名
User avatar
marvelous
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 146
Joined: Sun 26 Jun 2016, 10:34

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by marvelous » Wed 14 Sep 2016, 14:13

:con: Ponkola Lingwash (fictional descendant of :epo:)

I know that Jack built the house.
Bi siaz ke Joshjo konstruiz la dom.
/bi 'siaz keɪ 'jou̯ʃjou̯ kou̯n'struiz la dou̯m/

I know that that's the house that Jack built.
Bi siaz ke tio staz la dom kiu Joshjo konstruiz.
/bi 'siaz keɪ 'tiou̯ staz la dou̯m 'kiu 'jou̯ʃjou̯ kou̯n'struiz/
Last edited by marvelous on Thu 15 Sep 2016, 11:54, edited 1 time in total.
I am happy to receive constructive criticism.
User avatar
alynnidalar
roman
roman
Posts: 1036
Joined: Sun 17 Aug 2014, 02:22
Location: Michigan, USA

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by alynnidalar » Wed 14 Sep 2016, 16:37

:con: Tirina

Namudolan lid toa'lenda Yak akan.
FEM-know COMP.ANIM MASC-build-PST Jack house
I know that Jack built the house.

Namudolan lid orn akan iran toa'lenda Yak on.
FEM-know COMP.ANIM DET.INAN house REL.ANIM MASC-build-PST Jack 3.SG.MASC
I know that that's the house that Jack built.

There's overlap between complementizers, relativizers, and determiners, but it's not the same as in English. To simplify matters, I usually end up glossing lid and aldo as "this" and iran and orn as "that", but both lid and aldo are used in a number of places where "that" would be used in English. (that being said, those two sets do cover pretty much the entire range of English "this" and "that", just divided up differently... which is indeed a failing I should correct)
User avatar
Omzinesý
mayan
mayan
Posts: 2444
Joined: Fri 27 Aug 2010, 07:17
Location: nowhere [naʊhɪɚ]

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Omzinesý » Sun 25 Sep 2016, 13:44

The complementized dat is nearly always used.
(1) I know that Jack built the house.
Ek vit dat Jak hau beun de haus.
sg1 know.PRS COMPL Jack have.PRS build.INF DEF.SG house

Instead of a relativiser (dependent marking), relativized marker -n appears (head marking).
(2a) I know that that's the house that Jack built.
Ek vit dat de da s den haus Jak hau beun.
sg1 know.PRS COMPL that there be.PRS DEF.SG.RELVIZED house Jack have.PRS build.INF

2a is not too idiomatic. duh construction is much better for focusing the house.
(2b) I know that that's the house that Jack built.
Ek vit dat de da haus dah Jak beun.
sg1 know.PRS COMPL that there house do.PST Jack build.INF
User avatar
Void
sinic
sinic
Posts: 256
Joined: Mon 15 Aug 2016, 15:15
Location: ܬܩܠܡܟܢܓܝܕܪ

Re: Complementiser vs relativiser

Post by Void » Tue 27 Sep 2016, 20:56

Wołaska

Jek kon wo Jakub cięrze chysz.
[jɛk kɔn̪ vɔ jakup ˈt͡ɕɛ̃wʐɛ xɨʂ]
1SG know.1SG-PRS SUBR jacob build.3SG-PST house.ACC
I know that Jack built the house.

Jek kon wo to chysz chwodzioro Jakub cięrze.
[jɛk kɔn̪ vɔ t̪ɔ xɨʂ xfɔˈd͡ʑɔrɔ jakup ˈt͡ɕɛ̃wʐɛ]
1SG know.1SG-PRS SUBR 3SG.NEUT house which.NEUT jacob build.3SG-PST
I know that that's the house that Jack built.
ܣܐ ܚܘܡ ܐܝ ܩܟܝܙܘܐ ܝܗܟܝܐ ܘܫܫܠ
Post Reply