'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

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'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Thu 01 Feb 2018, 20:43

'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš /ʔohtə̃k'r̩:tr̩ʔm̩:tɬəʃ/ [ʔo.tʰə̃.k'r̩:tr̩.ʔm̩̩:.t͡ɬəʃ] is a group of mutually comprehensible dialects spoken by a single ethnic group of the Peninsularian language family, which spoken on a peninsula in northwest M̟oḩa and an island off the peninsula about the size of IRL Hokkaido. Peninsularian is divided into two main branches, more properly linkages, which is the term I will use from now on, East and West. The East linkage is fusional being part of the Gune-Zèlian Sprachbund. The West linkage is Polysynthetic, and consists of fourth major linkages, Mainland, spoken on most of the mainland part of the East Linkage, Tip-South Islandic, spoken on the end of the Peninsula, and on the south of the Island, Northeast Islandic and Northwest Islandic. 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš is Tip-South Islandic, being spoken on the southern coast of the island, and some smaller islands offshore (These with the neighboring villages of 'r̋š and tm̄łahkī's dialects may be considered a divergent set of dialects, Offshore 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš, which if not for having mostly the same grammar as Central 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš- the dialect I present here- would be mutually incomprehensible with the other dialects .)

Phonology:
/t k q ʔ/ <t k q '>
/m n / <m n >
/s ɬ ʃ x h/ <s ł š c h>
/r ʀ/ <r ŕ>
/w j/ <w y>

/i u ɯ/ <i u ư>
/i: u: ɯ:/ <ī ū ưư>
/o o:/ <o ō>
/ə/ <e>
/ə̃ ə̃:/ <ę ę̄>
/a a:/ <a ā>
/m̩ n̩/ <ṃ ṇ>
/m̩: n̩:/ <m̄ n̄>
/r̩ ʀ̩/ <ṛ ṛ́>
/r̩: ʀ̩:/ <r̄ ř>

Phonotactics, Allophones, and Sandhi:
/CV(C)/
/ɯ/ cannot occur in the same syllable as /m/ or /w/.
Before <y> and <i> coronals become palatalized and part of the next syllable and /k/ becomes [c] (some shift /q/ in this position to [k]. Thus Phonemic /ʔasja/ becomes [ʔasʲa] and /ʔani:/ [ʔanʲi:]. Offshore 'othęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš realizes /ti/ as [t͡ʃi] /ni/ as [ɲi] and /si/ as [ʃi], fusing /s/ in this position with /ʃ/
S=Stop
hS Sh= Sʰ. Offshore 'othęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš distingueses between ʰS and Sʰ, and realizes what would otherwise be [ʰk kʰ ʰq qʰ] as [xk kx Xq qX]
ʔS Sʔ= S'. Offshore 'othęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš realizes the former as "Korean stiff voice".
Syllable-final /t/ joins with the next syllable if it begins with a coronal fricative, as an affricate. Same goes for _k+x_ syllables.
Last edited by Shemtov on Sun 04 Feb 2018, 15:59, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Fri 02 Feb 2018, 02:04

Nominals Part I:
Nouns do not show number or case (though there are clitics that act as case-markers, mostly dative and various locative cases, though the lative marker is rare, as it can be incoporated into a verb, see the word 'othęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš itself, which is really a verb; the portion 'r̄tṛm'm̄t can be broken down into 'r̄-tṛm-'m̄t look-south-water; thus "We are in the state of looking south to water". They are clitics, as they do not follow sandhi.) Nouns are marked for possesion; and for this fall into two "Genders": Alienable and Inalienable.
All non-possesed Alienable nouns are marked by the circumfix he'--hṛ́

He'cułtahṛ́
/həʔxuɬtahʀ̩/
[həʔxuɬtahʀ̩]
"Ferret"

He'timūthṛ́
/həʔtimu:thʀ̩/
[hət'imu:tʰʀ̩]
"oppossum"

The circumfix he'--hṛ́ is replaced by he'--'i if the noun is definite:
He'timūt'i
/həʔtimu:ti/
[hət'imu:t'i]
"the oppossum"

Possesed Alienable nouns take possesive suffixes, based on person and number:
cułtana
"My ferret"
cułta'ưưn
"Our ferret"
cułtakę̄
"Thy ferret"
cułtakn̄
"Your ferret"
cułta'o
"His/her Ferret"
cułtawō
"Their Ferret"


Inalienable nouns must always be possesed. If the noun is unspecified, it takes the suffix -'ę "Someone's

Rřłna
"My foot"
Rřł'ưưn
"Our feet"
Rřłkę̄
"Thy foot"
Rřłkn̄
"Your feet"
Rřł'o
"His/her Foot"
Rřłwō
"Their Feet"
Rřł'ę
"Someone's foot"
or
"Foot"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 04 Feb 2018, 07:54

Verbs part I:
This post will show the simple structure of a non-motion verb, without noun incorperation.
The first slot is that of stative vs. dynamic. Stative verbs take the prefix 'oh, while active verbs are unmarked. This post will not show the difference, as it deserves its own post; all verbs are dynamic.
The second slot is that of TAM. I will not deal with Mood in this post, and will only show the Tense-Aspects in common use, though there are others, they are rarely used in daily conversation.
Plain Present: 'e
Present Progressive: tęk
Plain Past: Nā'
Past Progressive: sę̄t
Past perfect: łn̄q
Plain Future : 'ṇ'
Future Progressive: nę̄'
Future perfect: łę'

The third slot is the root.

The fourth slot is used only for motion verbs (includes such verbs that imply direction, like "to see" "to throw") and shows derection.

The fifth slot is an incorperated object or intrument (This will be considered in more detail in a future post)

The sixth slot is the Subject-Object marker. Verbs have four persons, the fourth person meaning "someone else" or another third person that was not referenced in a previous verb, or to show one third person acting on another. This does not distinguish number.
Intransitive verbs:
1P sing: na
1P plural 'ưưn
2P sing: kę̄
2P plural: kn̄
3P sing: 'o
3P Plural: wō
4P: 'ę
Transitive verb:
1P sing on 1P Plural: Nun
1P sing on 2P sing: 'n̄k
1P sing on 2P plural: hę̄kṇš
1P sing on 3P sing: No
1P sing on 3P plr: Nōw
1P plural on 1P sing : 'ṇhu
1P plural on 2P sing: Nuk
1P plural on 2P plural: hṇk
1P plural on 3P sing: łeš
1P plural on 3P plr: Nūm
2P sing on 1P Sing : Kon
2P sing on 1P plural: kṇ'ę̄
2P sing on 2P plural: kāk
2P sing on 3P sing: Ko
2P sing on 3P plr: Kōw
2P plural on 1P sing : Kn̄hn̄
2P plural on 1P plr: Kn̄rn̄
2P plural on 2P sing : kek'a
2P plural on 3P sing: Ku
2P plural on 3P plr: Kūm
3P sing on 1P Sing : 'on
3P sing on 1P plural: 'ohn̄
3P sing on 2P plural: 'ōk
3P sing on 3P Plural: hu
3P sing on 4P : 'oqę
3P plural on 1P Sing : 'un
3P Plural on 1P plural: 'uhn̄
3P Plural on 2P plural: 'ūk
3P Plural on 3P sing : hūro
3P plural on 4P : 'ūqę

Thus:
Root Sm̄r "To sing"
tęksm̄rwo
[tə̃.ksm̩:r.wo]
"They are singing"
Root Qatił "To kill"
Nā'qatiłko cułtana
[na.q'atiɬ.ko xuɬ.ta.na]
"Thy killed my ferret"
Last edited by Shemtov on Wed 14 Feb 2018, 05:13, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by kiwikami » Sun 04 Feb 2018, 08:52

Really like the phonology (that vowel system...) [:D] Is there in fact an /a/? It doesn't look like there is in the inventory, but one example mentions "/ʔasja/" becoming [ʔasʲa].

Are inalienable nouns always logically so (are they exclusively body parts/family members/the sorts of things one is expected to have forever) or do they form a more arbitrary class? That is, how grammatical-gender-esque are they; are some nouns inalienable that one might not expect to be?
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 04 Feb 2018, 16:16

kiwikami wrote:
Sun 04 Feb 2018, 08:52
Really like the phonology (that vowel system...) [:D] Is there in fact an /a/? It doesn't look like there is in the inventory, but one example mentions "/ʔasja/" becoming [ʔasʲa].

Yes, there is, and it's fixed now- I got so caught up in the specifics of the non-low vowels (especially how to romanize /ɯ/ and the syllabics (especially the romanazation, and if it's naturalistic to have /ʀ̩/.)
kiwikami wrote:
Sun 04 Feb 2018, 08:52


Are inalienable nouns always logically so (are they exclusively body parts/family members/the sorts of things one is expected to have forever) or do they form a more arbitrary class? That is, how grammatical-gender-esque are they; are some nouns inalienable that one might not expect to be?
They're pretty much semantically body parts and family members.
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 05 Feb 2018, 00:26

Nouns can take postclitics that represent what in other languages would be case.
Here are the most common
Dative: šư
Instrumental: Tek
Locative: łę̄
Lative: Tū
Ablative: Me'i

He'sūŕhṛ́ cułtakę̄ šư sę̄tsr̄qno
"I was throwing a stone at thy ferret"

The Lative and Ablative postclitics can often be combined with nouns of place and a verb to mean "Move to/away from X while by unspecified means", and can in this usage be considered "Verbalazation"
He'sūŕhṛ́ cułtakę̄ šư 'm̄t tū sę̄tsr̄qno
"I was throwing a stone at thy ferret, while walking to the ocean"

Verbs of motion can take directional markers in the 4th slot, and the place in the 5th:
'ṇ'kưưnistṛm'm̄tna
[ʔn̩.k'ɯ:nis.tr̩m.ʔm̩:t.na]
'ṇ'-kưưnis-tṛm-'m̄t-na
FUT-walk-south-ocean-1P
"I will walk south to the ocean"

The place can be removed from the fifth slot when:
a. It's ablative
b. emphasis is placed on the noun

'm̄t me'i 'ṇ'kưưnistṛmna
"I will walk south from the ocean"
(can be said on some of the islands Offshore 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš is spoken on, by a standard speaker visiting)

'm̄t tū 'ṇ'kưưnistṛmna
"It will be toward the ocean when I will walk south"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Tue 06 Feb 2018, 15:09

The secondary Tense-Aspects:
Inceptive Present: šṇh
Inceptive past: cīs
Inceptive Future: kęš
Cessative Present: qę'
Cessative past: tm̄sh
Cessative future: šưư'
Gnomic: łi'

Cīskưưnistṛm'm̄tna
[xi:s.kɯ:nis.tr̩m.ʔm̩:t.na]
"I started walking south to the ocean"

Šưưkưưnistṛm'm̄tna
[ʃɯ:.k'ɯ:nis.tr̩m.ʔm̩:t.na]
"I will finish walking south to the ocean"

łi'kiŕwō he'timūthṛ́
[ɬik'iʀwō hət'imu:tʰʀ̩]
"Oppusums bite"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Wed 14 Feb 2018, 05:19

Noun Incorparation can be used in the following cases. Only one noun can be incorparated:
A. Instrument:
Nā'qatił'sūŕko cułtana
Nā'-qatił-sūŕ-ko cułta-na
PST-kill-stone-2P.3P ferret-1P
"Thy killed my ferret with a stone"

B. The point of motion that is marked by the directional slot.
tęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš
tęk-'r̄-tṛm-'m̄t-łeš
PRSNT.PROG-look-south-water-1P.PLR.3P
"We are looking south at water"

C. With verbs of direct handling, such as "Hold" "Carry" "Push" "Pull" etc.
'n'nōsi'timūtnōw 'm̄t tū
'n'-nōsi'-timūt-nōw 'm̄t tū
FUT-carry-opossum-1P.SING.3P.PLR water ALL
"I will carry opossums to the water"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 19 Feb 2018, 19:48

The verb so far have been in the Alethic Mood. This post will focus on evidential and interrogative moods. Moods do not distinguish aspect, but only tense:
Emphatic Alethic Present: Yṛ́'
Emphatic Alethic Past: Yưr
Emphatic Alethic Future: Yā'
Deductive Present: łę̄h
Deductive Past: łak
Deductive Future: łił
Hearsay Present: Šāw
Hearsay Past: Šo'
Hearsay Future: Šī'
Hypothetical Present: Me
Hypothetical Past: Mih
Hypothetical Future: Mūł
Interrogative Present: Wṛ́'
Interrogative Past: Wưh
Intterogative Future: Wā'

he'tiłhṛ́ šư yưrsm̄rwo
"They indeed sang hymns [lit. 'to a god"]"

he'tiłhṛ́ šư łę̄hsm̄rwo
"It seems they are singing hymns"

he'tiłhṛ́ šư šī'sm̄rwo
"It is said they will sing hymns"

he'tiłhṛ́ šư mesm̄rwo
"They might be singing hymns"

he'tiłhṛ́ šư wưhsm̄rwo
"Did they sing hymns?"

Verbs are negated by the negative root. This is formed by the following rules:
1. If the first consonant is <'>, it becomes <h>
Tękhr̄tṛm'm̄tłeš
"We are not looking south at water"
2. If it contains a short syllabic consonant and rule 1 does not apply, that consonant, (S) is desyllabized (C) and replaced by the sequence <eCa>.
Root: kṛk "to know"
Yṛ́'kerak'n̄k
"Indeed, I don't know thee"
3. Disyllabic roots, if rules 1 and 2 do not apply, take the infix -noh-:
Nā'qanohtiłko cułtana
"Thou haven't killed my ferret."
Otherwise, the root undergoes full suppletion:
root: sm̄r "to sing" <nṛ́n> "Not to sing":
he'tiłhṛ́ šư łę̄hnṛ́nwo
"It seems they are not singing hymns"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Tue 20 Feb 2018, 05:07

The stative prefix 'oh has two meanings: To nomanalize the verb and to be an existensial prefix for noun roots.
Let's look at the first use:
'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš
'oh-tęk-'r̄-tṛm-'m̄t-łeš
STAT-PRSNT.PROG-look-south-water-1P.PLR.3P
"We, who are the ones looking south at water"

'oh'n'nōsi'timūtnōw 'm̄t tū
'oh-'n'-nōsi'-timūt-nōw 'm̄t tū
STAT- FUT-carry-opossum-1P.SING.3P.PLR water ALL
"I, the one who will carry opossums to the water"

Now the second use:
'ohcułta
"it is a ferret"

'ohrřłna
"It is my foot"

This use can be used with the evidentials, and in this sense it verbalizes the noun:
'ohmihcułta
"It could have been a ferret"

However, the most common use of this construction is interrogative:
'ohwṛ́'qanaw
'oh-wṛ́'-qanaw
STAT-INTER.PRESENT-raspberries
"Is it raspberries?"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Thu 22 Feb 2018, 19:51

The Secondary Moods:
These are deontic moods, that come after the TA or TM marker:
Prohibitive: qā'- Used to indicate the action is, was, or will be prohibited.
Permissive: ŕęh- Oppisite of prohibitive
Adhortative: 'r̄š- Used to indicate that the action should be done.
Dehortative: 'ūł- Oppisite of Adhortative
Necessitative-hīm


Examples:

'ṇ'qā'kưưnistṛm'm̄tna

"I cannot walk south to the ocean in the future"


'n''r̄šnōsi'timūtnōw 'm̄t tū
"I should carry oppusums to the water"

Yṛ́'hīmkerak'n̄k
"Indeed, I must not know thee"
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by eldin raigmore » Thu 19 Apr 2018, 04:32

All fascinating so far! And admirable too in my opinion !

You have several (unimportant IMO) spelling errors.
If you want me to point them out, tell me how and I will.
It’s still perfectly clear what you meant.
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Sun 22 Apr 2018, 19:55

eldin raigmore wrote:
Thu 19 Apr 2018, 04:32
All fascinating so far! And admirable too in my opinion !

Thank you I am trying to fill the World of Fuhe with as much linguistic diversity as possible; I had tried to make a polysynthetic language before, but I was
unsatisfied with it because I had lack of resources for such languages; However, my university, which I started this spring semester, has an entire shelf dedicated to Native American languages and so I went to making this language (Iroquoian+Navajo with a bit of Algonquian thrown in) and PAL (Maya+Nahuatl with a bit of Chinese and Indo-Aryan). This is why I made Siloman; I wanted a Fluid-S language.
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by eldin raigmore » Mon 23 Apr 2018, 00:21

What’s PAL?
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Re: 'ohtęk'r̄tṛm'm̄tłeš Scratchpad

Post by Shemtov » Mon 23 Apr 2018, 01:35

eldin raigmore wrote:
Mon 23 Apr 2018, 00:21
What’s PAL?
Pášmeit Àskhài Latx'eùn, another project of mine in the same world.
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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