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by Sumelic
17 May 2017 03:53
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Variations of <e>, probably. <e ə ë>. Less common things that seem possible: <a u i ı o eo ae ai eu . v q x c>, <’> or <'>, or just <> (nothing).
by Sumelic
15 May 2017 23:21
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: (L&N) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 4489
Views: 937393

Re: (L&N) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Anatoly Liberman's Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology is focused on words that have traditionally been considered of unknown origin in English, although part of the purpose is to explain his favored etymologies for them.
by Sumelic
10 May 2017 21:40
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: (L&N) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 4489
Views: 937393

Re: (L&N) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

What kinds of noun class systems do appear outside feminine-masculine-neuter, animate-inanimate, and Bantu systems? There are lots of ways noun-class systems are diverse. I'm not sure the three divisions you mention really slice the existing languages into natural categories. They are not really mu...
by Sumelic
06 May 2017 00:33
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

What do you think of a noun class system based on 'natural' vs 'artificial' categories? I'm trying to design a language for a hunter-gatherer society, and all nouns can be divided between whether they occur naturally or are man-made. This could lead to some interesting situations such as children a...
by Sumelic
05 May 2017 07:50
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

So I'm playing around with a language and have a few questions yet again. First of all, what order should suffixes attach to the root of a word? I'm thinking number-case is typical, but I can't recall. Number-case is also my impression. https://books.google.com/books?id=Z7IywiArQK8C&pg=PA142&lpg=PA...
by Sumelic
05 May 2017 07:32
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

I managed to create some vocabulary for my new language which has vowel harmony based on backness and roundess. Below is a Romanization. /æ ɑ e ø ɤ o i y ɯ u/ <ä a e ø o ö i ï u ü> /p b t d k g/ <p b t d k g> /m n ɲ/ <m n ny> /x ɦ s z ɸ β/ <x h s z f v> /l ɾ j/ <l r y> /tɕ dʑ/ <c j> Ïgön- 1st perso...
by Sumelic
04 May 2017 21:38
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: Funny Speech Quirks and More!
Replies: 40
Views: 5152

Re: Funny Speech Quirks and More!

I don't have too many quirks that I know of. I speak with a heavy California accent (so I've been told), so that /u/ is completely unrounded and also fronted for me (the way I say "dude" is quite funny), /ʌ/ tends toward /ɛ/, /ɛ/ tends toward /æ/, etc. But that's common around here. One suspected q...
by Sumelic
03 May 2017 23:01
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: Languages with labialized and palatalized consonants
Replies: 9
Views: 2296

Re: Languages with labialized and palatalized consonants

Marshallese is a fairly well-known example I think since it does have extensive vowel allophony as a result. Only n, r, l, and the (pretty theoretically abstract) glides have a three-way contrast, though; for the plosives, there's palatalized /pʲ tʲ/ but no /kʲ/, and labialized /kʷ/ but no /pʷ tʷ/.
by Sumelic
02 May 2017 03:49
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

I'm not saying a fusional language can't have gender based on animacy, just that every fusional natlang that I know of has grammatical gender, and it is usually based on masculine and feminine, or sometimes common and neuter. As for agglutinative languages, the ones that do have gender tend to base...
by Sumelic
02 May 2017 02:57
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

What leads to the development of a masculine/feminine gender system, and why are they more common in fusional languages while agglutinative and polysynthetic languages tend to favor the animacy/inanimacy distinction? I don’t know if there is enough information to make clear statements about general...
by Sumelic
01 May 2017 20:52
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Isd there any good letter for the affricate /tθ/? I don't know of any common convention, since it's an uncommon sound, but for a single-letter representation of /t͡θ/, I would be inclined to use either some variant of <Zz> (which often represents affricates, and represents /θ/ in some varieties of ...
by Sumelic
01 May 2017 20:34
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Isd there any good letter for the affricate /tθ/? I don't know of any common convention, since it's an uncommon sound, but for a single-letter representation of /t͡θ/, I would be inclined to use either some variant of <Zz> (which often represents affricates, and represents /θ/ in some varieties of ...
by Sumelic
01 May 2017 17:23
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: Diagram "Two plus two equals four"?
Replies: 27
Views: 6975

Re: Diagram "Two plus two equals four"?

I'm sure there are already better arguments about this, but I haven't read them, so here is a short argument I thought of in favor of it being a preposition (when followed by an NP complement; my understanding is that traditional grammar would require it to be analyzed as a conjunction): - It can be...
by Sumelic
01 May 2017 01:37
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: Diagram "Two plus two equals four"?
Replies: 27
Views: 6975

Re: Diagram "Two plus two equals four"?

I'll start with the part that seems easiest to me: I don't see how "equals" in that sentence could be anything but a verb. It plays the semantic role of a verb, it has verb morphology (the third-person singular present-tense suffix -s) and it can be converted to "does... equal" in a question ("What ...
by Sumelic
01 May 2017 00:19
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: The Unnamed Auxiliary
Replies: 9
Views: 1592

Re: The Unnamed Auxiliary

Allophones can be put on a phoneme chart, but it's nice to indicate their non-phonemic status in some way. A convention I see often on Wikipedia is to enclose them in parentheses. When they are in the same box, as in your example, another easy way to indicate this is to use the ~ symbol to link allo...
by Sumelic
29 Apr 2017 22:11
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Speaking of which, Pawnee has no phonemic nasals (although [n] is one of the allophones of /r/) and several Wakashan languages (and perhaps some other Pacific Northwest langs?) have lost all nasal phonemes from having nasals shift to voiced stops. What other languages are there with no nasals? I'm ...
by Sumelic
29 Apr 2017 04:13
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

A couple questions: I have a phonology that lacks , but has [p f m]. Outside of those, there are no more labial sounds in the language, There are plenty of consonants though, including [t d k g ʔ s z x j] etc. I'm wondering if it would be practical to just eliminate all labial sounds besides [m]? I...
by Sumelic
27 Apr 2017 04:05
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: (L&N) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 4489
Views: 937393

Re: (L&N) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Why is it that the word "second" is borrowed from French, but all other English ordinal numbers as far as I can tell are directly inherited from Proto-Germanic? I think this is one of those things that doesn't really have a clear explanation. The usual explanation that I've seen offered is that "ot...
by Sumelic
24 Apr 2017 00:49
Forum: Linguistics & Natlangs
Topic: Irrealis within irrealis?
Replies: 3
Views: 1758

Re: Irrealis within irrealis?

According to Bernard Comrie's book "Tense" , some languages have not only past/present/future, but also past-within-past, future-within-past, past-within-future, and future-within-future. Some have these first few even though they also have degrees-of-remoteness (remote past vs near past and/or rem...
by Sumelic
14 Apr 2017 03:04
Forum: Conlangs
Topic: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here
Replies: 5963
Views: 1411337

Re: (Conlangs) Q&A Thread - Quick questions go here

Can /c͡ç/ and /ɟ͡ʝ/ be the result of palatalization (and as a result, become phonetic?) I've noticed that these affricates aren't as common as say, /t͡ʃ/ is, for example in natlangs, and I am not sure if they are actual phonemes in any language I can think of. It's at least approximately possible, ...