naturalistic Verbs... help!

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Taurenzine
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naturalistic Verbs... help!

Post by Taurenzine » 19 Dec 2016 19:26

So I'm creating my first language, right? and I've gotten past phonemes, Phonotactics, and a pretty good writing system. right now I'm mainly working on word order, grammar, etc, and I need info on Verbs and adpositions. If I were making an auxlang, I wouldn't need help because I could just mash some stuff together as long as it had a pattern and was logical, but that's not the case here. I'm trying to make a naturalistic artlang, and I need info on verbs mainly. I think I need examples on how verbs have evolved in other languages, how they went from adpositions to affixes, so that I can get a better Idea on what to do with my language. should I have prepositions or post positions?

Tell me if what I'm saying even makes sense, and if it doesn't put me back into my shoes please.

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gestaltist
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Re: naturalistic Verbs... help!

Post by gestaltist » 19 Dec 2016 21:13

What you're saying makes sense, but for your first conlang, it may be a tad bit ambitious.

My advice:

- browse grammar articles on Wikipedia - especially treating about specific languages
- read WALS - whichever section you find interesting
- create a system and try it out in translation - then modify it if you have trouble expressing a given thought in the language
- don't be afraid to revise - some people here have been working on one or a few projects for years and years; Tolkien sure did it that way
- accept that your first attempts will likely suck and that it is normal
- don't expect anyone else to do your conlanging for you; you're much more likely to get valuable responses if you have a specifi idea in mind - it's hard to tell you 'about verbs' - there's just too much to talk about

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Davush
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Re: naturalistic Verbs... help!

Post by Davush » 19 Dec 2016 22:20

Postpositions and prepositions are up to you, but there is a tendency for object-verb languages (like Japanese) to use postpositions and verb-object languages to use prepositions (like English). This isn't set in stone though.

Some ideas you could consider for a verbal system:
-Person. Do you want verbs to inflect for person, such as how Spanish has a separate inflection for each person?
-Number agreement. Do you want verbs to show number? Some languages have verbs which only inflect for number, not person.
-Tense. Do you want to include tense distinctions on your verbs? You might also want to consider..->
-Aspect. This is often conflated with tense, but some languages mark aspect but not tense. An example would be if a language has an imperfective aspect, 'I am/was/will be eating' would be expressed by the same form.
-Moods. Imperative? Irrealis? Check wiki for this.
-Politeness. Some languages have separate forms for different politeness levels (Japanese and Korean).

There's also a ton of other stuff you could do, but Wikipedia, WALS and online articles are probably your best bet to see how these work together.

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Frislander
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Re: naturalistic Verbs... help!

Post by Frislander » 20 Dec 2016 16:25

Davush wrote:-Person. Do you want verbs to inflect for person, such as how Spanish has a separate inflection for each person?
Further to that, which argument(s) does your verb inflect for? Does is only mark a subject, an object, either or both? Does it mark indirect objects (and if so, in ditransitives does it marks these instead of direct objects)? Does the marking follow a nominative-accusative pattern, and ergative-absolutive pattern, an active-stative pattern, a hierarchical pattern, a tripartite pattern, or something else entirely?

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GrandPiano
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Re: naturalistic Verbs... help!

Post by GrandPiano » 23 Dec 2016 03:16

It's also an option to not have your verbs inflect at all; many East Asian languages, including the Chinese languages, do this (Mandarin uses auxiliary verbs and particles rather than verb inflection to indicate aspectual distinctions).
:eng: - Native
:chn: - B2
:esp: - A2
:jpn: - A2

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Creyeditor
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Re: naturalistic Verbs... help!

Post by Creyeditor » 24 Dec 2016 01:33

You can also use verbal chains, serial verbs or other multi verb constructions. Some language use these to express nuances that are expressed via different means in other languages. Hypothetical example
Fetch = go-take-come
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