Kaáràn̠

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Shemtov
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Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 10 Mar 2019 20:49

Kaáràn̠ was the language of the Kaára, a loose confederation of tribes that used to live in Southeast Fuhe.

Phonology:
/t̪~d̪ tʳ~dʳ ʈ~ɖ t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ k~g/ <t tr t̠ c k>
/m n ɳ ɲ/ <m n n̠ ñ>
/ʰm~mʱ ʰn~nʱ ʰɳ~ɳʱ ʰɲ~ɲʱ/ <hm hn hn̠ hñ>
/ɸ~β s~z ʃ~ʒ x~ɣ xʷ~w/ <f s x h w>
/r/ <r>
/l ɭ j / <l l̠ y>

/i u e o ɛ ɔ a/ <i u e o ɛ ɔ a>
/i: u: e: o: a:/ <ii uu ee oo aa>
/ai au/ <ai au>

/V́ V̄ V̀ V̌: V̂:/ <V́ V V̀ VV́ VV̀>

The voiced allophones occur intervocally.
Phonotactics: (C)V(C)
Permitted finals:
/m n ɳ ɲ t ʈ k l ɭ/

There is little inflectional morphology, the exception being the genitive, and the passive. The former will be discussed here, as it is the suffix n̠à. This has an allomorph if the noun ends in a short high or mid-tone vowel, in which case the tone is lowered, and the suffix is -n̠.

Kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠
"The chief's hand"

Sentences are SOV, with the object taking the postclitic fiì

Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì loontaá
"The foreigner cut off the chief's hands"
Note that plurality is formed by full reduplication

The language does not have tense but has aspect, which are postclitics on the verb.
Continoius: ∅
Habitual: Wá
Perfective: Hmɛk
Repetitive: Xaì
Experetial: Ñò

Kɛ̀l̠aá yaìn̠-fiì rahñu
"The cheif drinks wine"

Kɛ̀l̠aá yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-wá
"The cheif often drinks wine

Kɛ̀l̠aá yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-hmɛk
"The king has drunk wine"

Kɛ̀l̠aá yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-xaì
"The chief keeps drinking wine"

Kɛ̀l̠aá yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-ñò
"The chief has had the expirience of drinking wine"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 12 Mar 2019 01:25

There is a set of Postclitics that attach to nouns that mark neither Subject nor Object nor Locative (to be discussed in a later post) roles.
Indirect object: T̠at

Rahuùl̠ yaìn̠-fiì oótrɛ-t̠at añɛ̀-xaì
"The foreigner keeps giving the boy wine"

For the sake of: Huú
Rahuùl̠ ɛ́ma-fiì oótrɛ-t̠at hɔt-xaì
"The foreigner keeps eating bread for [ie. because] the boy [wants him to]"

Instrument: Hn̠an̠
Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì fɛ́kaà-hn̠an loontaá
"The foreigner cut off the chief's hands with an axe"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 13 Mar 2019 18:55

Pronouns:
1P: Wɔ̀
2P. Ñuú
3P. Icuú

Wɔ̀ yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-ñò
"I have had the expirience of drinking wine"

Rahuùl̠ yaìn̠-fiì wɔ̀-t̠at añɛ̀-xaì
"The foreigner keeps giving me wine"

They can be pluralized with the quantifier ówɛl. Note that this use does not require measure words, like most quantifiers.

Wɔ̀ ówɛl yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-ñò
"We have had the experience of drinking wine"

Postclitics come after the quantifier:
Rahuùl̠ yaìn̠-fiì wɔ̀ ówɛl-t̠at añɛ̀-xaì
"The foreigner keeps giving us wine"

Polar questions are formed by moving the verb to the left of the last arguement:
Rahuùl̠ yaìn̠-fiì añɛ̀-xaì ñuú-t̠at
"Does the foreigner keep giving thee wine?"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 14 Mar 2019 00:17

Temporal deixis is marked at the begining of the utterance, if marked. This is done by having a time word followed by the deictic marker. Using Yaúm "Day" as our time word, the following are used:
Yaúm caì- Today
Yaúm hmal̠- Yesterday
Yaúm ɔ́waá- Tommorow

Yaúm hmal̠ wɔ̀ yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-ñò
"Yesterday I first drank wine"

Yaúm ɔ́waá wɔ̀ yaìn̠-fiì rahñu-ñò
"Tommorow, I will drink wine for the first time"

The neutral time word ɔ́sámaàn̠ is used to express past, present and future:
ɔ́sámaàn̠ hmal̠ rahuùl̠ yaìn̠-fiì wɔ̀ ówɛl-t̠at añɛ̀-xaì
"In the past, the foreigner kept giving us wine"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 14 Mar 2019 20:44

Numbers 1-10:
1. Xɔ́k
2. Hmeè
3. L̠aúl̠
4. Àwaùn
5. Cuúm
6. Mɔ̀ñ
7. Hɛm
8. Áhɛm
9. Cóót̠
10. Xuùm

Numbers require measure words after them, which depend on the status of the noun numbered.
Ñaí-people
Aáhɛl-Natural features
ɛwiím-Cylindrical objects; Insects; Reptiles; Rodents
ɛ̀hmiíl̠-Tools
Hnòò- Edible animals
Uùsù- Food items

Rahuùl̠ àwaùn ñaí
"Four foreigners"

Nouns can be pluralized by the quantifier ówɛl "many"
Rahuùl̠ ówɛl ñaí
"Foreigners"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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eldin raigmore
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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by eldin raigmore » 15 Mar 2019 04:20

Shemtov wrote:
12 Mar 2019 01:25
There is a set of Postclitics that attach to nouns that mark neither Subject nor Object nor Locative (to be discussed in a later post) roles.
Indirect object: T̠at

Rahuùl̠ yaìn̠-fiì oótrɛ-t̠at añɛ̀-xaì
"The foreigner keeps giving the boy wine"

For the sake of: Huú
Rahuùl̠ ɛ́ma-fiì oótrɛ-t̠at hɔt-xaì
"The foreigner keeps eating bread for [ie. because] the boy [wants him to]"

Instrument: Hn̠an̠
Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì fɛ́kaà-hn̠an loontaá
"The foreigner cut off the chief's hands with an axe"
This foreigner seems not very well-behaved.
Don’t invite him/her back.

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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 15 Mar 2019 23:13

Modal postclitics are attached to verbs, after the aspect postclitic.
Irrealis: -Soò
This is a negative mood, that implies that the statement is untrue. It is also used in the protasis of conditionals (see latter)
Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì fɛ́kaà-hn̠an loontaá-hmɛm-soò
"The foreigner has not cut off the chief's hand."

Hearsay: -Trit̠
This an optional mark that one has only heard of the statement.
Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì fɛ́kaà-hn̠an loontaá-hmɛm-trit̠
"I've heard the foreigner has cut off the chief's hands"

Imperitive: Kaàk
Icuú-fiì aáreèkɔ̀-kaàk
"Kill him!"

Prepositional: Hn̠ó
Icuú-fiì aáreèkɔ̀-hn̠ó
"Let's kill him!"

Realis: L̠éhñá
Marks that their is no question that the event happens. Often used to contridict others' statements. Also used as the apodeisis of conditionals.
Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì fɛ́kaà-hn̠an loontaá-hmɛm-l̠eéhñá
"Indeed, the foreigner has cut off the chief's hand"

The conditional is formed by a protasis in the Irrealis, followed by a ɔ́sámaàn̠ TEMPORAL.DEiXIS.OF.THE.APODEISIS-coó [locative postclitic, then the apodeisis in the Realis.

Rahuùl̠ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yɔt̠-fiì fɛ́kaà-hn̠an loontaá-hmɛm-soò ɔ́sámaàn̠ ɔ́waá-coó wɔ̀ ówɛl icuú-fiì aáreèkɔ̀-l̠eéhñá
"If the foreigner has cut off the chief's hand, we will kill him!"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Kaáràn̠

Post by Shemtov » 20 Mar 2019 01:03

Local Postclitics:
Locative: Hh̠aì
Allative: Isó
Ablative: Xaát̠
Inessive: Xaàt̠
Elative: Uùtììl̠
Illative: Kol
Perlative: Uútííl̠
Superessive: Ocàn̠
Subessive: Kól

Wɔ̀ ɔho-isó l̠aàwɔ̀-hmɛk
"I have gone to ɣø"

Wɔ̀ ɔho-xaát̠ l̠aàwɔ̀-hmɛk
"I have gone out of ɣø"


Wɔ̀ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yuúk-uùtììl̠ l̠aàwɔ̀-hmɛk
"I have gone into the chief's house"

Wɔ̀ kɛ̀l̠aán̠à yuúk-kol l̠aàwɔ̀-hmɛk
"I have gone out of the chief's house"

Wɔ̀ yúkóweè-uútííl̠ l̠aàwɔ̀-hmɛk
"I have gone through town"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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