Proto-O and the O Language

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Linguifex
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Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Linguifex » 30 Nov 2013 06:36

Okay, so this started out as part of the 9-phoneme challenge on the ZBB, and I decided I'd like to throw a language family made out of this into my conworld. Feedback would be much appreciated, especially for those of you with extensive knowledge on PIE and its ablaut.

Phonology
/p t k |N| h j w ʁ e/ p t k {n,m} h j w r e

Allophony
- p t k > pf ts kx / _j
- |N| h j w ʁ > |N̩| a i u a / {C,#}_#
- p t k > β z ɣ / V_V (V in this case can be |N̩|)
- p t k > f s x / _# (I'm thinking about not doing this, however)
- |N| assimilates to the POA of a nearby consonant unless it's intervocalic, between a vowel and a word boundary, or between two /h/s

I'm wanting this to be sort of like Salish in that nouns are more like verbs.

In the main descendant of this language, I want the word for "people, beings" to be o and become the endonym (hence "O Language").

So far I think I have a plural prefix *r, a verb root *w "be conscious", and a "specifier"/deverbal/what-have-you-Salish-type-thing infix *-e-. This yields the proto-form *rwe [ʁwe] "the ones who have consciousness" (> O o "the people"). Without the specifier, the form would be *rw [ʁu] "they have consciousness". Given another root, say *tjk [tsix] "eat", the infixed form would be *tjek "eater". Plural forms would be *rtjk [atsix] "they eat" and *rtjek [atsjex] "eaters".

The *e-infixed words would be used to mark the subject and the benefactive. Roots appearing as a predicate or in object position would not take the *e-infix.

Apophony

I want to include some sort of apophony or ablaut in this language involving transitivity. I'm currently thinking perhaps *Ø ~ *j ~ *h for intransitive, transitive, and transitive with a dative/benefactive argument:

*nr [na] "play, exercise" ~ *njr [nja] "play (a game), exercise (a muscle)" ~ *nhr [naʁ] "play (a game) for s.o., exercise for s.o./s.th." (e.g., an army)
*kwn [kun] "go to the market" ~ *kjwn [k͜xjun] "buy (s.th.)" ~ *hkwn [aɣun] "buy (s.th., for s.o.)" (note the metathesis)
*wt [us] "sing" ~ *jwt [jus] "sing (s.th.)" ~ *hwt [hus] "sing (s.th.) for s.o."

Certain verbs (such as *e "exist") can take the transitive affixes with slightly shifted semantic meanings (cf. how "disappear" in English can be used transitively to make a causative: He disappeared him):

*e [e] "exist" ~ *je [je] "build" ~ *he [he] "build s.th. for s.o." (I'm not sure how to handle the *e-infix with verbs with a native *e in them; any ideas?)

Numbers
*tn [tn̩] "zero"
*wr [wa] "one"
*trkh [taɣa] "two"
*jn [jn̩] "three"
*wrt [uʁs] "four"
*tje [t͜sje] "five"
*rh [ʁa] "six"
*rhtn [ʁazn̩] "seven"
*rhwr [ahuʁ] "eight"
*rhtrkh [ʁazaɣa] "nine"
*rhjn [ahin] "ten"
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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by DesEsseintes » 30 Nov 2013 10:29

Looks interesting. Personally, I'm highly partial to a bit of valency apophony (Nınuıntı and Meyyın both feature it), and your infixes bring about some weird stuff, so yeah, fun. [:)]

However, your conpeople do seem to have some catching up to do when it comes to arithmetic.
*tn [tn̩] "zero"
*rh [ʁa] "six"
*rhtn [ʁazn̩] "seven"

Which leads me to believe that in your conculture 6 + 0 = 7, which could have some pretty serious consequences.

Oh, and I love the word o for people. Why didn't I think of that?

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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Ear of the Sphinx » 30 Nov 2013 14:41

Proto-O and the O Language
Does it somehow relate to the "Story of O"? [}:D]

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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Linguifex » 01 Dec 2013 02:50

DesEsseintes wrote:Looks interesting. Personally, I'm highly partial to a bit of valency apophony (Nınuıntı and Meyyın both feature it), and your infixes bring about some weird stuff, so yeah, fun. [:)]
:D
However, your conpeople do seem to have some catching up to do when it comes to arithmetic. [snip] Which leads me to believe that in your conculture 6 + 0 = 7, which could have some pretty serious consequences.
*facepalm* Thanks for the catch. I've also realized I screwed up the surface forms of some of the other numbers. So, revised number list:
Linguifex wrote:*tn [tn̩] "zero"
*wr [wa] "one"
*trkh [taɣa] "two"
*jn [jn̩] "three"
*wrt [was] "four"
*tje [t͜sje] "five"
*rh [ʁa] "six"
*rhwr [ʁawa] "seven"
*rhtrkh [ʁazaɣa] "eight"
*rhjn [ahin] "nine"
*rhwrt [rawas]"ten"
*rhtje [ratsje] "eleven"
*trkhrh [taɣaʁa] "twelve"
Oh, and I love the word o for people. Why didn't I think of that?
:D
Milyamd wrote:
Proto-O and the O Language
Does it somehow relate to the "Story of O"? [}:D]
No. I just thought it'd be cool for a people group to just call themselves "O".

Roots with no nucleus
Certain roots, including all roots with no resonant (such as *kp "twist, bend, contort") take an epenthetic /e/ in the intransitive. Certain roots with resonants do as well, though this is not very common. These will be denoted with a (e)*k(e)p, *h(e)k "sniff at, smell".

*kep ~ kjp ~ khp
*hek ~ hik ~ hhp

The *-e- infix in roots with *e
In a root with native *e the *-e- infix takes the variant form *-j-.

*je (no infix) ~ *jej (infixed form)

Multisyllabic roots
Multisyllabic roots have the apophony applied to the final syllable of the root.

*teknt "dig" ~ *tekjnt "dig (s.th.) (up)" ~ *tekhnt "dig (s.th.) for (s.o.)"

Okay, on to tenses.

Tenses
There are four tenses, the prefixes appearing after the plural-subject marker (if applicable):
*w- distant past (typically more than a generation or two before)
*h- recent past
*Ø- present
*jp- future

A couple of examples:

*wre [uʁe] "they existed (long ago)" ~ *hre [aʁe] "they existed" ~ *re [ʁe] "they exist" ~ *jpre [ipʁe] "they will exist"
*ww [wu] "he was conscious (long ago)" (also used as a euphemism for "he died") ~ *hw [hu] "he was conscious" ~ *w "he is conscious" ~ *jpw [ivu] "he will be conscious"
*wnr [una] "he played (long ago)" ~ *hnʁ [ana] "he played" ~ *nr [na] "he plays" ~ *jpnr [ipna] "he will play"
*wkjwn [ukxjun] ~ *hkjwn [akxjun] ~ *kjwn ~ *jpkjwnj [ipkxjun]
*whwt [uhus] ~ *hhwt [ahus] ~ *hwt [hus] ~ *jphwt [iphus]

Object-marking
Object-markers typically are suffixes.

*-r 1sg
*-wn 2sg
*-h 3sg alive
*-k 3sg nonliving
*-tj 1pl
*-pw 2pl
*-nk 3pl alive
*-he 3pl nonliving

The same markers are used for marking both the direct object and the dative/benefactive, the suffixes appearing in that order.

*rhektj [ahektsi] "they built it for me"
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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Linguifex » 07 Dec 2013 08:46

Some tweaks to the sound changes:

j > Ø / C_V
N̩ > on / _#
N̩ > o / else
pf ts kx > f s x
Vɣ > Vː
Two like vowels (lengths can be different) in hiatus drop one
we weː > o oː
o(ː) > u(ː) / ! ʁ_
i(ː) u(ː) > iə uə
aj aːj ej eːj > e eː i iː
i(ː) u(ː) > e(ː) o(ː) / ʁ_
β z > β~w ɾ
k h > q χ / _ʁ
k h > q χ / ʁ_
j > ʒ > z
i u > j w / _V
i u > j w / V_
wa > wo
aː eː iː oː uː > ɛə ej aj ow aw
ɛə iə uə > ɛ~ə ɨ ə
j > Ø / _w
w > Ø / _j
Glides break up hiatus; glides are /w/ between two central vowels, the POA of a non-central vowel adjacent to a central vowel, or the POA of the first vowel
a > ɛ / ! ʁ_
ʁ > Ø
aj aw > ae ao
Vh > Vː / _{#,C}
Vh > Vːj / _E
Vh > Vːw / _B
h > Ø / C_V
kBG xBG qBG χBG > kʷ xʷ qʷ χʷ (G here is one of h,w,j)
x xʷ > ː {w,ɥ} / E_#
Two plosives assimilate to the second

Okay, let's take a look at the week's Lexember vocabulary as reflected in O (again, haven't run these through an actual SCA, this is just by-eyeing it):

Lexember 1*hjt [his] "be a parent" > his ⟨his⟩ (pl. ɛːjis ⟨è:yis⟩)

Derived terms:
- *hjjt [hjis] "beget, father, mother" > his ⟨his⟩
- *hjet [hjes] "parent" > hes ⟨hes⟩
- *rhjet [ʁajes] "parents" > eːs ⟨e:s⟩

Lexember 2*kwr [kwa] "be male" > kwo ⟨kwo⟩

Derived terms:
- *kwer [kweʁ] "man, male" > kwo ⟨kwo⟩ (pl. ɛkwo ⟨èkwo⟩)
- *kjwr [kxjuʁ] "become a man; make a man out of s.o." > xo ⟨go⟩ (pl. ɛxo ⟨ègo⟩)
- *hkwr [aɣwa] "make a man out of s.o." > ɛwo~əwo ⟨ëwo⟩

Lexember 3*knwr [kn̩wa] "be friendly, (be a) friend" > kʷo ⟨ḳo⟩

Derived terms:
- *knwer [kn̩weʁ] "friend" > kʷo ⟨ḳo⟩ (pl. ɛjowo~əwowo ⟨ëjowo~ëwowo⟩)
- *knhwr [kn̩hwa] "brown-nose (for some reason)" > kʷwo ⟨ḳwo⟩

Lexember 4*hkw (metathesized form *khw) [aɣu] "be married" > ɛːw~əːw ⟨ëw⟩

Derived terms:
- *hkew [aɣew] (pl. *rkhew [akhew]) "spouse" > ɛːw~əːw ⟨èw⟩ (pl. akiw ⟨akiw⟩)
- *khhw [kahu] "be married to (s.o.)" > kɛːwə ⟨kè:wơ⟩
- *hkjw [ak͜xju] "marry (two people)" > ɛxə ⟨ègơ⟩
- *hkjew [ak͜xjew] (pl. *rkhjew [akhjew]) "justice of the peace, minister, one who conducts marriages" > ɛxew ⟨ègew⟩ (pl. akzew ⟨akzew⟩)
- *jphkew [iβaɣew] "betrothed, fiancé(e), one engaged to be married" > ɨβɛjew~ɨβəjew ⟨ưvëyew⟩ (pl. eβɛjew~eβəjew ⟨evëyew⟩)

Lexember 5*hk [ax] (transitive form *hjk [hix]) "adopt, raise as one's own; vouch (for), support" > ɛː ⟨è:⟩, hɨx ⟨hưg⟩

Derived terms:
- *hek [hex] "adoptive parent; sponsor" > heː ⟨heg⟩
- *hhk [hax] "look after/raise someone's child for them/in their stead" > hɛː ⟨hèg⟩

Lexember 6*hrwk [hʁux] "be ashamed" > χox ⟨xog⟩

Derived terms:
- *hrwjk [hawix] "disown" > hɛwɨx ⟨hèwưg⟩
- *hrwhk [hawax] "disown (s.o.) for X reason" > hɛwox ⟨hèwog⟩

Lexember 7*tj [tsi] "(be a) slave" > sɨ ⟨sư⟩

Derived terms:
- *tej [tej] "slave" > ti ⟨ti⟩ (pl. aɾi ⟨ari⟩)
- *tjj [tsji] "enslave" > sɨ ⟨sư⟩ (pl. asɨ ⟨asư⟩)
- *tjej [tsjej] "slave-driver" > si ⟨si⟩ (pl. asi ⟨asi⟩)
- *htj [atsi] "raid for slaves, go to war for slaves" > ɛsɨ ⟨èsư⟩ (pl. asɨ ⟨asư⟩)
- *htjej [atsjej] "slaver, slave merchant, slave trader" > ɛsi ⟨èsi⟩ (pl. asi ⟨asi⟩)
- *htej [azej] "former slave" > ɛɾi ⟨èri⟩ (pl. aɾi ⟨ari⟩)
- *iptej [iptej] "prisoner of war" > ɨtːi ⟨ưtti⟩ (pl. etːi ⟨etti⟩)
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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Linguifex » 09 Dec 2013 07:45

O gets a sisterlang! These sound changes are preliminary. I'm not quite sure if I'm satisfied or not w.r.t. the abundance of long vowels that result. Also, how probable is a contrast between /Vw Vj/ and /Vʊ Vɪ/ (as this plays into the sound changes a bit)?

j > Ø / C_V
N̩ > an / _#
N̩ > a / else
V > Vː / in open syllables
pf ts kx > f s x
{a,e}(ː)ʁ(h) i(ː)ʁ(h) u(ː)ʁ(h) > aʊ eʊ oʊ
Vj Vw > Vɪ Vʊ / _{C,#} (creating open syllables)
aː iː uː > ɐː eː oː / _#
a(ː) i(ː) u(ː) > ɐ(ː) e(ː) o(ː) / _N

(Again, these are all by eye, not by sound-change program:)

tn̩ > tan
wa > wɐː
taɣa > taːɣɐː
jn̩ > jan
was > was
se > seː
ʁa > ʁɐː
ʁawa > ʁaːwɐː
ʁazaɣa > ʁaːzaːwɐː
ahin > aːhen
ʁawas > ʁaːwas
ʁatsje > ʁaseː
taɣaʁa > taːɣaːʁɐː
ʁajes > ʁaːjes
kn̩wa > koːwɐː
kn̩weʁ > kaːwaʊ
aɣew > aːɣeʊ
iβaɣew > iːβaːɣeʊ
atsjej > aseɪ

----

β > ʊ / near a back vowel (does not include /a(ː)/
β > b / else
n > ɾ / V_V (applies across word boundaries)
Vn > V[+nas]
S h > N ŋ / _V[+nas]
S > N / _N
Vɣ > Vːʊ
a > e / _j

tn̩ > tan > nãn
wa > wɐː > wɐː
taɣa > taːɣɐː > taːʊɐː
jn̩ > jan > jãn
was > was > was
se > seː > seː
ʁa > ʁɐː > ʁɐː
ʁawa > ʁaːwɐː > ʁaːwɐː
ʁazaɣa > ʁaːzaːwɐː > ʁaːzaːwɐː
ahin > aːhen > aːŋẽn
ʁawas > ʁaːwas > ʁaːwas
ʁatsje > ʁaseː > ʁaseː
taɣaʁa > taːɣaːʁɐː > taːʊaːʁɐː
ʁajes > ʁaːjes > ʁejes
kn̩wa > koːwɐː > koːwɐː
kn̩weʁ > kaːwaʊ > kaːwaʊ
aɣew > aːɣeʊ > aːʊeʊ
iβaɣew > iːβaːɣeʊ > iːbaːʊeʊ
atsjej > aseɪ > aseɪ

----

f s x > v z ɣ / V_V
aɪ aːɪ e(ː)ɪ eʊ iʊ aʊ eːʊ iːʊ aːʊ > e eː əɪ ø y o øː yː oː
wɐ(ː) > wo(ː)
ɐː eː oː > əɪ e o / _#
aː ɐː eː iː oː uː > ɔa̯ əɪ i aɪ u aʊ
ɐ > ə
V[+nas] > V[-nas]

tn̩ > tan > nãn > nan
wa > wɐː > wɐː > wu
taɣa > taːɣɐː > taːʊɐː > toːəɪ
jn̩ > jan > jãn > jan
was > was > was > was
se > seː > seː > se
ʁa > ʁɐː > ʁɐː > ʁəɪ
ʁawa > ʁaːwɐː > ʁaːwɐː > ʁɔa̯wəɪ
ʁazaɣa > ʁaːzaːwɐː > ʁaːzaːwɐː > ʁɔa̯zɔa̯wu
ahin > aːhen > aːŋẽn > ɔa̯ŋen
ʁawas > ʁaːwas > ʁaːwas > ʁɔa̯was
ʁatsje > ʁaseː > ʁaseː > ʁɔa̯se
taɣaʁa > taːɣaːʁɐː > taːʊaːʁɐː > tuɔa̯ʁəɪ
ʁajes > ʁaːjes > ʁejes > ʁɔa̯jes
kn̩wa > koːwɐː > koːwɐː > kuwə
kn̩weʁ > kaːwaʊ > kaːwaʊ > kɔa̯wo
aɣew > aːɣeʊ > aːʊeʊ > uø
iβaɣew > iːβaːɣeʊ > iːbaːʊeʊ > aɪbuø
atsjej > aseɪ > aseɪ > azəɪ

----

o > u / ! K_, _K
ɔa̯ > ə / {ʁ,ŋ}_
ɔa̯ > o
{ø,y} > ʏ̯ / V_
ø > e
V{j,w}V(ɪ,ʏ,ʊ) > Vː(ɪ,ʏ,ʊ)
i u > e o / ʁ_
KBG > Kʷ
ʁ > ɣ (> x / #_)
N > Ø / _#

tn̩ > tan > nãn > nan > na
wa > wɐː > wɐː > wu > wu
taɣa > taːɣɐː > taːʊɐː > toːəɪ > toːɪ
jn̩ > jan > jãn > jan > ja
was > was > was > was > was
se > seː > seː > se > se
ʁa > ʁɐː > ʁɐː > ʁəɪ > xəɪ
ʁawa > ʁaːwɐː > ʁaːwɐː > ʁɔa̯wəɪ > xəːɪ
ʁazaɣa > ʁaːzaːwɐː > ʁaːzaːwɐː > ʁɔa̯zɔa̯wu > xəzəː
ahin > aːhen > aːŋẽn > ɔa̯ŋen > əŋe
ʁawas > ʁaːwas > ʁaːwas > ʁɔa̯was > xəːs
ʁatsje > ʁaseː > ʁaseː > ʁɔa̯ze > xəze
taɣaʁa > taːɣaːʁɐː > taːʊaːʁɐː > tuɔa̯ʁəɪ > tuəɣəɪ
ʁajes > ʁaːjes > ʁejes > ʁɔa̯jes > xʷəs
ʁajes > ʁaːjes > ʁejes > ʁejes > xeːs
kn̩wa > koːwɐː > koːwɐː > kuwə > kʷə
kn̩weʁ > kaːwaʊ > kaːwaʊ > kɔa̯wo > kʷo
aɣew > aːɣeʊ > aːʊeʊ > uø > uʏ
iβaɣew > iːβaːɣeʊ > iːbaːʊeʊ > aɪbuø > aɪbuʏ
atsjej > aseɪ > aseɪ > azəɪ > azəɪ
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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Linguifex » 11 Dec 2013 01:57

Final phonology and romanization of O

/m n/ ⟨m n⟩
/p t k kʷ q qʷ/ ⟨p t k ḳ q q̇⟩
/ɸ β~w s z x xʷ χ χʷ h/ ⟨f b s z g ġ x ẋ h⟩
/ɾ/ ⟨r⟩
/w j/ ⟨w y⟩

/a aː ɛ ɛː ɛ~ə ɛː~əː e eː i iː ə əː ɨ ɨː o oː u uː/ ⟨a a: è è: ë ë: e e: i i: ơ ơ: ư ư: o o: u u:⟩
/ae̯ ao̯ ei̯ ou̯/ ⟨áe áo éi óu⟩

The /ɛ~ə ɛː~əː/ are the result of the vowel shift having had different outcomes in different dialects.

I'm also thinking of adding an allophonic process wherein plosives become nasals before another nasal.

----

Numbers from Proto-O to O

*tn [tn̩] "zero" > tun ⟨tun⟩
*wr [wa] "one" > wo ⟨wo⟩
*trkh [taɣa] "two" > tɛ~tə ⟨të⟩
*jn [jn̩] "three" > jun ⟨yun⟩
*wrt [was] "four" > wos ⟨wos⟩
*tje [t͜sje] "five" > se ⟨se⟩
*rh [ʁa] "six" > a ⟨a⟩
*rhwr [ʁawa] "seven" > awo ⟨awo⟩
*rhtrkh [ʁazaɣa] "eight" > ɛɾɛ~ɛɾə ⟨èrë⟩
*rhjn [ahin] "nine" > ɛwɨn ⟨èwưn⟩
*rhwrt [rawas]"ten" > awos ⟨awos⟩
*rhtje [ratsje] "eleven" > ase ⟨ase⟩
*trkhrh [taɣaʁa] "twelve" > tɛjɛ~təje ⟨tëyè⟩

----

Plurals in O

Plurals in O typically work in one of four ways depending on the initial:

- è- is prefixed, triggering an alternation of prevocalic stops (p : v, t : r, èk : ë)
- Vocalization of uvular fricatives (x,ẋ : a)
- A change in the initial vowel (è : a, i : e, u : o, ei : ae, ou : ao)
- Either no change or an affix derived from a demonstrative for other vowel-initial words, not sure which I'll go with (number is often marked in the predicate in Proto-O)

This goes for both nouns and subject-marking on verbs. In Proto-O, the *e-infix was only used on subjects and dative/benefactives; in copular statements the predicate was treated as a verb:

PO *tej kwr "the slave is a male" (Xtej kwer) > O ti kwo (*ti kwe)
PO *rtej rkwr "the slaves are male(s)" > O èri èkwo

----

Verbal argument suffixes in O

To recap the verbal suffixes of Proto-O (I've slightly modified the 3sg-nonliving affix for phonotactic reasons):

*-r 1sg
*-wn 2sg
*-h 3sg alive
*-k(e) 3sg nonliving
*-tj 1pl
*-pw 2pl
*-nk 3pl alive
*-he 3pl nonliving

When only one suffix appears (for the object), the reflexes are as follows.

Following consonants
- The 1sg and 3sg-alive suffix, having merged, are typically when following a consonant, triggering the same stop alternations as mentioned above with the plural (it does not vocalize uvular fricatives).
- The 2sg suffix is typically -ưn and triggers the same lenitions.
- The 3sg-nonliving affix is -ke; a preceding plosive or voiceless fricative assimilates to the -k- (sơf "strike" > ơsơkke "he struck it").
- The 1pl affix is -sư.
- The 2pl affix is -pơ (-bơ after vowels); a preceding plosive or voiceless fricative assimilates to the -p- (wonès "feed" > wonèppơ "he fed you all").
- The 3pl-alive affix is -og and triggers the same lenitions as the 1sg affix.
- The 3pl-nonliving affix is -e, but does not trigger lenition.
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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Linguifex » 26 Aug 2016 03:47

Syllabification rules

I'm trying to work out the tentative syllabification rules I have for *w *h *r *n *j. I think a close list would be:
  • *w *h *r *n *j retain non-syllabic status immediately adjacent to *e.
  • If *w *h *r *n *j appear in a cluster with one another, and this cluster is adjacent to *e, the second segment from the *e syllabifies.
  • If *w *h *r *n *j appear in a cluster with one another, and this cluster is not adjacent to *e:
    • If the sequence features *n as the second element, and there is no other coda consonant, syllabify the first.
    • If the sequence does not feature *n as the second element, or if there is a coda consonant following *n, syllabification occurs such that the largest legal onset is created, provided that the coda of the same syllable is a maximum of one consonant. A legal onset does not include *h as the second element, nor does it permit a sequence of *hr- in the same syllable.
  • If, after applying the above rules, *h would come second in onset position, it metathesizes with the segment immediately to its left and surfaces as [*h] immediately following *e, and [*a] otherwise. If the latter, syllabification for the previous syllable may need to be adjusted.
Hopefully I didn't mess that up. *h and *n throw wrenches into the system.

The Frequentative

The frequentative is formed in Proto-O by reduplication of the first syllable of the root. If there are two consecutive instances of *e, a glide *j* is inserted between them. This may or may not be an innovation from Proto-Tim Ar-O; I haven't decided yet.

*wt [us] 'sing' > *wtwt [uzus] 'hum a few bars, sing a little'
*kjwn [kjun] 'buy (something)' > *kjwnkjwn [kxjuŋkxjun] 'go to the market'
*hkwn [aɣun] 'buy (something for someone)' > *hkwnhkwn [aɣunaɣun] 'do someone's shopping'
*teknt [teɣn̩s] 'dig' > *teteknt [tezeɣn̩s] 'dig around'
*hjt [hit] 'be a parent' > *hjthjt [hithis] 'pretend to be a parent'
*knwr [knuʁ] 'be friendly' > *knwrknwr [knuʁknuʁ] 'hang out'
*hjk [hix] 'vouch for, support' > *hjkhjk [hikhix] 'make excuses for'
*hrwk [hʁux] 'be ashamed' > *hrwkhrwk [hʁukhʁux] 'be embarrassed'

In contemporary O, these forms would be:

*wt > [əs] ơs
*wtwt > [əɾəs] ơrơs
*kjwn > [xən] gơn
*kjwnkjwn > [xəŋxən] gơngơn
*hkwn > [Ewən] ëwơn
*hkwnhkwn > [EwənEwən] ëwơnëwơn
*teknt > [tejəs] teyơs
*teteknt > [teɾewəs] terewơs
*hjt > [hɨs] hưs
*hjthjt > [hɨtɨs] hưtưs
*knwr > [knə] knơ
*knwrknwr > [knəqnə] knơqnơ
*hjk > [hɨx] hưg
*hjkhjk > [hɨkɨx] hưkưg
*hrwk > [ɛjox] èyog
*hrhrwk > [ɛjao̯x] èyaog
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Re: Proto-O and the O Language

Post by Frislander » 26 Aug 2016 10:15

I love the look of that proto-lang! With reduplication as well! Also, did you look as Shuswap for those syllabification rules?

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