Verbs in your conlang

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Squall
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Verbs in your conlang

Post by Squall » 05 Feb 2014 04:30

How are the verbs in your conlang? What are the tenses, aspects and moods? How do you express them?
Do you use inflection, agglutination and auxiliary verbs?





This is how the verbs are in my conlang. Any criticism is welcome.
I am thinking about replacing auxiliary verbs with prefixes. I do not know agglutinative languages, but I may borrow ideas from them later.
Spoiler:
The verbs
A verb is stative (need, like, know, want) or dynamic (eat, drink, say).

The verb has suffixes.
-Infinitive: -aw
-Gerund (of the subject): -ans (eating)
-Participle of the subject: -aj ('eater')
-Gerund of the object: -ens (being eaten)
-Participle (of the object): -ej (eaten)

There is no passive voice.

Simple tenses
The verb receives suffixes.
-past: -oy (I ate, I have eaten.)
-present: -ay
-future: -ey (I will eat)

In the past, it means a finished action. In the future, it means an expected action. In the present with dynamic verbs, it is used in script, plan, recipe or indirect suggestion.

Habitual
past, present or future

iziaw (auxiliary verb) + verb (infinitive)

The habitual aspect cannot be used with stative verbs. The simple tenses mean habitual with stative verbs.

Progressive/Continuous
past, present or future

seaw (to be) + verb (gerund)

Stative verbs can be used in this aspect. The difference is something similar to Romance esse (seaw) and stare (seaw seans, literally "to be being").

Relative past
past or future (I had eaten. I will have eaten)

aviaw (auxiliary verb) + verb (infinitive, not participle)

The auxiliary verb can be used in the present. It means an action that was started in the past and was not finished yet in the present.

Relative future
past or future

iriaw (auxiliary verb) + verb (infinitive)

The auxiliary verb cannot be used in the present.

Other future
past or present

movoaw (auxiliary verb) + verb (infinitive)

In the past, it means an action that was expected in the past (I was going to eat an apple, but I did not.).
In the present, it means that the subject is prepared to start an action soon or is preparing to start the action as soon as possible.

The auxiliary verb cannot be used in the future.

Inchoative/Cessative
past or future

(auxiliary verb) + verb (gerund)
(auxiliary verb) + adjective (the verb "to be" is not required)

The auxiliary verbs:
-bengiaw: start (start an action; or start being something)
-risneaw: continua (the action still continues, no pause has been done)
-teymiaw: finish (complete an action)
-tospuaw: abort (stop an unfinished action without the intention of resuming it later; or stop being something)
-pawjuaw: pause (pause with the intention of resuming later)
-kontoaw: resume (resume what was paused; or start being something again)

Modal verbs
past, present or future

(modal verb) + verb (infinitive)

The modal verbs:
-poseaw: to be possible to
-probiaw: to be likely to
-kapiaw: to be able to (ability)
-peymuaw: to be allowed to (permission)
-bligeaw: to be obliged to (obligation)
-denfeaw: to be prohibited to (prohibition)
-neseaw: to need to (it is a good solution, but there is other solutions)
-rekiaw: to need to (it is the only solution)
-remoaw: to be recommended to
-eskeaw: to be expected to

Imperative
The verb receives suffixes.
-Singular you: -ew
-Inclusive we: -on
-Plural you: -ews

Subjunctive
There is no explicit subjunctive mood. They are replaced with other ways. Conjunctions and adverbials will help.

-I wish I was rich. -> I wish I am rich.
-I want that you bring me food. -> I want that you bring (simple present) me food

Conditional
-If he were here, he would help. -> If he is here, he helps (simple present).
-If he had helped, the result would have been good. -> If he had helped, the result was good.
-If I find the answer, I will tell you. -> If I will find the answer, I will tell you.

Other moods
There is no other mood. They are replaced with other ways. Verbs and adverbials will help.
The optative mood is expressed with something like "I want that...".
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

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Ahzoh
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Ahzoh » 05 Feb 2014 04:33

Being a triconsonantal root language, verb roots are placed in stems that inflect for aspect tense and number (singular plural)

I have a lot of aspects and mood...
got 7 aspects and 9 moods.
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IlL
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by IlL » 05 Feb 2014 06:37

Themsaran (mostly agglutinative/quasi-polysynthetic, the subject/TAM affixes are fusional and tonal):

*Agreement: There's at least [singular, dual, plural] X [1, 1+2, 2, 3] agreement in both subject and object. Agreement is with pronominal enclitics/suffixes for pronominal indirect object, or if there is none, with the definite direct object. (definite DO agreement not required in imperatives/prohibitives/poetry)
*Voices: [Active, mediopassive (used for impersonal statements regardless of transitivity, and for involuntary events.)] X [... causative, applicative (various prefixes for applicative role, plus a suffix)]
*Tense-aspects: [present, past imperfective, past perfective, future] X [..., inceptive, continuative, cessative]
*Moods: indicative, imperative, jussive (optative/hortative, but also occurs plenty in relative clauses/indirect quotes of imperatives/"what should be done" questions/etc. so it effectively just means "should VERB". I forgot, for prohbitions too), subjunctive (doubtful/hearsay/result of contrary to fact conditional), mirative (new information to speaker). Subjunctive and mirative indicated by dupli-prefix consisting of first and last consonants of the root.

Non-finite forms (FYI possessor suffixes are similar to object suffixes.):
*1st infinitive whose possessor is the subject (for deranked ways of saying things like time, purpose and reason)
*2nd infinitive whose possessor is the object ("absolute" clauses, some verbs).
*Active (possessor is object) and passive (possessor is agent) participles for each tense-aspect.

Sorry I used too many parentheses. Gotta go to sleep.
Last edited by IlL on 05 Feb 2014 17:52, edited 1 time in total.

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Corphishy
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Corphishy » 05 Feb 2014 16:56

In Vúase, there's only technically 2 tenses: past and present. Future tense is seen as a kind of mood rather than a tense, and is marked by having the present form of the verb+the particle "naú." Of course, the rule of having the suffix for the verb get tacked onto the mood particle or adverb still applies, so the imperfect/imperfective aspect would be "naún" and the perfect/perfective would be "naúm."
Speaking of, there are 3 aspects: simple, imperfect/imperfective and perfect/perfective. They are marked as follows:
Image
(the *s are there so that Excell wouldn't try to format it but i figured out how to make it not do that the day after so bluh)
The moods are:
Mir: optative
Ni: conditional
Taú: imperative
As: potential
Aú: interrogative
There's also 'il' used as a negative, and is treated as a mood particle also.
Aszev wrote:A good conlang doesn't come from pursuing uniqueness. Uniqueness is usually an effect from creating a good conlang.
Vuase: A thinking man's conlang
(used to be Bulbichu22)

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Chagen
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Chagen » 05 Feb 2014 17:11

Sunbyaku: Verbs are moderately inflecting. They take person (3 persons, 2 numbers), negative, and tense (past-tense only) suffixes. The past tense suffixes have fused negative forms. Verbs also inflect into conjunctive forms for sequences of action, a gerund (positive and negative) that works as a nominal and as the argument of several different kinds of particles, and a construct form that's used for linking verbs together. Voice is indicated through suffixing auxiliary verbs.

There are four kinds of verbs: Internals, Externals, Odd Externals, and Statives. Internals inflect with altering a vowel at the end of a root (usually (C)VC) and suffixing on affixes. The others don't use vowel alternation. An example of a few forms using the internal verb makarī "to walk", stem mak-:

makaji: I walk
makunji: I walked
makejiro: I don't walk
makureji: I didn't walk

makarī: gerund, the act of walking
makero: neg.gerund, the act of not walking
makur: positive conjunctive
makō-: construct


Heocg: Verbs are highly inflected, but take no person marking at all. Almost all verbs are monosyllabic. Verbs take obligatory tense marking (past, present, future), either through suffixes or internal vowel ablaut (gem "run" gom "ran" gum "will run). They also take voice marking (middle and passive), negative marking, and necessatative marking.

Verbs have a gigantic amount of deverbal/non-finite forms. They each have 9 participles for every voice/tense combination, as well as 9 infinitives. An example using the internal ablauting verb męt "to eat"

męt, mǫt, mųt: eat, ate, will eat
mętayu, mǫtayu, mųtayu: don't eat, didn't eat, wont eat
męttya, mǫttya, mųttya: is eaten, was eaten, will eat

mętų
mętom
mętoras

mǫtų
mǫtom
mǫtoras

mųtų
mųtom
mųtoras

^ The nine infinitives

mętirom
mętikų
mętið

mǫtirom
mǫtikų
mǫtið

mųtirom
mųtikų
mųtið

^ The nine participles

That's just a basic overview.
Nūdenku waga honji ma naku honyasi ne ika-ika ichamase!
female-appearance=despite boy-voice=PAT hold boy-youth=TOP very be.cute-3PL
Honyasi zō honyasi ma naidasu.
boy-youth=AGT boy-youth=PAT love.romantically-3S

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k1234567890y
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by k1234567890y » 05 Feb 2014 17:23

Lonmai Luna/Liunan:

As of the current version, the verb itself doesn't inflect, TAM is marked with particles, adverbs, etc, and tense marks are not obliged.

----

Nevotak:

there are no inflections for verbs, TAM is marked with aux verbs, adverbs, etc. there's currently no tense mark, the time of an event is expressed by using time words like "today", "yesterday", "three days ago".

----

Sakawi:

Like many languages, Sakawi verbs inflect for TAM, TAM marks of Sakawi are shown below:

Aspect:
-Perfect aspect:-il

Mood:
-Indicative:-ak/-ek
-Subjunctive:-og/-eg
-Imperative-Hortative:-uk/-ik
-Conditional:-ongk/-engk

Tense:
-Present:-i
-Past I(for nearer past):-ir
-Past II(for further past):-ia/-ie
-Future:-os/-es

Sakawi verbs also agree with their agents, patients and indirect objects for person and number:

Image

There are also causative and negative suffixes for verbs in Sakawi:

-Negation I(used with imperative):-min
-Negation II(used in all other situations):-mos/-mes

Causative(used as both a derivative and inflectional suffix):-ot/-et

also, there are infinitive and gerund forms:

Infinitive:-an/-en

Gerund:-a/-e

the last non-neutral vowel of the stem decides which of the suffixes in a pair should be used.
...

Valosken
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Valosken » 05 Feb 2014 18:52

I work with:
- 3 aspects (Simple/Perfective/Imminent (future version of perfective))
- 5 tenses (Present/Past/Far Past/Future/Far Future
- 3 moods (inflected) (Indicative/Subjunctive/Conditional)
- 3 persons (1st/2nd/3rd)

Each inflection has a base suffix, one that is generally used to mark this grammatical meaning, though other suffixes together can become a little bit fusional. Person/Mood is fusional entirely.
Simple, present and indicative are unmarked.

Infinitive: <-a>

1st Person:
Indicative: -ar ~ If the previous syllable contains /r/, the suffix loses its /r/, becoming <-a>
Subjunctive: -ai
Conditional: -ir

2nd Person:
Indicative: -os
Subjunctive: -il
Conditional: -us
Imperative: -ie

3rd Person:
Indicative: -en
Subjunctive: -ie
Conditional: -ei

Perfective: -ja
Imminent: -ve

Past: -ðe
Far Past: -ka
Future: -en
Far Future: -is

A few examples:
Dremma - Sleep
I have just slept. ~ Dremmarja. [dremm-ar-ja]
Long ago, he would used to sleep. ~ Dremmenka. [dremm-en-ka]
Sleep! ~ Dremmie! [dremm-ie]
You were just about to sleep? ~ Dremmosteve? [dremm-os-te-ve] (-ðe becomes -te to allow a valid cluster).
First, I learned English.
Dann lernte ich Deutsch.
Y ahora aprendo Español.

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Lambuzhao
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Lambuzhao » 05 Feb 2014 19:44

:con: Rozwi-

I work with:
- 2 aspects (Simple/Perfective (Primary/Secondary?) )
- 5 tenses (Present/Future/Imperfect/Aorist/Pluperfect)
- 7 moods (Indicative/Subjunctive/Optative/Imperative/Infinitive/Participial/Gerundive)
3 persons (1st/2nd/3rd)
3 numbers (singular, dual, plural)

Verbs conjugate with suffixes, internal vowel changes, some prefixes, and a few auxiliary verbs.

There are 4 conjugational patterns (which distinguish in the Present, Future and Imperfect Indicative).

I have a Causative prefix /zor/

I have internal vocalic changes for Intransitive-Transitive-Ditransitive distinctions

I have many deponent verbs, which have incomplete conjugations, or
aorist-as-present type conjugations.

Future is a compound tense, with an auxiliary, which originally was separable, but now is basically a bound prefix.

The Aorist is basically extinct in Rozwi.
The Pluperfect has overtaken almost all Preterite/Aorist functions.

Negation is morpheme /nu/ for Indicative,
morpheme /vu/ for Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative
prefix /vu/ for Participial (and Adjectives)

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Yačay256
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Yačay256 » 06 Feb 2014 00:23

Being analytic, Feom doesn't really have any true verbal morphology; in addition, Feom only has about a couple dozen verbal roots - and verbs are a closed word-class, inspired by the Daly Languages, and all other verb phrases are formed through compounding.

With that said, verbals, though morphologically lacking, do have a relatively complex set of particles, though, besides the mandatory trigger-like incorporated auxiliary (Feom's auxiliaries are quite similar to (and inspired by) the Chumashan languages' adjuncts), the rest are all optional (if frequent), including: Associated motion; noun incorporation; classifier incorporation (c.f. Oneida); and a Cantonese-based aspect marking system:

Associated Motion

Several types of associated motion are always optional, and frequently used, on VPs: <Zog> indicates “while coming”, <kól> indicates “while moving about” – regardless of direction, <cú> is for when the action occurs alongside a “going or leaving motion” and <tám> indicates roughly “while being stationary”.

Aspect

Aspect marking adjuncts always terminate the VP when in use.
The aspects include, among others: The habitual <xo>, the durative <ùʻ>, the deliminative <cày>, the inceptive <sèl>, the perfective <reúkp>, the progressive <kán> and the continuous <me>. The continuous is the citation form.

Noun Incorporation (NI)

Noun incorporation takes the root of zero or more objects in a transitive VP and incorporates them into the verb, thus reducing the transitivity of said verb phrase by one per incorporated noun root.

Classifier Incorporation (CLI)

Classifier incorporation always uses an appropriate adjunct root for one or more objects, but, unlike NI, it does not alter the transitivity of the verb.

Auxiliary Incorporation (AuxI)

The trigger auxiliary is mandatory for all verbals with unless either patient or agent incorporation (but not both), in which case the opposite thematic role is assumed to be the trigger unless otherwise marked. In a different form, AuxI may optionally be used to increase the transitivity of a verb by one.
¡Mñíĝínxàʋày!
¡[ˈmí.ɲ̟ōj.ˌɣín.ʃà.βä́j]!
2-POSS.EXCL.ALIEN-COMP-friend.comrade
Hello, colleagues!

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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by clawgrip » 06 Feb 2014 09:52

:con: Himmaswa
Himmaswa is an isolating/analytic language that uses auxiliary verbs. Typically tense is generally not indicated, though there are certain aspect and mood markers that are predominantly used for future or past reference. Verb roots are inherently dynamic, perfect, or stative. They take a number of auxiliaries:

- 2 affirmative/negative auxiliaries
- 3 perfect auxiliaries (simple, experiential, recent)
- 5 imperfect auxiliaries (simple, habitual, participant focus protractive, event focus protractive, gnomic)
- 8 modal auxiliaries (epistemic, evidential, potential, speculative, desiderative, propositive, obligative, necessitative)

Certain auxiliaries take on different meanings depending on the base aspect of the verb root.

:con: Naduta
Naduta uses inflections and adverbial conjuncts. Its verbs also belong to categories (active, frequentative, stative) that influence the meaning of the conjugated aspects. It uses:

- 2 tenses (past, non-past)
- 4 aspects (simple, delimitative, imperfect I, imperfect II).

There is a passive/causative stem and a modal stem. The passive stem turns active transitive verbs into passives, while it turns intransitive verbs into causatives. The modal stem is used for modals (there 5 so far) and temporal morphemes.

:con: Qlfhpfsq
Qlfhpfsq is a language I have revamped multiple times and have recently picked up again. It is spoken by an intelligent insectoid species.

The verb phrase is divided into three obligatory core segments (positional particle, coverb, base verb) plus an obligatory peripheral segment (directional phrase).

Positional particles indicate:
- 4 positional states (in the air, on the ground, moving upward, moving downward)

Coverbs generally indicate something like the intent, purpose, or type of action. They conjugate for:
- 2 purposive moods (done in service of others, not done in service of others)

Anything not clearly done in service of others is explicitly marked as such, e.g. acts done for the benefit of oneself, involuntary or naturally occurring actions, accidents, or events of unknown purpose.

Base verbs indicate the manner or basic type of action. They conjugate for:
- 2 focus states (agent, patient)
- 3 tenses (past, present, future)
- 5 aspects (imperfect, perfect, inchoative, cessative, durative, gnomic/habitual)
- 6 moods (indicative, potential, necessitive, deductive, speculative, imperative)
- 5 persons (1.sg, 1.pl, 2, 3.prox, 3.obv)

This species is extremely adept at geometry and spatial orientation, and the language incorporates a directional phrase at the beginning of every clause to indicate the direction of the verb. By default, directionality and orientation are stated in reference to the position of the sun, but a different landmark may be specified when something more salient exists or the sun is absent or not visible. There are twelve basic directions, and an additional 24 directions exist when more precision is required or expected. There are also omnidirectional, non-directional, and unknown markers. Formal or technical language may also indicate the position of the sun itself within the directional phrase.

I need to consolidate my notes and make a definite outline of the verb phrase, because it's spread out over the whole clause and pretty confusing.

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atman
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by atman » 06 Feb 2014 18:53

A (necessarily) quick survey of the Atlántiqa verb:

The Atlántiqa verbal system is (very [:'(] ) complex. Finite verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect and mood. Infinitives (verbal nouns) and participles (verbal adjectives that can be nominalized without any marking) are also present, and used extensively.

Finite verbs are usually found at the end of simple sentences (Atlántiqa has unmarked SOV order), but syntactical reshufflings for emphasis or other purposes are quite common. In these cases any word order is legal, but they may not be semantically equivalent.

Conjugation is synthetic (no use is made of auxiliary verbs like to be, to have etc) and mostly uses suffixes, but also prefixes, partial root reduplication, and root-internal vowel alternations (ablaut).

Finite verbs are conjugated according to the following:
- persons (first, second and third)
- numbers (singular and plural)
- tenses (past, present and future)
- aspects (unmarked, resultative, prospective)
- moods (indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative)
- voices (active and mediopassive)

Of course, not all combinations are possible. For instance, the imperative only has second-person forms and present tense; the prospective aspect is only found in the indicative mood; the imperative doesn't distinguish aspect and so on. For historical reasons, the past is typically called aorist.

Verbs are divided in two main classes: thematic and athematic verbs. Thematic ones have a vowel (e or o) between the root and the ending, athematic ones affix the endings directly to the root. Thematic verbs are the vast majority and their conjugation is relatively regular; many historically athematic verbs became thematic over time. Athematic verbs are few, very frequent (ème "I am", stème "I stand" and several others), very irregular and often lack some tenses, aspects and such. Some of the irregular verbs are suppletive: they use different roots to form different moods and tenses.
Երկնէր երկին, երկնէր երկիր, երկնէր և ծովն ծիրանի.

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k1234567890y
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by k1234567890y » 06 Feb 2014 19:09

atman wrote:A (necessarily) quick survey of the Atlántiqa verb:

The Atlántiqa verbal system is (very [:'(] ) complex. Finite verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect and mood. Infinitives (verbal nouns) and participles (verbal adjectives that can be nominalized without any marking) are also present, and used extensively.

Finite verbs are usually found at the end of simple sentences (Atlántiqa has unmarked SOV order), but syntactical reshufflings for emphasis or other purposes are quite common. In these cases any word order is legal, but they may not be semantically equivalent.

Conjugation is synthetic (no use is made of auxiliary verbs like to be, to have etc) and mostly uses suffixes, but also prefixes, partial root reduplication, and root-internal vowel alternations (ablaut).

Finite verbs are conjugated according to the following:
- persons (first, second and third)
- numbers (singular and plural)
- tenses (past, present and future)
- aspects (unmarked, resultative, prospective)
- moods (indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative)
- voices (active and mediopassive)

Of course, not all combinations are possible. For instance, the imperative only has second-person forms and present tense; the prospective aspect is only found in the indicative mood; the imperative doesn't distinguish aspect and so on. For historical reasons, the past is typically called aorist.

Verbs are divided in two main classes: thematic and athematic verbs. Thematic ones have a vowel (e or o) between the root and the ending, athematic ones affix the endings directly to the root. Thematic verbs are the vast majority and their conjugation is relatively regular; many historically athematic verbs became thematic over time. Athematic verbs are few, very frequent (ème "I am", stème "I stand" and several others), very irregular and often lack some tenses, aspects and such. Some of the irregular verbs are suppletive: they use different roots to form different moods and tenses.
is Atlántiqa an Indo-European language?
...

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atman
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by atman » 06 Feb 2014 23:04

k1234567890y wrote:is Atlántiqa an Indo-European language?
Oh yes.
Երկնէր երկին, երկնէր երկիր, երկնէր և ծովն ծիրանի.

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ol bofosh
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by ol bofosh » 07 Feb 2014 10:51

:con: Alahithian

Verb infinitive forms end in -y, -w or -r. They are maked by tense, aspect and the negative. The order of inflection is the following:
Infinitive-tense-(negative)-(aspect)

There are no auxiliaries as such.

They are inflected for tense:
Past -k
Present -t
Future -p

They are also inflected by aspect, which can only go one after the tense markings.
Perfect - unmarked
Perfective -o
Imperfective -a
Prospective -i

ethey - to exist

Perfect
Om etheyk - I existed
Om etheyt - I exist
Om etheyp - I will exist

Perfective
Om etheyko - I had existed
Om etheyto - I have existed
Om etheypo - I will have existed

Imperfective
Om etheyka - I was existing
Om etheyta - I am existing
Om etheypa - I will be existing

Prospective
Om etheyki - I was going to exist
Om etheyta - I am going to exist
Om etheypa - I will be going to exist/I would exist

As you can see, combining prospective and future also gives us the conditional.

The negative, el, can suffix on the infinitive, after the tense and before the aspect (the latter, because of phonotactic restrictions).

etheyel - to not exist
Om etheytel - I don't exist
Om etheytelo - I have not existed
Om etheytela - I am not existing
Om etheyteli - I am not going to exist

:con: Hnaf
My "psychlang". It inflects for volition (complex), affect and evidentiality.

Volition
Volitional - basically something done on purpose
Spontaneous - unconditioned and/or inspired (not accidental though, which goes under "conditioned")
Personal - personal habit, accidental, practiced (and almost automatic) action
Cultural - cultural habit or custom, peer pressure, causal ("he made me")
Natural - something caused by natural forces/inheritance also covers gnomic phrases

Affect: informative, approbative, perjorative

Evidentiality: sensory, inferential, reportative

Volition is marked by ablaut; affect and evidentiality by a suffix. I haven't worked on vocab, so can't give any examples.

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Lao Kou
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Lao Kou » 07 Feb 2014 13:50

Image Géarthnuns:

The verbal complex consists of the auxiliary, most often hot on the heels of the nominative substantive, which marks for:

- Tense/Aspect (present/past/future/transcendent/present perfect/past perfect/future perfect)
- Voice (active/passive/dative passive/causative/causative passive/reflexive/impersonal)

and the verb proper, down at the end of the clause, which marks for:

- Mood (indicative [citation form]/interrogative/speculative/conclusive/imperative/discoursive/hortative)

Despite the rather bare-bones approach to conjugation, I find I can still whip up a pretty honkin' verb chart if need be. [;)]
Last edited by Lao Kou on 23 Mar 2016 12:32, edited 2 times in total.
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名

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ol bofosh
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by ol bofosh » 07 Feb 2014 16:18

Lao Kou wrote:(present/past/future/transcendent/present perfect/past perfect/future perfect)
What does transcendent do?

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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Lao Kou » 07 Feb 2014 16:41

ol bofosh wrote:
Lao Kou wrote:(present/past/future/transcendent/present perfect/past perfect/future perfect)
What does transcendent do?
viewtopic.php?f=9&t=38&start=160#p108435
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名

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ol bofosh
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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by ol bofosh » 07 Feb 2014 20:33

Lao Kou wrote:
ol bofosh wrote:
Lao Kou wrote:(present/past/future/transcendent/present perfect/past perfect/future perfect)
What does transcendent do?
viewtopic.php?f=9&t=38&start=160#p108435
Wicked idea. [:)]

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Re: Verbs in your conlang

Post by Omzinesý » 08 Feb 2014 15:34

Kahichali has a pretty simple tense/aspect system. The imperfective (tense unspecified) is the bare stem. There are several preverbs that express aspect (and sometimes directionality). If the preverb has the high tone, the verb is in the future tense; if it has the low tone, the verb is in the past tense. There are some inchoatives but they are rather derivational than inflectional.

But Kahichali has 5x2x3=30 modal and evidential meanings, expressed by combinations of the mood prefix (necessative, volitional, potential direct evidential and indirect evidential) and the portmanteau morph of personality (personal, impersonal) and megamodality (affirmative, potential and negative).

Kahichali verb is synthetic. It uses both fusional and agglutinative strategies to combine the morphs.

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