The Xioran language

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
Squall
greek
greek
Posts: 583
Joined: 28 Nov 2013 14:47

The Xioran language

Post by Squall » 10 Apr 2014 17:52

This is the language I will use in the Conlang Relay. The entire grammar is in a file with more than 40 pages, but it is written in Portuguese. Since I am lazy to rewrite everything in English, I wrote a simplified version of the grammar.

The language is always being changed with the time, including its own name. It may be very different in the next time. [:D]

Pronouns
They have the same form as subject or object.

1SG: Min
2SG: Tu
1PL: Nos (excludes you)
1PL: Nus (includes you)
2PL: Ves (no matter if the other(s) are present or absent)

Reflexive: Xe (with any person, always object)
Reciprocal: Sin (always object)

Determiners replace the third person pronouns.

The possessive preposition: Den
Use "den + pronoun" to represent possessive pronouns.

Determiners
Nouns are invariable.

You can use the word 'ton' (thing or one) to represent any noun, including humans.
You can omit the noun and use only the determiner with or without adjectives.

There is no definite article, you should use demonstrative pronouns instead.
In each pair, the first one is singular and the second one is plural. Use the singular form with uncountable nouns.
*Tey/Tes: It is used to introduce a new context. It is a pointed object regardless the distance. It is also used to select a specific object ("The book" that is in the shelf...).
*Sey/Ses: Current context "that we are currently talking about". It is also used with known or omnipresent things (the sea, the sky, the world, "the table" in the current room, "the dog" of our house,...)
*Ley/Les: It is used to reintroduce an old context.

Indefinite pronouns:
*No/None: Nen (zero)
*A/an (always singular) - Use the number 'nuyn' (one) instead.
*Some (always plural): nuns (ones)
*Some (neutral): Ryun (It is unknown if it is plural or singular. It is also used with uncountable nouns. It is also used in negative.)
*Only (singular): Loy
*Every/All: Tons

*Other: Row
*Rest: Hays
*Each: Kax
*Same: Zes

Numbers
0 nen ('no' or 'none')
1 nuyn
2 duho
3 triso

4. tetra
5. penta
6. heksa
7. seysi
8. otxu
9. yonna
10. deka
11. envle

The language uses base 12, but it has a way to use base 10.

10. tes
100. sens

12. dos
144. kwas

The numbers have two names:
11 units: nuyn-tes-nuyn or envle
13 units: nuyn-tes-triso or nuyn-dos-nuyn
31 units: triso-tes-unni (3*10 + 1) or duho-dos-seysa (2*12 + 7)

Word order
The adnominals (adjectives, relative clauses) are always placed after the noun that it modifies (right-branching).

In sentences, any word order can be used, but the preferred word orders are SVO, OVS and OSV. Te former is the most common order.
To know the word order, you have to identify a preposition that tells the role of the term. If it is absent, you will need to find the position of the verb and the order will be SVO, OSV or VOS according to the verb position.

There is a special preposition:
Re - It is an optional preposition that precedes the direct object (accusative)

This preposition can also be inserted before the verb.
OVS is created by using any preposition: "O Re VS". The language does not have passive voice with "to be".

If there is only a term besides the verb in a sentence, the term is object or subject.
*The cow ate. (The cow ate something)
*The cow RE ate. (The cow was eaten)
*Ate the cow. (The cow was eaten)
*Re ate the cow. (The cow ate something)

These prepositions below are always used when we have indirect objects, but any order is allowed:
Ax - indirect object of destination (dative)
Ef - indirect object of origin (ablative)

Adverbials
There are prepositions that start global adverbials:
Kus - instrument or method, never commitative.
In - local, time, state.
Len - adverbial, it is followed by an adnominal or an adjective to be transformed into adverbial. (smart -> smartly)

There are adverbials that are inserted after a verb or a adjective to modify them.
Non - Negation
Muyn - Very, much
Fow - Little, few

The negation modifies the word that came before it, including adjectives (non-fast) and prepositions (not with -> without).

Conjunctions
Relative pronoun (used in all cases): kwe
Conjunction to start an inner sentence: das

Verbs
The verbs always have a suffix.
-Infinitive: -aw
-Gerund (of the subject): -ayns (eating)
-Participle of the subject: -owx ('eater')
-Gerund of the object: -eyns (being eaten)
-Participle (of the object): -ewx (eaten)
-Past: -oy
-Present: -ay
-Future: -ey
-Imperative: -oyns

'seaw' is the verb 'to be' and it is irregular in two cases:
-present: se
-past: sos

'seaw' means 'essere/ser', which is the usual state or characteristics.
'seaw seayns' (the verb with its own gerund) means 'stare/estar', which is a temporary state or characteristics.


A verb is classified as stative (need, like, know, want) or dynamic (eat, drink, say).

Simple tenses (past, present, future)
They are used by using simple inflections of the verbs.

In the past, it means a finished action. In the future, it means an expected action.
In the present with dynamic verbs, it is used in script, plan, recipe or indirect suggestion.

Habitual (past, present, future)
izaw (auxiliary verb) + verb (infinitive)

The habitual aspect cannot be used with stative verbs. The simple tenses mean habitual with stative verbs.

Stative after action (past, present, future)
seaw (to be) + verb (participle of the subject)

"I am "learner" the language" is the same as "I know the language".
"The bridge is "crosser" the river" is the same as "The bridge crosses the river".

Progressive/Continuous (past, present, future)
seaw (to be) + verb (gerund of the subject)

Stative verbs can be used in this aspect. The difference is something similar to Romance essere (seaw) and estare (seaw seans, literally "to be being").

Inchoative/Cessative past or future
(auxiliary verb) + verb (gerund)
(auxiliary verb) + adjective (the verb "to be" is not required)

The auxiliary verbs:
-bengaw: start (start an action; or start being something)
-risnaw: continue (the action still continues, no pause has been done)
-teymaw: finish (complete an action)
-tospaw: abort (stop an unfinished action without the intention of resuming it later; or stop being something)
-pawjaw: pause (pause with the intention of resuming later)
-kontaw: resume (resume what was paused; or start being something again)

Vocabulary examples
The vocabulary is not exactly matched to English.

-koyzaw: make something happen
-moyfaw: transform something into another thing, make something become 'adjective'
-prefaw: execute a job, task, action or concept (do, act, perform)
-envaw: invent a new method or recipe that was previously unknown (invent)
-kretaw: create, build or produce something without a known method, accidentally or inventing a new method (create)
-prodaw: create, build or produce something with a known method or recipe (produce, build)
-kanraw: internal wish (I like chocolate and I would want to eat chocolate, but I do not want to eat it, because I do not want to become fat.)
-deysaw: external wish (I want drink the medicine, but I prefer not drinking it, because its taste is terrible.)
-pintxaw: do a reasoning (think)
-indanaw: presume or have an opinion without proof
-konilaw: believe with or without proof
-kapazaw: be able
-pwefaw: have the option of doing something easily, with good will and without spending a long time. (used in requests)
-poysaw: be possible
-peymitaw: allow
-blogaw: oblige
-xepaw: expect
-rencaw: recommend
-netsaw: have the need, have to do
-meaw: go, move oneself (to, from... to out, from down...)
-letxaw: accidentally fail to prevent something from happening
-minraw: be about to do (immediate future)
-putsaw: make something possible

Examples in the conlang's grammar with English words:
-Be_possible that they come. (It is possible that they come. They may come.)
-Expect not that they come. (It is not expected that they come. They should not come.)
-I expect that they come. (I expect that they come.)
-Allow that I go. (It is allowed that I go.)
-She allow that I go. (She allows me to go.)
-Want that they come. (It is wanted that they come. It would be good if they came.)
-I want that they come. (In my opinion, it would be good if they came.)
Last edited by Squall on 27 May 2014 01:14, edited 1 time in total.
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

Squall
greek
greek
Posts: 583
Joined: 28 Nov 2013 14:47

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Squall » 23 May 2014 18:37

I want to use Xing's "dictatorial collab-langing" method to complete the phonemic inventory. [:D]

Current phonemes:
/a i u/
/m n p b t d k g f v s z ʃ ʒ ɾ l/


1. Do you prefer: no stress in the word, stress always in the penultimate syllable, or stress in a non-fixed position?

2. I want to include 'e' and 'o' (both open and closed). Do you prefer /e o/ or /ɛ ɔ/?
The preferred form will be easier to write, because it will not use diacritics or digraphs.

3. What about adding schwa (/ə/)?
Can it be stressed? Or the stressed form should be /ɘ/ or /ɜ/?

4. /x/ or /X/ or both?
If the nat-lang of someone does not have /x/ or /X/, will this person have problems to distinguish both sounds?

5. If /x/ is included, should I also include /ɣ/ and /ŋ/ to make the inventory "more symmetric"?

Thanks.
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

User avatar
Creyeditor
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4608
Joined: 14 Aug 2012 18:32

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Creyeditor » 23 May 2014 19:15

1. stress in a non-fixed position
2. I prefer /e o/
3. no
4. only /x/, but /X/ as an allophone
Creyeditor
"Thoughts are free."
Produce, Analyze, Manipulate
1 :deu: 2 :eng: 3 :idn: 4 :fra: 4 :esp:
:con: Ook & Omlűt & Nautli languages & Sperenjas
[<3] Papuan languages, Morphophonology, Lexical Semantics [<3]

Julanga
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 50
Joined: 19 May 2014 14:30

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Julanga » 24 May 2014 08:00

Squall wrote:1. Do you prefer: no stress in the word, stress always in the penultimate syllable, or stress in a non-fixed position?
Always penultimate.

Squall wrote:2. I want to include 'e' and 'o' (both open and closed). Do you prefer /e o/ or /ɛ ɔ/?
The preferred form will be easier to write, because it will not use diacritics or digraphs.
I prefer proper mid vowels: /e̞ o̞/.

I see no reason why any choice would be harder to write. If you choose /ɛ ɔ/ or /e̞ o̞/ you could still write them "e" and "o".

Squall wrote:3. What about adding schwa (/ə/)?
Can it be stressed? Or the stressed form should be /ɘ/ or /ɜ/?
No /ə/.

Squall wrote:4. /x/ or /X/ or both?
If the nat-lang of someone does not have /x/ or /X/, will this person have problems to distinguish both sounds?
Only /x/.

Squall wrote:5. If /x/ is included, should I also include /ɣ/ and /ŋ/ to make the inventory "more symmetric"?
I have no preference.

User avatar
DesEsseintes
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4740
Joined: 31 Mar 2013 12:16

Re: The Xioran language

Post by DesEsseintes » 24 May 2014 08:32

1. Lexical stress (i.e. non-fixed stress) - preferably with stress shift due to inflection/derivation
2. /ɛ ɔ/ with allophones [e o] in unstressed final position and unstressed closed syllables
3. No schwa; schwas are evil
4. x
5. Yes

Julanga
hieroglyphic
hieroglyphic
Posts: 50
Joined: 19 May 2014 14:30

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Julanga » 24 May 2014 09:53

Squall wrote:2. I want to include 'e' and 'o' (both open and closed). Do you prefer /e o/ or /ɛ ɔ/?
The preferred form will be easier to write, because it will not use diacritics or digraphs.
Oh wait, did you mean that you will have all four of /e ɛ o ɔ/ and you want to know which two will be more common? Then I have no preference, or rather my preference is to have them being equal in frequency.

Also, if you will have all four of /e ɛ o ɔ/ then I change my vote on 3 to include /ə/, and it can be stressed.

Squall
greek
greek
Posts: 583
Joined: 28 Nov 2013 14:47

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Squall » 27 May 2014 01:02

Thanks for the responses.

1. stress in a non-fixed position, but the most common will be penultimate.
2. I will have /e ɛ o ɔ/, but I only have 2 Latin letters. A pair will be written as <e, o> and the other pair will have to use digraph or diacritic. There is a tie here. I will have to use a random choice.
3. No /ə/ in native words, but it will be used in the conversion of some borrowed words.
4. only /x/, but /X/ as an allophone
5. /ɣ/ and /ŋ/ are included

Next:
1. Is /ʃ/ better with <c> or <x>?
2. Do you prefer the distinction between /e ɛ/ with double letters <ee>, with 'h' <eh> or with a diacritic <ê>?
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

User avatar
Lao Kou
korean
korean
Posts: 5702
Joined: 25 Nov 2012 10:39
Location: 蘇州/苏州

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Lao Kou » 27 May 2014 09:11

Squall wrote:3. No /ə/ in native words, but it will be used in the conversion of some borrowed words.
Ooookaaay, but use sparingly. Don't make me get out my can of Schwa-B-Gone. [}:D]
1. Is /ʃ/ better with <c> or <x>?
2. Do you prefer the distinction between /e ɛ/ with double letters <ee>, with 'h' <eh> or with a diacritic <ê>?
<ee>, meh.
<eh>, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeew!
<ê>, yippee diacritics happy dance (though why not <é>?)

A little more partial to <x>, and you're already using it in the lang's name, no? That said, <xee> or <xê>... (ex tempore edit: Forget that -- I was going to say they look weird, but probably because I'm unaccustomed -- but upon seeing them after typing, they're really beginning to grow on me!). <xeh>, though, would be simply heart-breaking [:'(] .

[:)]
Last edited by Lao Kou on 27 May 2014 09:25, edited 1 time in total.
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名

User avatar
DesEsseintes
mongolian
mongolian
Posts: 4740
Joined: 31 Mar 2013 12:16

Re: The Xioran language

Post by DesEsseintes » 27 May 2014 09:15

I agree with pretty much everything Brother Kou says above. He is after all a man of considerable taste.

Squall
greek
greek
Posts: 583
Joined: 28 Nov 2013 14:47

Re: The Xioran language

Post by Squall » 27 May 2014 21:45

Some words borrowed from English will have to use schwa. The language does not like most consonant clusters and plosive consonant in the coda position. The schwa will be used as a neutral vowel.

According to Wikipedia, In General American, the vowels [ə], [ʌ] and [ɜ] may be considered a single phoneme.

Then, if 'girl' were borrowed, it would become /'ɡələ/ (Japanese is worse: /garu/).

English loves schwa too much. Then, I will replace schwa when it is possible.
'America' and 'Canada' will be borrowed as /äˈmɛɾikä/ and /ˈkänädä/.
A little more partial to <x>, and you're already using it in the lang's name, no?
I created the language before naming it. The name uses random syllables.
The pronunciation is /ʃ/ and I chose <x> because my nat-lang uses it to represent /ʃ/. However, most people may think that this representation is very strange and <c> is better.


My old orthography:
/ʃ x ɣ ŋ X/ <x c ç ñ h>

My new orthography:
/ʃ x ɣ ŋ/ <x h ç ñ>


And 'e' will use a diacritic.

Thanks. The next questions will come on the next time I want to know the popularity of some ideas. [:)]
English is not my native language. Sorry for any mistakes or lack of knowledge when I discuss this language.
:bra: :mrgreen: | :uk: [:D] | :esp: [:)] | :epo: [:|] | :lat: [:S] | :jpn: [:'(]

Post Reply