Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

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Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 27 May 2014 05:04

So I was participating in the /r/conlangs spreadsheet where we render other conlangs' names in our own conlangs and I noticed something—the genitive particle in O is n before a vowel and ơ before a vowel, originally from *n. In Ngade n Tim Ar, it's just n (look at the name—"language of the Tim Ar").

Then I noticed a similarity in the Proto-O and Pre-Tim Ar plurals. In Proto-O, the plural prefix was *r (to be more specific, it was */ʁ/), which had a syllabic allophone [a] in certain circumstances. In Pre-Tim Ar, there were two plurals: A prevocalic vowel, which was kind of indeterminate but I usually conceived of as *ə, that caused metathesis of *əCV- to *əVC- and then dropped, and the plural particle ar which follows vowel-initial words.

I further noticed something else. In Tim Ar, gerunds and verbs appear the same. In O, agent nouns in the accusative are identical with the verb stems they are derived from.

The above leads me to think there's hope for unifying these languages in the same macrofamily. There's a few hurdles to overcome, however.

Phonologically speaking, here's Proto-O:
*p *t *k (with fricative allophones)
*n (with syllabic and assimilatory allophones)
*w *r (= */ʁ/) *j *h (with vocalic allophones)
*e

For comparison, here's what O developed into:
/p t k kʷ q qʷ/
/m n/
/ɾ/
/f β~w s z x xʷ χ χʷ/
/j/

/a aː ɛ ɛː e eː i iː ə əː ɨ ɨː o oː u uː/
/ae̯ ei̯ ao̯ ou̯/

Now, here's Ngade n Tim Ar:
/t k/
/m n ŋ/
/s S ɬ x h/
/ɹ l ʕ/

/à á è é ø̀ ǿ ì í ỳ ý ɤ̀ ɤ́ ò ó ɯ̀ ɯ́ ù ú/
/m̩ n̩ ŋ̍/
/ɹ̩ l̩/

As regards the Tim Ar phonology:
  • * The front-rounded and back-unrounded vowels are the result of vowel mergers, keeping the tone of the first vowel but the POA and roundedness of the second. These vowels "decompose" when a noun is pluralized; e.g., Cô- becomes úCe-.
    * /S/ is highly dialect-dependent; in the Imperial dialect it merged with /s/ but it comes from an original *θ, which spazzed out in the various other dialects.
    * /h/ is from an earlier *p, which lenited to *f and then debuccalized.
    * As for the tone…I have an idea of having the proto-protolang having either an original voicing distinction in the consonants or phonation in the vowels, and having that be reflected in Tim Ar and dropped in O as the result of a merger.
Another thing is the grammar. I mentioned the plural marker earlier; in Tim Ar, if a word begins with a vowel it takes the particle ar, but it's a postposed particle, not a preposed one (their demonym is an exception but that was a conscious choice because of a pride-type deal—"our name is special", that sort of thing). Further, Tim Ar is VOS; O is SOV. How might I justify this?

Tim Ar also is heavily marked for deixis, but I might just handwave that as extensive contact with a substrate language.

I'd also have to deal with the Proto-O *e-infix, which would have been absent in Pre-Tim Ar.

Thoughts?
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by eldin raigmore » 27 May 2014 06:07

Linguifex wrote:Thoughts?
It looks like it would be interesting if I understood it; but I don't.

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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 06 Jun 2014 06:56

So I think I've come up with something that can work here, but it would make Tim Ar and O about as close as Lithuanian and Tocharian.

Proto-Tim Ar-O
*p *b *t *d *k *g *q *ɢ *ʔ
*m *n *ŋ (*ɴ?)
*s *z *ʃ *ʒ *h
*ɬ *ɮ
*w *ɹ *l *j *ʁ

I'm not entirely sure how to handle the vowels, but it seems like the only phonemic vowel is *e, with *w *j *ʁ having syllabic allophones [*u *i *a].

Phonetic developments on the way to Ngade n Tim Ar, the more conservative of the two:
  • A tone split occurs with syllable-initial voiced consonants and *ʔ giving a low tone to the following vowel.
  • Voiced-voiceless pairs merge to the voiceless consonant (and *h > *ʔ).
  • If it existed, *ɴ probably merges with *ŋ, or is just dropped.
  • *q > x.
  • *s *ʃ shift to *θ *s (so perhaps a more accurate rendering of the original consonants would be *s₁ *z₁ *s₂ *z₂).
  • *p > *f > h.
  • *ʔ then is dropped, leading to hiatus.
  • *w *j near a vowel gain fully vocalic surface forms.
  • Intervocalic consonants voice (except for /h/).
  • *ʁ > *ʕ.
  • Different outcomes of *θ [*ð] develop in different dialects.
The development into Proto-O was basically "merge all the phonemes" (hence the comparison to Tocharian):
  • Voiced plosives merge into their voiceless counterparts with no tone developments.
  • *q > *k.
  • Plosives affricate before *j [*i].
  • *ɬ *ɮ > *l, then *l > *w.
  • *s *z *ʃ *ʒ > *h.
  • *ʔ > *h as well.
  • Nasal assimilation happens; otherwise the nasals all merge to *n.
  • Intervocalic plosives lenite to voiced fricatives.
  • Final plosives lenite to voiceless fricatives.
  • *ɹ > either *ʁ or *j, not sure which I want to have happen.
  • *h gains a vocalic allophone [*a].
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by sangi39 » 06 Jun 2014 16:13

Why not:

/a ɛ e ø i y ɤ o ɯ u/

... for the vowels?

In O you could have /a ɛ e ø i y ɤ o ɯ u/ > [a ɛ e e i i ə o ɨ u] while in Ngade n Tim Ar you could have /a ɛ e ø i y ɤ o ɯ u/ > [a e e ø i y ɤ o ɯ u]. Or are the Proto-O and Pre-Tim languages set in stone?
Spoiler:
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 04 Dec 2015 12:57

Proto-O is more set in stone because it started out as a response to a challenge to have a language with only nine phonemes.

Starting with the Proto-O numbers:

*tn [tn̩] "zero"
*wr [wa] "one"
*trkh [taɣa] "two"
*jn [jn̩] "three"
*wrt [was] "four"
*tje [t͜sje] "five"
*rh [ʁa] "six"
*rhwr [ʁawa] "seven"
*rhtrkh [ʁazaɣa] "eight"
*rhjn [ahin] "nine"
*rhwrt [rawas]"ten"
*rhtje [ratsje] "eleven"
*trkhrh [taɣaʁa] "twelve"

We can work backwards to get some plausible forms for Proto-Tim Ar-O:

**tn ~ tne
**taqa ~ taqeh
**ɬa ~ ɬʁe
**in ~ jen
**lat ~ lʁet
**tɹe
**ʁa ~ ʁeh
**ʁala ~ ʁaɬeʁ
**ʁataqa ~ ʁataqeh
**ahin ~ ahjen
**ʁalat ~ ʁalʁet
**ʁatɹe
**dagaʁa

And the resultant Pre-Tim Ar forms (Tim Ar counts in base ten, the switch apparently happened after the language split off):

*tn [tn̩]
*tághéh [táɣéh]
*cé‛ [ɬéʕ]
*íen [íèn]
*lat [làt]
*tré [tɹ̩é]
*‛a [ʕà]
*‛aje‛ [ʕàɮèʕ]
*‛adágháh [ʕàdáɣáh]
*‛ahín [ʕàhín] (the *ʕà- by analogy, ordinarily one would expect *á- here)
*‛alat [ʕàlàt]

I found it interesting comparing the Pre-Tim Ar numbers with the ones in O:

/tun/ ⟨tun⟩
/wo/ ⟨wo⟩
/tɛ ~ tə/ ⟨të⟩
/jun/ ⟨yun⟩
/wos/ ⟨wos⟩
/se/ ⟨se⟩
/a/ ⟨a⟩
/awo/ ⟨awo⟩
/ɛɾɛ ~ ɛɾə/ ⟨èrë⟩
/ɛwɨn/ ⟨èwưn⟩
/awos/ ⟨awos⟩
/ase/ ⟨ase⟩
/tɛjɛ ~ təje/ ⟨tëyè⟩
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 18 Jan 2016 12:25

Another quick sketch for a daughter language. The sound changes (at least the first ones, anyway) are largely based on Athabaskan, especially Southern Athabaskan.

ʁ > h
h > Ø / ! V_V
q ɢ > x w
z > s
{ʃ,ʒ} {ɬ,ɮ} > w l
ŋ > n / #_
ʔ > j
ɹ > z / _C
ɹ > z / C_
ɹ > h
j > ɣ / _E
S > ʔ / _N
e > i / _#
Ø > a / C_N[+ syllabic]
Ch > ʔC
a > e / _(C)(C)i
V > Ø / VR_S#
z > s / _C[- voice]
z > s / C[- voice]_
a > o / _K
C > Ø / #_s
e > a / _N
ʔR > Rˀ
a > o / _(C)(C)a
V > Ø / _V#
o e > u i / #_R

**tn ~ tne > ʔan ~ nˀi
**taqa ~ taqeh > toxa ~ texi
**ɬa ~ ɬʁe > la ~ li
**in ~ jen > in ~ ɣan
**lat ~ lʁet > lat ~ let
**tɹe > si
**ʁa ~ ʁeh > a ~ i
**ʁala ~ ʁaɬeʁ > ula ~ ili
**ʁataqa ~ ʁataqeh > atoxa ~ atexi
**ahin ~ ahjen > ehin ~ oɣan
**ʁalat ~ ʁalʁet > alt
**ʁatɹe > etsi
**dagaʁa > dogo

So, a quick, somewhat comprehensive recap of numeric protoforms:

Proto-Tim Ar-O

**tn ~ tne
**taqa ~ taqeh
**ɬa ~ ɬʁe
**in ~ jen
**lat ~ lʁet
**tɹe
**ʁa ~ ʁeh
**ʁala ~ ʁaɬeʁ
**ʁataqa ~ ʁataqeh
**ahin ~ ahjen
**ʁalat ~ ʁalʁet
**ʁatɹe
**dagaʁa

Pre-Ngade n Tim Ar

*tn [tn̩]
*tághéh [táɣéh]
*cé‛ [ɬéʕ]
*íen [íèn]
*lat [làt]
*tré [tɹ̩é]
*‛a [ʕà]
*‛aje‛ [ʕàɮèʕ]
*‛adágháh [ʕàdáɣáh]
*‛ahín [ʕàhín] (the *ʕà- by analogy, ordinarily one would expect *á- here)
*‛alat [ʕàlàt]

Proto-O

*tn [tn̩]
*wr [wa]
*trkh [taɣa]
*jn [jn̩]
*wrt [was]
*tje [t͜sje]
*rh [ʁa]
*rhwr [ʁawa]
*rhtrkh [ʁazaɣa]
*rhjn [ahin]
*rhwrt [rawas]
*rhtje [ratsje]
*trkhrh [taɣaʁa]

Unnamed

*ʔan ~ nˀi
*toxa ~ texi
*la ~ li
*in ~ ɣan
*lat ~ let
*si
*a ~ i
*ula ~ ili
*atoxa ~ atexi
*ehin ~ oɣan
*alt
*etsi
*dogo
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 19 Jan 2016 04:32

I'm going to make a few tweaks to the sound changes: **ɹ will just go to *h, and glottalization will affect obstruents as well.

**tn ~ tne > ʔan ~ nˀi
**taqa ~ taqeh > toxa ~ texi
**ɬa ~ ɬʁe > la ~ li
**in ~ jen > in ~ ɣan
**lat ~ lʁet > lat ~ let
**tɹe > tʼi
**ʁa ~ ʁeh > a ~ i
**ʁala ~ ʁaɬeʁ > ula ~ ili
**ʁataqa ~ ʁataqeh > atoxa ~ atexi
**ahin ~ ahjen > ehin ~ oɣan
**ʁalat ~ ʁalʁet > alt
**ʁatɹe > etʼi
**dagaʁa > dogo
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 25 Feb 2016 12:02

Two more daughterlangs that I drew up a while ago and promptly did nothing with.

Daughterlang 1

e > i / ! %a
ʃ ʒ ɬ ɮ > x ɣ s z
m n ŋ > ũ ã ĩ / syllabic
ʁ > h
l > ʁ / _{a,ã}
l > Ø
b d g > w l ɣ / V_V
b d g > m n ŋ
ɹ > j / ! _B
ɹ > w / _B
w > g / _V
w > Ø
a > ə / _(C)(C){a,ã}
V > Ø / _#
tj dj kj gj > tʃ dʒ ç ʝ
ʁ > ɣ
s z > ʃ ʒ / _i
VH > Vː / ! _V
V > Ø / _#
V > Ø / V_
q ɢ > ʔ Ø
Ch > hC
Vh > Vː / _C

**tn ~ tne > tã
**taqa ~ taqeh > taʔ ~ taːʔ
**ɬa ~ ɬʁe > sa ~ shi
**in ~ jen > in ~ jin
**lat ~ lʁet > ɣat ~ hit
**tɹe > tʃi
**ʁa ~ ʁeh > ha ~ hiː
**ʁala ~ ʁaɬeʁ > hə ~ haːʃ
**ʁataqa ~ ʁataqeh > hətəʔ ~ hətaːʔ
**ahin ~ ahjen > ahin ~ ahjin
**ʁalat ~ ʁalʁet > hət ~ hahit
**ʁatɹe > hatʃ
**dagaʁa > nəːɣ

Daughterlang 2

e > i / stressed
i > ɛ / _{R,h} (not sure what I meant by <R>, if it was just **ʁ or both **ɹ and **ʁ)
j > Ø / a_
iw > ju
Vw > u / _F ! _h
m n ŋ > β ɹ w / C[- voice]_N
m n ŋ > ɸ s x / C[+ voice]_N
s > Ø / ɹ_
z > ɹ / V_V
k g q ɢ > tʃ dʒ k g
ʁ > g (I made a note about possible metathesis here, probably something to do with the sonority hierarchy)
{m,ŋ} n > ũ ã / syllabic
ɛ > a
h > Ø / _%

**tn ~ tne > tã
**taqa ~ taqeh > taka
**ɬa ~ ɬʁe > ɬa ~ ɮgi
**in ~ jen > an ~ jan
**lat ~ lʁet > lat ~ ɮgit
**tɹe > tɹi
**ʁa ~ ʁeh > ga
**ʁala ~ ʁaɬeʁ > gala ~ gaɬag
**ʁataqa ~ ʁataqeh > gataka
**ahin ~ ahjen > ahan ~ ajan
**ʁalat ~ ʁalʁet > galat ~ galgit
**ʁatɹe > gatɹi
**dagaʁa > dadʒaga
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Thrice Xandvii » 25 Feb 2016 12:21

What does !%a mean?
Image

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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 25 Feb 2016 13:17

Unless there's an /a/ in the next syllable.
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 26 Aug 2016 06:31

Let's see if I can't reverse-sound-change some forms from my Ngade n Tim Ar dictionary on Anthologica.

Revised Ngade n Tim Ar phonetic developments:
  • A tone split occurs with syllable-initial voiced consonants and *ʔ giving a low tone to the following vowel.
  • Voiced-voiceless pairs merge to the voiceless consonant (and *h > *ʔ).
  • *VʔV and *VhV sequences, where the vowels are identical, yield low-tone and high-tone variants of the vowel.
  • If it existed, *ɴ probably merges with *ŋ, or is just dropped.
  • *q > x.
  • *s *ʃ shift to *θ *s (so perhaps a more accurate rendering of the original consonants would be *s₁ *z₁ *s₂ *z₂).
  • *p > *f > h.
  • *ʔ then is dropped.
  • Two vowels of unlike frontness/backness (*a is exempt) merge into a vowel with the height, tone, and place of articulation of the second vowel and the roundedness of the first.
  • *w *j near a vowel gain fully vocalic surface forms (with low tone).
  • Intervocalic consonants voice (except for /h/).
  • *ʁ > *ʕ.
  • Different outcomes of *θ [*ð] develop in different dialects.
Spoiler:
‘e, det. (a) certain [ʕè] < **ʁe
‘êkh, n. river, v. flow [ʕɤ́x] < **ʁuiq
‘o3, p. toward the center of [ʕòS] < **ʁos
‘ûô, p. toward [ʕýǿ] < **ʁuhiheo (probably a fossilized phrasal construction)
3ánqa, p. over [Sánkà] < **sanka
3ú, p. between, in the midst of [Sú] < **su
3ún, num. one [Sún] < **sun
á‘e, v. be [áʕè] < **haʁe]
a3á, n. bed, v. lie down [àSá] < **asa
adrón, n. ground, soil [adɹón] < **ʔadɹohon
ahre, n. adhesive, gum, glue, putty < **ʔapɹe
áín, conj. if [áín] < **hahin
ajúk, n. awe, wonder [àɮúk] < **ʔaθuk
ándr, n. head [ándɹ̩] < **handɹ̩
ár, conj. and/or [áɹ] < **haɹ
ar, det. (plural marker) [àɹ] < **ʔaɹ
ara, det. no, none [àɹà] < **ʔaɹa
athûn, n. gear, cog; v. carry out one's duty [àthýn] < **ʔatpuhin
ázr, n. eye [ázɹ̩] < **haʃɹ
cá, conj. and [ɬá] < **θa
cé, p. from [ɬé] < **θe
cehat, adj. subtle [ɬèhàt] < **ðebat
cng, p. on [ɬŋ̩] < **θŋ̩
co‘, n. current (water), v. stir, make a small movement [ɬòʕ] < **θoʁ
e, det. a certain one of these [è] < **ʔe
ê‘, p. parallel to, alongside (something) [ɤ́ʕ] < **ihoʁ
en, p. through (a structure or area) [en] < **ʔen
hakh, num. two [hàx] < **baq
hás, det. any (one) [hás] < **paʃ
hégr, n. light source, v. shine (light) (on something) [hégɹ̩] < **pegɹ̩
hëlás, n. blood [hɤ̀lás] < **heʔolahaʃ
héur, n. mud [héùɹ] < **peʔuɹ
hi, conj. and/or [hì] < **bi
hí, conj. but, except [hí] < **pi
hían, num. five [híàn] < **piʔan
hól, num. nine [hól] < **pol
hong, n. type of large game animal [hoŋ] < **boŋ
hozán, p. relative to, with respect to [hòzán] < **boʃan
hr, n. border, boundary, demarcation line, division line, v. keep peace, prevent conflict [hɹ̩] < **pɹ̩
hûl, det. a certain one of these [hýl] < **puil
hún, adj. dark color (black, dark grey, blue, indigo, violet), n. dark-colored paint or pigment [hún] < **pun
hürin, n. arm [hỳɹìn] < **buʔiɹin
ï, conj. not only; but also [ɯ̀] < **ʔɯ
i‘ëng, n. note, footnote, n. consonant (writing), diacritical mark, v. perch (on), alight (on), v. clarify, explain [ìʕɤ̀ŋ] < **ʔiɹoʔeŋ
íal, det. any (one) of these [íàl] < **hiʔal
ik, n. son [ìk] < **ʔik
ir, det. any (one) of these [ìɹ] < **ʔiɹ
iru‘, n. breakfast, v. wake up [ìɹùʕ] < **ʔiɹuʁ
íul, det. some (of) [íùl] < **iʔul
izë, num. three [ìzɤ] < **ʔiʃiʔo
ká3, p. upward [káS] < **kas
kaá, n. building, structure, v. build, make, n. disaster, v. fall apart [kàá] < probably a loan, or maybe **gaha
kër, v. blind (somebody) [kɤ̀ɹ] < **geoɹ
keskí, n. table, list, enumeration, dataset, v. form ranks, fall in [kèskí] < **geʃki
kezé, det. no, none [kèzé] < **geʃe
khiré, det. all (of) [xìɹé] < **ɢiɹhe
khíul, det. any (one) of these [xíùl] < **qiʔul
khl, det. any (one) [xl̩] < **ql̩
khús, det. all (of) [xús] < **quʃ
khuú, n. wind, v. pour [xùú] < probably a loanword
king, adj. red, brown, n. red or brown pigment [kìŋ] < **giŋ
klnim, num. six [kl̩nìm] < **glnim
kmdön, n. homeland [km̩dø̀n] < **kmduen
kndar, p. before, in front of [kn̩dàɹ] < **kndaɹ
kodúo, n. helmet [kòdúo] < probably a loan
kóga, n. a type of plant [kógà] < **koga
kön, det. some (of) [kø̀n] < **goʔen
köû, n. people, tribe, countrymen, subjects, fellows [kø̀ý] < probably a loan
kré, det. any (one) [kɹ̩é] < **kɹhe
ku‘, det. seven [kùʕ] < **guʁ
l, det. a certain one of these [l̩] < **l̩
lár, det. some (of) [láɹ] < **lahar
lïng, det. all (of) [lɯ̀ŋ] < **leʔuŋ
lum, n. bedrock, v. stand fast, not budge [lùm] < **lum
lúman, n. fever (illness), v. suffer from a fever [lúmàn] < probably a loan, or **luhuman
ma3é, p. between, in the midst of, amongst, through [màSé] < **mase
maí, v. wear, sport [màí] < probably a loan, or **mahi
men, det. no, none [mèn] < **men
mïc, adj. wet, damp [mɯɬ] < **meuθ
midno, p. under(neath) [mìdnò] < **midno
mihr, n. cinders, ashes, v. die, go out (of fires) [mìhɹ̩] < **mipr
mójin, adj. light color (white, light grey, light brown, orange, yellow, green), n. pigment in a light color [móɮìn] < **mohoðin
moskúl, n. enemy [mòskúl] < probably a loan, or **moʃkul
mros, n. height, n. roof, v. be tall, v. shelter [mɹ̩òs] < probably a loan
mü, num. four [mỳ] < **muʔi
múr, adj. old, aged [múɹ] < **muhuɹ
mürge, adj. dark, blackish [mỳɹgè] < [muʔiɹge]
múrgi, adj. clear, transparent, adj. soft, adj. easily understandable, adj. of a difficulty suitable for beginners or novices [múɹgì] < **muhuɹgi
mûs, det. any (one) [mýs] < **muhiʃ
n, p. (genitive marker) [N̩] < **n̩
ná‘, p. throughout the general area, around [náʕ] < **nahaʁ
nës, n. boot, heavy-duty garb for the feet [nɤ̀s] < **nueʃ
néür, n. axe [néỳɹ] < probably a loan
ngaskar, n. symbol of a unit in the armed forces, v. shout, scream [ŋàskàɹ] < **ŋaʃkaɹ
ngidí, n. tide, v. repeat [ŋìdí] < **ŋiti
ngor, num. ten [ŋòɹ] < **ŋoɹ
nî, v. swing (something) [nɯ́] < **nuhi
níe, det. a certain one of these [níè] < **nihiʔe
nöng, n. fire, n. dye, v. burn, v. dye [nø̀ŋ] < **neʔoŋ
ö3, conj. and [ø̀S] < **eʔos
oghet, p. until [òɣèt] < **ʔoɢet
ohak, p. around, encircling [òhàk] < **ʔobak
öhis, n. isthmus, pass, causeway, bridge, v. connect, bridge [ø̀hìs] < **uʔebiʃ
óndó, p. (away) from [óndó] < **onto
ör, conj. but, although [ø̀ɹ] < **oʔeɹ
or, n. glove, garb covering the hands [òɹ] < **ʔoɹ
r, det. (negative marker) [ɹ̩] < **ɹ̩
rághé, p. before, prior [ɹáɣé] < **ɹahaqe
re, conj. or (exclusive) [ɹè] < **ɹe
ré, n. child of, p. child of [ɹé] < **ɹehe
rghé, det. some (of) [ɹ̩ɣé] < **ɹ̩qe
rmí, det. (a) certain [ɹ̩mí] < **ɹ̩mihi
rö, det. some (of) [ɹø̀] < **ɹuʔe
rúlo, det. no, none [rúlò] < **ruhulo
sang, p. around, about, here, there, throughout the general area [sàŋ] < **ʒaŋ
sar, det. any (one) of these [sàɹ] < **ʒaɹ
ségl, p. up, above [ségl̩] < **ʃekl̩
sek, det. any (one) of these [sèk] < **ʒek
séul, det. a certain one of these [séùl] < **ʃewl
signa, p. about, concerning, regarding, with respect to [sìgnà] < **ʒikna
sn, det. (a) certain [sn̩] < **ʒn̩
so‘, p. down, below [sòʕ] < **ʒoʁ
sokh, conj. or (exclusive) [sòx] < **ʒoq
sonen, conj. then [sònèn] < **ʒonen
sönö, num. eight [sø̀nø̀] < **ʃoʔenuʔe
sr, det. no, none [sɹ̩] < **ʃɹ̩
sûe3, p. until [sýèS] < **ʒuheʔes
sük, det. any (one) [sỳk] < **ʃoʔik
tázik, n. branch (plants), v. reach (out) [tázìk] < **taʒik
tng, p. to/at the center of [tŋ̩] < **tŋ̩
töhír, v. live, prosper, survive, thrive [tø̀híɹ] < **toʔepiɹ
tr, det. all (of) [tɹ̩] < **dɹ̩
tu, det. (a) certain [tù] < **du
ú, det. (a) certain [ú] < **hu
ü, det. (definite article) [ỳ] < uʔi
üjí, det. all (of) [ỳɮí] < uʔiθi
üm, p. parallel to, alongside (something) [ỳm] < uʔim
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 15 Jan 2017 05:12

Looking at making some placenames, so…
Spoiler:
ʁahu 'island in the middle of a river'
kan 'river mouth'
ɬiʃu 'type of tree'
qm 'type of tree'
ŋk 'river, brook, stream'
ɮna 'wide river'
kuɹba 'river'
waqhiʔ 'swale'
dem 'forest'
juh 'fort'
kelen 'water'
qiteɮ 'lake, pond'
ɢɹej 'lake'
ʒaɹaŋ 'height, highlands'
al 'farm, commune'
hʁuʃ 'space between two hills, lowland'
zaɹ 'hamlet, village'
qiʃ 'low, lowland'
pendet 'stretch of land'
li 'hill'
wajdul 'meadow, mere'
deɬwa 'valley'
guʁ 'flats'
mla 'ridge'
nej 'inlet'
ʃu 'ford'
ed 'ridge, wall'
buj 'ravine, gully'
heʔi 'field'
la 'enclosed field, paddy'
geʃ 'waterfall'
jek 'hedge, shrubbery'
qʁam 'wooded hill'
ʒu 'wadi'
ɬu 'hollow'
gaʒiʒ 'mountain'
tabil 'harbor'
guʁza 'boulder'
tej 'large flat rock'
kmbe 'cairn, pile of stones'
ign 'cliff'
ken 'mountain path'
gl 'lake'
ʃatl 'beach'
ɢm 'cave'
qlta 'mine'
dɹun 'bay'
haj 'island'
wa 'small island, islet'
kamɹ 'town, city'
iŋga 'stand of trees'
wik 'house'
qaʔ 'farm'
keʃ 'river delta'
ŋuʁ 'crack, fault'
ʃl 'air'
be 'grass'
kiʒ 'mesa'
lam 'wasteland'
lŋ 'volcano'
ideŋ 'mesa'
gun 'marsh, marshland, bog'
ʃm 'place'
pam 'road'
ʃuʔ 'bridge'
da 'tent'
huʔ 'east'
ʒuʁ 'west'
uɬ 'north'
ne 'south'
ze 'well'
baʃ 'watering hole'
uhuʃ 'pasture'
kuʔ 'camp'
plaŋ 'battleground'
nlum 'sinkhole'
atun 'dust'
nu 'clearing'
siʔi 'oxbow lake'
iɮ 'clay'
juɹ 'iron ore'
ndiɮ 'fence, boundary'
tana 'arch'
sʁu 'crossing'
ʔi 'stump'
zeʔn 'mill'
teʔm 'marketplace, town square'
he 'piece of land jutting into a lake'
tʁik 'weed'
swa 'rapids'
naq 'side'
jeɹ 'left'
saz 'right'
sik 'top'
midn 'bottom'
qaɬ 'cloud'
niʃ 'sand'
iq 'middle'
suʁan 'type of crop'
kndun 'type of crop'
ɮŋda 'type of crop'
tɹaɢ 'point'
gjan 'loess'
Some additional sound changes for Ngade n Tim Ar:
  • Three-consonant clusters delete either the first consonant (if it is a resonant before two obstruents) or the third consonant. This occurs before the change involving the plural morpheme causing metathesis on the way to Tim Ar.
  • The plural marker ends up eroding into a clitic and causing metathesis: #ɹa=CVC → #aɹCVC → #əɹVCC → #VCC.
  • a → æ / _N
A new dialect, based on Focurc Scots. Sound changes based on those presented here.
Spoiler:
{ɬ,ɮ} → l
o ɤ → ju jɯ / {n,x}_
o ɤ → ju jɯ / _K
{ø,ɤ} → e / _#
jɯ ɤ ø → i ɜ ɪ
ɯ y → u i
V[+ high] → Ø / a_
ua {ae,ea} ia → ʊ ɛ ɪ
o → ə / P_r
æ → ɛ
o{g,j} → ɜi
x{u,ɯ} → ʍ / _V
{o,a}l → a
t → Ø / p_
ð → Ø / {l,r,V}_C
θ ð → f v → ɸ β
ou ei → ʊ ɪ
ɪ → ɜ / _R
ɛ → ɜi / K_
ɛ → ɜ / _{#,K,N}
{i,ɪ} → ɛ / _#
Nasal place assimilation
t → ʔ / _%
t → ʔ / R_
Ø → ə / {ɹ,l}_{m,l}
m → Ø / _n
l → Ø / u_%
t → ʔ / ! {#,C}_
l → ʟ
əʟ → o / _%
ʟ → ʊ̯ / {E,a}_
k g → ç ʝ / V_%
SVN → ʔN[+syllabic] / _#
VN → Ṽ / _{C,#}
n → nː / V_V
Vʔ → Vː / _%
Some toponyms, along with their development:

zaɹwaqʔih 'Hamlet Swale' > θàɹùàɣí > ɸàɹʊ̀ɣɛ́
qaɬsik 'Cloud-top' > xáɬθík > xáβíç
tanazeʔn 'Archmill' > tánàðèn > tɜ́nːàβɛ̀~
baʃplaŋ 'Watering-Hole Battleground' > hàshàŋ > hàshà~
tejken 'Flatrockpath' > téígén > tɪ́ʝé~
pamʃuʔ 'Roadbridge' > hámzú > há~zú
waʃu 'Isletford' > úàzú > ʊ́zú
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 19 Jan 2017 00:17

Pronouns

1SG **ŋwʒ > PO *nwa, O nwo /nwo/ : TA ngus /ŋùs/
2SG **ɮɹn > PO *wan, O wèn /wɛn/ : TA cn /ɬn̩/
3SG **pe > PO *pe, O pe /pe/ : TA hé /hé/
1PL **segw > PO *heɣu, O hewơ /hewə/ : TA 3égu /θékù/
2PL **kmj > PO *kni, O knư /knɨ/ : TA ki /kì/
3PL **eʔti > PO *hetsi, O hesư /hesɨ/ : TA édí /étí/

Development of pronouns in Tim Ar dialects:

E = Éí, K = Kerníng, L = Lák3or, M = Mrgáí, Mg = Merghas, Se = Séksin, Si = Sinzio, T3 = Tai3a, T = Tigát, U = Údon

ngus /ŋùs/ > E ù, K wø̀, L ŋùː, M gòs, Mg ŋùs, Se ŋus, Si ŋʉ̀s, T3 hùs, T ŋù, U ŋùs
jn /ɬn̩/ > E zn̩, K ɣèɹ, L ɬè, M ɮã, Mg ʟn̩, Se ʒeŋ, Si ɮn̩, T3 ln̩, T ɮn̩, U zn̩
hé /hé/ > E há, K é, L xé, M í, Mg hé, Se ʃa, Si hé, T3 hì, T hé, U hé
3égu /θékù/ > E égù, K nég, L ɬáù, M jégù, Mg ɸéʝù, Se ljakʷ, Si tégʉ̀, T3 xèɣú, T tég, U nég
ki /kì/ > E tì, K sì, L ʃì, M (í), Mg kɛ̀, Se ki, Si kì, T3 tʃì, T tsì, U kè
édí /étí/ > E íléj, K ját, L jáí, M ídzí, Mg édɛ́, Se jadje, Si édʒí, T3 èɹí, T éd, U éd

Éí

[+ mid] → a / _#
ɹ → w
θ ð → Ø ɹ
ɬ ɮ → s z
ŋ → Ø
t d → ʔ l
k g → t d / _E
ú ɯ́ ý í → ów ɤ́w ǿj éj
[+ mid] → [+ high] / _T%
O → Ø / _%
ʕ → h
hː → h

Kerníng

{θ,ð} → n
h → β / [+ voiced]_{u,o,ø,y}
h → ɸ / _{u,o,ø,y}
h → Ø
ŋ → Ø / %_
k g → s z / _E
{u,o} {ɯ,ɤ} → wø we / _{s,z,l,ɹ}
ɬ ɮ → x ɣ
R̩ → eR
{e,ø} i y → ja je jø / _(C)i
V[+ high] → Ø / V(C)_#
O → [- voice] / _#
m n → w ɹ / _%
{s,h} → Ø / _#
{u,ɯ} {y,i} → wə jə → wo jo / _ʕ
{u,ɯ} {y,i} → əw əj → ow oj / ʕ_
ʕ → Ø

Lák3or

{d,g} → Ø / V_V
k g → ʃ ʒ / _{e,i}
ɯ ɤ ø y → ɨ ə e i
[+ high tone] → [+ falling tone] / _F
VF → Vː / _%
θ ð → ɬ ɮ
h → ç → x / _E
R̩ → e
ə e → jə ja / _[+ high]
j → Ø / %F_V

Merghas

{ɬ,ɮ} → l
o ɤ → ju jɯ / {n,x}_
o ɤ → ju jɯ / _K
{ø,ɤ} → e / _#
jɯ ɤ ø → i ɜ ɪ
ɯ y → u i
V[+ high] → Ø / a_
ua {ae,ea} ia → ʊ ɛ ɪ
o → ə / P_r
æ → ɛ
o{g,j} → ɜi
x{u,ɯ} → ʍ / _V
{o,a}l → a
t → Ø / p_
ð → Ø / {l,r,V}_C
θ ð → f v → ɸ β
ou ei → ʊ ɪ
ɪ → ɜ / _R
ɛ → ɜi / K_
ɛ → ɜ / _{#,K,N}
{i,ɪ} → ɛ / _#
Nasal place assimilation
t → ʔ / _%
t → ʔ / R_
Ø → ə / {ɹ,l}_{m,l}
m → Ø / _n
l → Ø / u_%
t → ʔ / ! {#,C}_
l → ʟ
əʟ → o / _%
ʟ → ʊ̯ / {E,a}_
k g → ç ʝ / V_%
SVN → ʔN[+syllabic] / _#
VN → Ṽ / _{C,#}
n → nː / V_V
Vʔ → Vː / _%

Mrgáí

ŋ → g / #_
{θ,ð} → j
{k,g} → h / _E
hV → V́ / %_
m̩ n̩ ŋ̩ → ũ ã ĩ
t d → ts dz / _V[+ high]
o ɤ ø e → u ɯ y i / #_
V[+ high] → [- high] / N_
V{x,ɣ} → Vː / _%

Séksin

{θ,ð} → l
C → Cʷ / _V[+ round]
ɯ ɤ ø y → u o e i
V[- low] → Ø / _#
V → Vː / _[+ voiced]
O → [- voice] / _#
h → ʃ / _E
h → x / _B
h → Ø / ! _a
o e → wa ja / _#
xw ʃj → x ʃ
m → b
úː óː éː íː → wo wa ja je
Tone loss
ɬ ɮ → ʃ ʒ
R̩ → eR
N → ŋ / _%

Sinzio

θ ð → t d
æ e → e i / _ŋ
æ → {æə̯,eə̯} / _N
{a,e} → ɛ / _{ɹ,l}
u ɯ → ʉ ɨ
o → e / _{ʉ,ɨ}
VN → Ṽ / _%
n s z l ɹ → ɲ ʃ ʒ ʎ j / _E
a ã → e ẽ / _(C)(C)E
V → Ø / _V
h → Ø / _#

Tai3a

Tones shift one syllable to the right; initial syllables acquire low tone
au ai → o e
{y,i} → Ø / V_V
ao ae → oː eː
u y i → w ɥ j / _V
u y i → w ɥ j / V_
k g x ɣ → tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ / _E
d g z ɮ → z ɣ ɹ l / _V
o ɤ ø e → u ɯ y i / _(C)#
S → ʔ / _#
θ ð → x ɣ
a → ə / _#

Tigát

θ ð → t d
u ɯ y i → w ɰ ɥ j / V_
u ɯ y i → w ɰ ɥ j / _V
V → Ø / V{w,ɰ,ɥ,j}_
V → Ø / unstressed
k g → ts dz / _{E,(a)ɥ,(a)j}
d g → ð ɣ / V_V
T → Ø / _#

Údon

{θ,ð} → n
ɬ ɮ → s z
u ɯ y i → o ɤ ø e / _#
{ŋ,n} l ɹ → ɲ ʎ j / E_
V → Ø / unstressed
SN → NS / _#
Ø → u / #_C{ː,C}B[+ round]
Ø → ɯ / #_C{ː,C}B[- round]
Ø → a / #_C{ː,C}a
Ø → y / #_C{ː,C}E[+ round]
Ø → i / #_C{ː,C}E[- round]
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 11 Feb 2017 10:21

It occurs to me that I can do some interesting stuff with complex onsets to generate things like lateral fricatives in Ngade n Tim Ar instead of simply dropping them. Something like this would occur just after the tone split:

p > Ø / %_lV
{t,k,s,x}l > ɬ / %_V
{p,t,k,s,x}ɹ > ʃ / %_V

*ʁ would also vocalize to /à/ in this position, leading to aV clusters.
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Re: Welding the O languages and Ngade n Tim Ar

Post by Linguifex » 14 Feb 2017 03:13

I'm thinking of adding in *o to Proto-Tim Ar-O. This will allow me to maintain /o/ as a native phoneme in CT and will leave out the gap that would otherwise occur (because without PTO *o, the resulting sound system would have developed /ɤ/ without /o/). On the way to Proto-O, it would merge with *u, and in general *wu *uw sequences would drop the semivowel, maintaining the current system.
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