Nouns are marked for
- Number: Singular/Plural
- Definiteness: Indefinite/Definite
- Proximity: Near speaker/Near listener/Far away
There are a few ways of marking the plural in Puēn Enchei:
P1 nouns are most common, and they take an -r
after the word. The suffix will absorb final <m n>, and many other consonants lenite before it.
These words include:
- lā(r) "untrustworthy imdividual(s)" (< "liar")
- pauden/pauder "monument; warehouse" (< "building")
- chàf/chàur (< "driver")
A small subset of these nouns add -er
to the end of the word. These words usually end in <r ch s>, but not always:
- pois/poiser "confining space" (< "box")
- llair/llailer "house; private space" (< "place")
P2 nouns work very similarly, except they suffix -s
- lānka/lānkas "lion" (< "lion-cat")
- pechufeit/pechufeis "illusion; virtual experience" (< "special effect")
P3 Nouns are much rarer, and are invariable for number. Most of them end in <r>:
Definiteness and Proximity
- myr "disgusting substance" (< "mud") *homophonous with myr "to kill"
- aler "acid; (colloq.) dangerous chemical" (< "acid")
In Puēn Enchei, defnite nouns typically refer to things/concepts presumed known to both speaker and listener, and is also always used before titles.
Indefinite nouns take no marking.
lānka "a lion"
Definite nouns exclusively take t(y) as a clitic that precede the noun phrase. (the y- is omitted before a vowel.)
tylānka "the lion" vs. tūm lānka ""the warm lion"
However, there are extra constructions which use the prefixes ter-
, for more specific uses. ter-
is used for nouns only the speaker is aware of, and suggests that the nouns is relevant to the speaker in some way. For example, in the sentence "I finished the book I've been writing", "book" would probably take ter-
, especially if thee listener did not yet know about this book. hym-
is used for suggesting that it's not important specifically which object you're talking about. or maybe you don't know which one it is.
To illustrate the difference, consider the sentence "I'm going to read a book tomorrow."
- ngynveir puk symō.
- ngynveir tybuk symō.
- ngynveir terpuk symō.
- ngynveir hmbuk symō.
Number 1 gives the listener no information about said book, and is probably the default way to say this statement.
Number 2 implies that both speaker and listener already know what book is being talked about.
Number 3 suggests that the speaker knows which book they are going to read, and that they are familiar with the book, but don't expect the listener to know which book they're talking about.
Number 4 implies that the speaker has no idea which
book they'll read; thay just want some book
* to read.
Nouns, so long as they are not plain indefinite, can also take suffixes to indicate proximity: -(h)ē
, near speaker ; -tē
, near listener ; -(y)ute
, far away
"that lion over there"
*In fact hn- derives from "some" used in this way.
Example long word: hmbeiknkaute
"an arbitrary person interested in language who isn't near either of us"; "some linguist somewhere"
Feedback is always appreciated! What do you all think I should talk about next?