Puēn Enchei: yet another future English

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taylorS
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Re: Puēn Enchei: yet another future English

Post by taylorS » 12 Aug 2014 05:23

Jackk wrote:I know - it's terribly boring. :)
What happened was a plosive shift in initial position:
[pʰ tʰ kʰ ] > [h s h]
> [p t k]
In codas, plosives lenited into nothing, semivowels, or /r/:
[p b] > [w]
[k g] > [j]
[t d] > [∅ r]
and the voicing distinction was lost mid-word.


Interesting! In my Future English I have the initial aspirated plosives turn into affricates and /s/ + plosive clusters become a new aspirated series.

In codas I have /p t k/ become /ʔ/. Then the voicing distinction is lost, creating a phonemic distinction between high, mid, and low tones.

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Ear of the Sphinx
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Re: Puēn Enchei: a future English Scratchpad

Post by Ear of the Sphinx » 12 Aug 2014 18:53

Jackk wrote:
cntrational wrote:Reminds me of Welsh, a bit.
Yeah, I like /ɬ/. Also I expect /ə/ <y> adds to the effect.

Nouns
Nouns in Puēn Enchei inflect for number and definiteness. I'll cover definite first, because it makes more sense.

Indefinite nouns take no marking.
lānka "a lion"

Definite nouns exclusively take t(y) as a clitic that precede the noun phrase. (the y- is omitted before a vowel.)
tylānka "the lion" vs. tūm lānka ""the warm lion"

Definite nouns can also take suffixes to indicate proximity: -(h)ē, near speaker ; -tē, near listener ; -(y)ute, far away
tylānkahē "this lion"
tylānkatē "that lion"
tylānkaute "thay lion over there"

Plurals later - got to drive down to Oxford!
Heh. It's one of these few future Englishes that actually look interesting.
Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd.

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Jackk
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Re: Puēn Enchei: yet another future English

Post by Jackk » 12 Aug 2014 22:36

Thank you!
I'm currently at a maths summer camp, and I've only got my phone on me, so i won't be able to update until Friday.
@Click: Damn, i knew I'd forget "back a"! This language has two low vowels that merge when long. Also, the ö is a remnant from a previous orthography i was using.

Thanks for all the feedback. I'll get more up on Friday!
Eresse anga paris cur neduc, a san teonga.
The only thing more dangerous than doubt is certainty.

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Jackk
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Puēn Enchei Scratchpad

Post by Jackk » 15 Aug 2014 23:56

Finally back home :)

Some updates:
Phonology (corrected and extended)
This phonology forms the standard dialect of Puēn Enchei, widespread throughout the island, but most common in the south.

Consonants
Plosives: /p t k/ <p/b t/d k/g>
Affricates: /t͡ʃ~ʃ*/ <ch/j>
Nasals: /m n/ <m n>
Fricatives: /f v~ʋ* s ɬ h/ <f v s ll h>
Liquids: /w l r j/ <w/u l r i>
* these sounds are in free variation

Consonant Allophony
  • Plosives - and /t͡ʃ~ʃ/ - voice between vowels and after nasals:
    • "a door" /ˈtuː/; tydū "the door" /təˈduː/
    • "a door" /ˈtuː/; vyndū "entrance" /vənˈduː/
  • Nasals assimilate to the following stop: un "one" /ˈun/ ; um brōn "a single banana" /um ˈbroːn/
  • /f s ɬ/ voice between vowels; they also undergo fortition (fortite?) after nasals.
    • fechnkà "fisherman" /ˈfeʃŋ̩kɑ/ ; tyvechnkà "the fisherman" /təˈveʃŋ̩kɑ/
    • sūk "speak" /ˈsuːk/ ; nsūken "1s.PRS-speak-IPFV" ("I'm speaking") /n̩ˈt͡suːgen/
Vowels
High: /i iː u uː/ <i ī u ū>
Middle: /e eː ə o oː/ <e ē y o ō>
Low: /a aː~ɑː ɑ/ <a ā à>
Permissible diphthongs: /ej aj oj aw ew ow/

Here are the most common origins of each vowel from Llarek Enchei (Modern English).

Code: Select all

Puēn        Llare
/i/         unstressed /ʉː/
/iː/        stressed /ʉː/
/u/         /ʊ/; unstressed /oː/; syllabic /l/
/uː/        stressed /oː/; /ol/ before a consonant or word-boundary; /əw/ before /l/
/e/         /ɪ/; unstressed /ɛj/
/eː/        /ɪː/; /ɪjə/; /ɛjə/
/ə/         /əː/; /əu/ except before /l/; /ʌ/
/o/         /ɔ/; unstressed /ɑː/
/oː/        stressed /ɑː/; some (/ɑjə/; /awə/)
/a/         /a/; /aw/
/aː~ɑː/     some (/ɑjə/; /awə/)
/ɑ/         /ɑj/
Of course, words that are loaned into Enchei may have any of these vowels, e.g. iātu "to travel", borrowed from Hindi ca. 2250CE.

I'll finish today with an example phrase:

ngymmyr tydan gà taseguait magirsyn hōn.
n-gyn-myr ty=dam kà ta-seguai-t ma-kir-s=yn hōn
1s.NOM-FUT-kill DEF=PEJ person SUBD-steal-PFV 1s.GEN-child-PL=and partner
I'll kill the bastard who's taken my wife* and children.

*or husband


Tomorrow I'll upload some more grammar and possibly some more sound change details. I'll leave you with some questions:
  • What would you like me to go into more detail about?
  • Are there any parts you particularly enjoy/find interesting?
  • Do you find anything so far to be wildly unnaturalistic or unlikely?
Eresse anga paris cur neduc, a san teonga.
The only thing more dangerous than doubt is certainty.

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Jackk
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Re: Puēn Enchei: yet another future English

Post by Jackk » 16 Aug 2014 19:59

Nouns
Nouns are marked for
  • Number: Singular/Plural
  • Definiteness: Indefinite/Definite
  • Proximity: Near speaker/Near listener/Far away
Number
There are a few ways of marking the plural in Puēn Enchei:

P1 nouns are most common, and they take an -r after the word. The suffix will absorb final <m n>, and many other consonants lenite before it.
These words include:
  • lā(r) "untrustworthy imdividual(s)" (< "liar")
  • pauden/pauder "monument; warehouse" (< "building")
  • chàf/chàur (< "driver")
A small subset of these nouns add -er to the end of the word. These words usually end in <r ch s>, but not always:
  • pois/poiser "confining space" (< "box")
  • llair/llailer "house; private space" (< "place")
P2 nouns work very similarly, except they suffix -s:
  • lānka/lānkas "lion" (< "lion-cat")
  • pechufeit/pechufeis "illusion; virtual experience" (< "special effect")
P3 Nouns are much rarer, and are invariable for number. Most of them end in <r>:
  • myr "disgusting substance" (< "mud") *homophonous with myr "to kill"
  • aler "acid; (colloq.) dangerous chemical" (< "acid")
Definiteness and Proximity
In Puēn Enchei, defnite nouns typically refer to things/concepts presumed known to both speaker and listener, and is also always used before titles.

Indefinite nouns take no marking.
lānka "a lion"

Definite nouns exclusively take t(y) as a clitic that precede the noun phrase. (the y- is omitted before a vowel.)
tylānka "the lion" vs. tūm lānka ""the warm lion"

However, there are extra constructions which use the prefixes ter-.and hn-, for more specific uses. ter- is used for nouns only the speaker is aware of, and suggests that the nouns is relevant to the speaker in some way. For example, in the sentence "I finished the book I've been writing", "book" would probably take ter-, especially if thee listener did not yet know about this book. hym- is used for suggesting that it's not important specifically which object you're talking about. or maybe you don't know which one it is.

To illustrate the difference, consider the sentence "I'm going to read a book tomorrow."
  • ngynveir puk symō.
  • ngynveir tybuk symō.
  • ngynveir terpuk symō.
  • ngynveir hmbuk symō.
Number 1 gives the listener no information about said book, and is probably the default way to say this statement.
Number 2 implies that both speaker and listener already know what book is being talked about.
Number 3 suggests that the speaker knows which book they are going to read, and that they are familiar with the book, but don't expect the listener to know which book they're talking about.
Number 4 implies that the speaker has no idea which book they'll read; thay just want some book* to read.

Nouns, so long as they are not plain indefinite, can also take suffixes to indicate proximity: -(h)ē, near speaker ; -tē, near listener ; -(y)ute, far away
tylānkahē "this lion"
tylānkatē "that lion"
tylānkaute "that lion over there"

*In fact hn- derives from "some" used in this way.

Example long word: hmbeiknkaute "an arbitrary person interested in language who isn't near either of us"; "some linguist somewhere"

Feedback is always appreciated! What do you all think I should talk about next?
Eresse anga paris cur neduc, a san teonga.
The only thing more dangerous than doubt is certainty.

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