Late Octoberlang

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Linguifex
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Late Octoberlang

Post by Linguifex » 26 Oct 2014 08:05

So what I'm trying for here is a language where verb tense is marked by consonant harmony in the case of certain consonants. What happens is that typically, verbs had a characteristic ending depending upon the tense (*-θ, *-s, or *-ʃ), but somewhere along the line consonant harmony occurred and the final consonant was then dropped. Here's the starting inventory.

/ŋm m n ŋ ŋʷ/
/kp kpʰ gb p pʰ b t tʰ d k kʰ g kʷ kʷ gʷ q qʰ qʷ qʷʰ ʔ/
/ts tsʰ dz tɬ tɬʰ dɮ/
/f θ s ʃ ɬ x h/
/ɾ/ (written <r> for convenience)
/w l j/

/i e a u/

Syllables are (C)V(C), except that a syllable cannot end in /ŋm kp kpʰ gb/ or an affricate, and /wu/ is disallowed following a consonant. Let's have some sample words. Stress is contrastive.

Sometimes lenition occurs, generally along the following hierarchies (for stops and affricates, the entire series lenites):
/m n ŋ(ʷ)/ > /w l w/
/p t k q ʔ/ > /f θ x h h/
/ts/ > /s/
/θ s ʃ x h/ > /s ɾ x h Ø/
/a e/ > /e i/

Counting to ten for Janko:
1 – *ʃíqu
2 – *leʃ
3 – *eθé
4 – *ŋʷéur
5 – *tʰakʷʃá
6 – *kpʰén (this language is base-six)
7 – *síxiqu (the element *sí- is of uncertain origin)
8 – *síleʃ
9 – *síeθe
10 – *síŋʷeur

Verbs typically took a characteristic marker indicating their tense, one of *-θ (past), *-s (present), or *-ʃ (future). The negative suffix was *-ɬ and was tenseless (if needed, a time adverb was used to clarify).

Personal prefixes:
1S – ʃu-
2S – we-
3SM – Ø-
3SF – Ø+

1P – ren-
2P – je+
3PM – la-
3PF – ŋme+

Sound Changes to Main Daughterlang
- *u *i > o e / _#
- *x > ç / _E
- u a i > o ɑ e / near uvulars
- m͡ŋ k͡p k͡pʰ g͡b > məŋ kəp kʰəpʰ gəb
- u > o / V_
- Cʷ > Cw
- w > v̩ / C_F (F = fricative)
- w > u / C_C
- u i > v̩ z̩ / _CCw
- V > Vː / _(C)Cw
- V > Vː / _{V,N#}
- V > Vː / _#, when stressed
- w > Ø / {#,C,v̩,z̩}C_
- Consonant harmony: Alveolar fricatives change to match the last alveolar fricative in the word.
- *θ > f
- KV{w,j,h,ʔ} > Kʷ (K = dorsal)
- Final nasals drop
- uː oː {ɑː,aː} eː iː > u@ əʊ aə əɪ i@ / near uvulars or _N
- uː oː ɑː aː eː iː > aU oʊ ɔa ɛa eɪ aI / else
- Final obstruents and nasals drop
- ç > {ç,j,ʃ} (varies)
- Aspirated stops turn into fricatives when word-initial or immediately following another consonant; otherwise they merge with plain stops
- Uvulars and velars merge
- *w- > j-
- Unstressed non-fricated vowels delete when C_C((C)V(C))# if this makes a legal cluster; unstressed non-fricated final vowels delete when an adjacent syllable has one of [v̩ z̩] and a legal cluster is made ([v̩ z̩] are treated as vowels for these purposes)
- aʊ aɪ > ɔ ɛ
- Stress reassigned to the final vowel unless the final vowel is /ɔ o/ and the penultimate vowel is /ɛ e/, in which case stress goes to the furthest-back high vowel before reaching either the beginning of the word or a non-high vowel
- t͜s(ʰ) d͜z > θ ð
- ʔ > h / V_V
- {ʔ,h} > Ø / ! V_V

If I did the sound changes right, the new numbers from one to ten come out to:

1 – /ˈʃeko/ śeko
2 – /leɪ/ lei
3 – /feɪ/ fei
4 – /ˈŋelor/ ǹelor
5 – /skv̩ˈsɛa/ scvsea
6 – /xpəɪ/ chpǝi
7 – /siçˈkəʊ/ siçcǝu
8 – /ˈʃile/ śile
9 – /fɛˈfe/ fęfe
10 – /ˈsɛweɪor/ sęweior
Last edited by Linguifex on 26 Oct 2014 09:11, edited 2 times in total.
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Linguifex
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Re: Late Octoberlang

Post by Linguifex » 26 Oct 2014 09:09

If I did this correctly…

/m n ŋ ŋʷ/ m n ǹ ǹu
/p b t d k g kʷ gʷ/ p b t d c g qu gu
/tɬ dɮ/ ƛ λ
/f θ ð s ɬ ʃ ç~j~ʃ x xʷ h/ f þ ð s ł ś ç ch chu h
/ɾ/ r
/w l j/ w l y

/kʷu gʷu xʷu/ are written quu guu chuu.
Final /kʷ gʷ xʷ/ are written que gue chue.
Final /gu xu/ are written gu xu.
Final /gue xue/ are written güe chüe.

/u o ɔ ə a ɛ e i/ u o ǫ ǝ a ę e i
/uə̯ oʊ əʊ ɔa̯ aʊ aə̯ aɪ əɪ ɛa̯ eɪ iə̯/ uǝ ou ǝu oa au aǝ ai ǝi ea ei iǝ
/v̩ z̩/ v z

Diareses are used to show when otherwise ambiguous readings involve two separate vowels.
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Re: Late Octoberlang

Post by shimobaatar » 26 Oct 2014 20:25

This looks really cool. I can't wait to see how the consonant harmony changes verbs.
Linguifex wrote:1S – ʃu-
2S – we-
3SM – Ø-
3SF – Ø+

1P – ren-
2P – je+
3PM – la-
3PF – ŋme+
What do the plus and minus signs signify here? Did I accidentally overlook part of your post?

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Linguifex
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Re: Late Octoberlang

Post by Linguifex » 27 Oct 2014 09:27

shimobaatar wrote:This looks really cool. I can't wait to see how the consonant harmony changes verbs.
[:D]
shimobaatar wrote:What do the plus and minus signs signify here? Did I accidentally overlook part of your post?
Morpheme boundaries. A plus indicates lenition, a convention I've taken from Jan Strasser.

Moving right along…

I'm thinking about changing the romanization of /ɛ ɔ/ to something like ai au or similar, à la Gothic. I also want to redo the prefix system so that more consonant alternations happen. Below are the protolang prefixes; I haven't really done the sound changes on them but the initial sibilants should follow harmony.

1S – ʃu-
2S – we-
3SM – Ø-
3SF – Ø+

1P – ʃen-
2P – se+
3PM – ɬa-
3PF – ŋme+

So on to the verbs. As previously mentioned, verbs typically carried a characteristic ending depending on tense or negation: *-θ (past), *-s (present), *-ʃ (future), *-ɬ (negative). What happened then is that the above-mentioned consonant harmony took place followed by the deletion of final obstruents (and nasals), so all alveolar fricatives in the word were the same. *θ then shifted to f.

So, let's take a sample verb, *sáʃque "return":
*sáʃqueθ > θáθqo:eθ > fáfqo:ef > fafkəʊˈe fafcǝue "he returned"
*sáʃques > sásqo:es > sásqo:es > saskəʊˈe sascǝue "he returns"
*sáʃqueʃ > ʃáʃqo:eʃ > ʃáʃqo:eʃ > ʃaʃkəʊˈe śaścǝue "he will return"
*sáʃqueɬ > ɬáɬqo:eɬ > ɬáɬqo:eɬ > ɬaɬkəʊˈe łałcǝue "he didn't/doesn't/won't return"

Given that *θ > f and that the protolanguage already had *f, some consonants don't change. As long as you see a verb not in the past tense, seeing the consonants that change shouldn't be a problem. /θ ð/ (< *ts *dz) in the 3SF, 2P, and 3PF prefixes will usually change to an assimilating consonant due to lenition patterns in the protolang. /t/ (< *t) will exhibit similar behavior; *s lenited to *ɾ so initial s < *s will also usually lenite instead of assimilating when those prefixes are added (unless analogy has occurred, maybe).
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