Post III: Basic Verb Morphology, cont'd.
The potential shows that the speaker believes the action to be likely. It is marked by -:r-
after the stressed root vowel. This infix indicates that the vowel before the infix is lengthened; in cases where the vowel is already long, the infix undergoes metathesis with the vowel, and comes before it, also dragging a copy of the root vowel with it, yielding the pattern of ...V:-:r-... > ...V:rV:...
where the second "V" is the root vowel and the two "V"s are the same vowel.
"He probably loves her" or "She probably loves him" etc. (You can probably tell by now that Øð does not distinguish pronomial gender.)
"He will probably paint it."
"He probably was not here"
The Imperative is used to command someone to do something. There are different levels of the Imperative: the Exhortative, the Common, and the Indirect. The Exhortative Imperative (Ex. Imperative) is used for commands given to oneself; this is similar to the Jussive in some languages. The Common Imperative (Imperative) is used for commands given to the second person. The Indirect Imperative (I. Imperative) is used to express the speaker's command to have a second person act in order for a third person to do or not do something. Yep: shamelessly stolen from Arapaho :S
The Imperatives are formed by reduplicating the onset of the stressed syllable and placing it after the coda of the same syllable. (NOTE: I have it written that way in my notes, but I can't find a single example, so we'll have to see how this goes
"Do it!" (talking to oneself)
"(You) do it!"
"(You) act in such a way that he does it" (If there needed to be a distinction between 3rd and 4th person, the 2>3 or 2>4 morpheme would have been used, instead of the 2nd person -aa-
As it can be seen, the process for the Imperative is the same for both the E. Imperative and the Common Imperative, but the I. Imperative requires the use of the suffix -n
. This may surface as [m ɲ ŋ] depending on the adjacent phonemes.
An alternate form of the Imperative, the Prohibitive, commands someone to not
do something. It is formed by the standalone preclitic bar
"Don't do it!" (talking to oneself)
"(You) don't do it!"
"(You) don't let him do it" (Note, it isn't "(You) don't act
in such a way that he does
it"; that would be tkuur'tkaan
. The prohibitive does not negate the command, but the action in question.)
The Dubiative indicates that the speaker is doubtful the action will come to pass, and is quite the opposite of the Potential. It is formed by infixing -ⁿp-
after the stressed vowel. This effectively nasalizes the vowel.
be here." or, even, "I doubt he is here"
The Admirative is used to express the speaker's surprise at an action. It is formed by the prefix dóó-
is special in that it reallocates the stress in the word to itself. Since mood is applied after tense, the tense ablaut is unaffected, and since the Admirative mood is a sub-mood of the Irrealis, the irrealis vowel chroneme is not affected. What is
affected, however, is Aspect, most of which are infixed before the stressed onset. In the Admirative mood, the Aspects are pulled to the conjunction of dóó
and the root, not all the way to before the <d>. But we shall cover that later.
The focus can be shifted by using the passive voice. I would give examples, but I haven't gotten to passive voice yet. It would sound something like "He hit me
!?" (lit. "I was hit by him") or "He
won the race!?" (lit. "The race was won by him")
"He came here!?"
The Volitive is used to express the wish or desire of the speaker. It can also be a soft command. It is marked by the circumfix n'(a)- -g
"I wish that you paint me" (or, possibly, "(please) paint me," etc)
"I want him to love her!" (etc.)
And that about sums it up for Moods! Let me know what you think, ask me any questions, and in the next post, I'll try to get out Aspects!