The Ban De Languages

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Linguifex
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The Ban De Languages

Post by Linguifex » 24 Feb 2015 08:53

Messing around with gleb I got what I thought was a great phonology. A few of the words are from gleb; most of these are from Awkwords, which went offline apparently due to some error shortly after I got this batch generated and translated from HTML codes.

/m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋˤ ŋˤʷ ɴ ɴˤ/
/p pʼ b ɓ t tʼ d ɗ c k kʼ g kʷ kˤ kˤʼ gˤ kˤʷ q qʼ ɢ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ ɢˤ qˤʷ/
/f v s z/
/r j ɪ̯̥ ɪ̯ ɪ̯ˤ w ʊ̯ˤ ʕ/

/u ɔ a ɛ i/

The semivowels with non-syllabic diacritics would probably do some stuff involving morphology and resyllabification.

Subject and object pronouns
ukʼs ~ ukʼus 1SG
ɔtʼ ~ ɔtʼɔr 2SG
ɔɓz ~ ɔɓɔrz 3SG.M
iɗ ~ iɗir 3SG.F

uks ~ ukur 1DL
ɔt ~ ɔrt 2DL
ɔbz ~ ɔbɔz 3DL.M
id ~ ird 3DL.F

ku ~ kur 1PL
tɔ ~ tɔr 2PL
bɔz ~ bɔrz 3PL.M
di ~ dir 3PL.F

Class I: Animals
-uŋˤʷ DL
-ɔʊ̯ˤ PL

uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ fish > uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼuŋˤʷ two fish > uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼɔʊ̯ˤ fish
ʊ̯ˤɛkˤ deer > ʊ̯ˤɛkˤuŋˤʷ two deer > ʊ̯ˤɛkˤɔʊ̯ˤ deer
qˤʼukˤʷɛ type of bird > qˤʼukˤʷɛuŋˤʷ > qˤʼukˤʷɛɔʊ̯ˤ
ŋˤʷɛkɪ̯̥a bear-like animal > ŋˤʷɛkiʕuŋˤʷ > ŋˤʷɛkiʕɔʊ̯ˤ

Class II: Bodies and parts thereof
-qʼ DL
-kˤ PL

atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤ half of the body > atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤqʼ body > atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤkˤ bodies
qˤʼukˤʷɛ foot
kʼivkˤinɗ liver
us(n) coat of hair or fur > usnuqʼ > usnukˤ
qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤc eye > qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔqʼ > qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔkˤ
qˤatc trunk, proboscis > qˤatcaqʼ > qˤatcakˤ

Class III: Landforms
-kˤʼ(u) DL
-ʕ/-a PL

ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴkˤʼ two rivers > ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴʕ rivers
ɔɢar steep side of a hill > ɔɢarkˤʼ > ɔɢarʕ
kˤu shoreline, riverbank > kˤukˤʼ > kˤuʕ
kʼɛvqʷɛ island > kʼɛvqʷɛkˤʼ > kʼɛvqʷɛʕ
ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ɗɛktɔŋˤʷkˤʼ > ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ
ikʼqʷis(n) clearing > ikʼqʷisnukˤʼ two clearings > ikʼqʷisna clearings
zuɓaqʼ lake, channel > zuɓaqʼukˤʼ > zuɓaqˤʼ
gˤɛps boulder > gˤɛpskˤʼu > gˤɛpsa

Class IV: Forces
-n(i) DL
-k(i) PL

Nominalizations of certain verbs fall into this category. "Force" can refer to both a physical force or a process occurring in nature.

qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤun two winds > qˤapʼikˤukˤ winds
ugaŋʷtʼ fire > ugaŋʷtʼni > ugaŋʷtʼki
u sun > un > uk
tupqʷa tide, wave > tupqʷan > tupqʷak
ɛb push > ɛbni > ɛbki
ɛpʼvikˤʼ shock, stun > ɛpʼvikˤʼni > ɛpʼvikˤʼi

Class V: Materials
The dual and plural of this class, if used, refer to kinds/varieties/mixes/flavors. Some words from other classes can be pluralized using these suffixes in which case the semantics change in the expected manner.

-gˤ DL
-ŋˤ PL

ɢˤɔqˤʼa silver > ɢˤɔqˤʼagˤ two kinds/mixes of silver > ɢˤɔqˤʼaŋˤ
gˤɔra type of spice used for food

Class VI: Plants

-ɔɗ DL
-ɔn PL

gˤɔra type of plant from which a kind of spice is obtained > gˤɔrʕɔɗ two of these plants > gˤɔrʕɔn many of these plants
ukˤpʼ type of decorative plant > ukˤpʼɔɗ > ukˤpʼɔn

Class VII: Inanimates, abstracts

-ʊ̯ˤɔ DL
-ɔkˤʷ PL

ɛtkʷ pebble > ɛtkʷʊ̯ˤɔ two pebbles > ɛtkʷɔkˤʷ pebbles

Class VIII: Sentient beings and certain personal items

-r(ɔ) DL
-ʕ/-an PL

kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kˤɛqʷcɔr two parents, married couple > kˤɛqʷcɔʕ many parents
iɴkʷaɪ̯̥ biological child > iɴkʷaɪ̯̥r > iɴkʷaɪ̯̥ʕ
ɴˤikˤcɔ adopted child > ɴˤikˤcɔr > ɴˤikˤcɔʕ
iɪ̯ɔf old person > iɪ̯ɔfrɔ > iɪ̯ɔfan
dishonest person > dɛr > dɛʕ
zaqʼ spear > zaqʼrɔ > zaqʼan
uʊ̯ˤ shoe > uʊ̯ˤr > uʊ̯ˤʕ
ɛmkʼˤit(ŋʷ) identity > ɛmkʼˤitŋʷrɔ > ɛmkʼˤitŋʷan
ɴˤɛtʼ comb > ɴˤɛtʼrɔ > ɴˤɛtʼan
si disposition > sir > siʕ

Switch-reference
I'd like to include some sort of switch-reference thing on the verbs. Maybe =r/=u?

Some possible sound-changed words for some descendants?
gleb generated some very interesting allophonic processes that I think would make a great descendant or family thereof (or at least the start of it); however, most of the below isn't from that and instead represent different possible routes I could go.

us coat of hair or fur > os pelt
usnuqʼ > unoʔ
usnukˤ > unoq

ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jɛˤgɛ̃
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴkˤʼ > jɛˤgɛ̃ʔ
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴʕ > jɛˤgɛ̃ˤ
+
kˤu shoreline, riverbank > ko
kˤukˤʼ > kuˤʔ
kˤuʕ > kuˤ
Drift of jɛˤgɛ̃ to "queue", kuˤʔ to "river"?

ɢˤɔqˤʼa silver > ɢˤʷɑqˤɑ̰

ukʼs ~ ukʼus 1SG > uʔs ~ ukus / uks ~ ukus
ɔtʼ ~ ɔtʼɔr 2SG > ɔʔ ~ ɔtɔ̀ / ɔs ~ ɔtɔr
ɔɓz ~ ɔɓɔrz 3SG.M > ɔːs ~ ɔːpɔ̀s / ɔbz ~ ɔborz
iɗ ~ iɗir 3SG.F > iːʔ ~ iːtì / iz ~ idir
+
uks ~ ukur 1DL > uks ~ ukù / usː ~ ukur
ɔt ~ ɔrt 2DL > ɔt ~ ɔ̀t / ɔs (> ɔsː by analogy with usː) ~ or
ɔbz ~ ɔbɔz 3DL.M > ɔːps ~ ɔːpɔːs / ɔvz (> ɔvzː by analogy with usː and other forms?) ~ ɔvɔz
id ~ ird 3DL.F > iːt ~ ìːt / iz (> izː by analogy with usː) ~ ir
+
ku ~ kur 1PL > ku ~ kù / ku ~ kur
tɔ ~ tɔr 2PL > tɔ ~ tɔ̀ / tɔ ~ tɔr
bɔz ~ bɔrz 3PL.M > pɔːs ~ pɔ̀s / boz ~ bor
di ~ dir 3PL.F > di ~ dì / di ~ dir
Last edited by Linguifex on 10 Feb 2016 01:14, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Birdlang » 24 Feb 2015 11:56

How will you romanize it?
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by shimobaatar » 24 Feb 2015 20:53

Linguifex wrote:atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤ half of the body > atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤqʼ body > atʼ̻fɛɪ̯ˤkˤ bodies
Cool idea here!
Linguifex wrote:Drift of jɛˤgɛ̃ to "queue", kuˤʔ to "river"?
Also a cool idea.

The sound changes and noun classes and everything in general looks interesting. Looking forward to seeing more.

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 26 Feb 2015 20:31

Phonotactics
Probably should've posted this in the original post but oh well. gleb gave me the following phonotactics (presentation edited):

(C)V(X)(C), where X is one of /m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋˤ ŋʷˤ ɴ ɴˤ p pʼ t tʼ c k kʼ kʷ kˤ kˤʼ kˤʷ q qʼ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ qˤʷ ɓ ɗ f s ʕ r ɪ̯̥ w ʊ̯ˤ/

So I'll probably make it so that there aren't any obstruent-resonant clusters immediately before another consonant or a word boundary.

Syntactic stuff
I'd like to do head-final, but with SVO order and preference to suffixes. Is that beyond the pale for naturalistic languages? Also I want to do what that one language that IIRC was in New Guinea does by making "and" a verb (something I also did in Kgáweq', and since this language is spoken near that one it makes sense for a Sprachbund thing) except doing it with all the conjunctions.

TAM
Probably just going to do a simple past/nonpast distinction for tense. The past is marked either by -kʷa or kʷa-, not sure which. If I go for the former I might get Slavic-style verb-stem alternations in the daughters.

As for aspect, you can tell I've been reading the Wikipedia article on aspect:

-ʊ̯ˤ defective (surfaces as -ʊ̯ˤ near a vowel in the same word and -u otherwise)
-kʷ(ɔ) perfective
progressive
-ɓ(ɛ) stative
-(ɔ)n habitual
-ir pausative
-a/-ʕ resumptive

ŋˤan "learn" + -ɓ(ɛ) stative = ŋˤanɓ "know (information)"
ŋʷiqʼziqʷ "meet" + -ɓ(ɛ) stative = ŋʷiqʼziqʷɓɛ "know (person)"

As for moods, I'm thinking:

declarative
-qˤʷ(u) conditional
-(i)s optative
-tʼɛɢ potential
-u imperative
-nɔr interrogative

Hopefully in at least a few branches I can spin off the potential or the optative into a future tense.

The conditional is employed in both the if and then phrases of a conditional statement:

ukʼs apʼɪ̯̥ɔ-qˤʷ, ukʼs ŋʷˤɔ-qˤʷ ɛqˤiɓɛ
1SG.N be.able-COND 1SG.N build-COND house
If I were able, I would build a house.

The optative usually ends up as a (di)transitive with the party wanting the action in object position (think dative or recipient).

Negation
Negation is actually a verbal prefix u-.

Nominalization
One nominalizer would probably be -gˤ(ɔ) which would be some sort of abstract thing, maybe a gerund-type or something like -ship. I'm thinking of having a semantic shift of apʼɪ̯̥ɔ-gˤ to "money" or "strength" (> "muscle"?) in some of the descendant languages.
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 27 Feb 2015 05:55

Numbers
1. qʼuk
2. ɔpkˤʼɔ
3. ɔt
4. aŋˤwɛpʼ
5. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
6. qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
7. ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
8. ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
9. aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
10. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ

Some possible distinguishing sound changes for descendant families
1. *c → s, ts, (ts → ?) t, ʃ, tʃ, h, x, j
2. *ɓ *ɗ → m n, mˀ nˀ (→ mˤ nˤ?), b d, v z
3. k kʼ kˤ kˤʼ kʷ g gˤ → k kʼ q qʼ k g ɢ, tʃ tʃʼ tʃˤ tʃˤʼ tʃ dʒ dʒˤ, ʃ ʃʼ ʃˤ ʃˤʼ ʃ ʒ ʒˤ, ts tsʼ tsˤ tsˤʼ ts dz dzˤ, s sʼ sˤ sˤʼ s z zˤ, k kʼ q qʼ kʷ g ɢ
4. q qʼ qˤ qˤʼ qʷ ɢ ɢˤ → ʔ ʔ ʔ ʔ ʔ ɦ ɦ, k kʼ kˤ kˤʼ kʷ g gˤ, q qʼ ʔ ʔ qʷ ɢ h
5. ŋʷ kʷ → m p, ŋ k
6. kʷ qʷ → k q, p q, p k, p p
7. CˤVCˤ → CˤVCˤ, CVC, CVˤC
8. aʕ → aʕ, ɑʕ, aː, ɑː, a, ɑ
9. {kʷ,qʷ} → w / #_
10. r z → r z, r r, l z, l r (with v → w)
11. k s → s ʃ / _i
12. ŋʷ → m / #_, → ŋ else

Conjunctions
Conjunctions in this language are verbs (cf. the situation for "and" in Walman). They agree with the main verb of the clause in tense.

uapʼ "and"
ʊ̯ˤɔ "or"
uɴˤɢˤ "but, except"

Consider this case:

ɔtʼ ɔɓɔrz kʷɔ-uapʼ ɛqˤiɓɛ=ɢˤ kʷɔ-ŋʷˤɔ-kʷɔ=r
2SG.S 3SG.M.O PST-and house-DEF PST-build-PERF-switch.reference
You and him built a house.

*ɔtʼ ɔɓɔrz kʷɔ-uapʼ ɛqˤiɓɛ=ɢˤ kʷɔ-ŋʷˤɔ-kʷɔ
2SG.S 3SG.M.O PST-and house-DEF PST-build-PERF
*You were with him, you built the house.

I'm thinking about changing the language to be SOV and then employing the switch-reference marker if there's conjoined objects.

ɔtʼ ɔbz dir kʷɔ-uapʼ kʷɔ-ŋʷiqʼziqʷ-kʷɔ=r
2SG.S 3SG.M.S 3SG.F.O PST-and PST-meet-PERF-switch.reference
You met them (those men and those women).
Last edited by Linguifex on 28 Feb 2015 03:39, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by gestaltist » 27 Feb 2015 11:02

How do you pronounce stuff like [ŋˤʷ] ?

Even thinking about it hurts my vocal chords.

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by shimobaatar » 27 Feb 2015 22:53

Linguifex wrote:Numbers
1. qʼuk
2. ɔpkˤʼɔ
3. ɔt
4. aŋˤwɛpʼ
5. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
6. qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
7. ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
8. ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
9. aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
10. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ

Some possible distinguishing sound changes for descendant families
1. *c → s, ts, (ts → ?) t, ʃ, tʃ, h, x, j
2. *ɓ *ɗ → m n, mˀ nˀ (→ mˤ nˤ?), b d, v z
3. k kʼ kˤ kˤʼ kʷ g gˤ → k kʼ q qʼ k g ɢ, tʃ tʃʼ tʃˤ tʃˤʼ tʃ dʒ dʒˤ, ʃ ʃʼ ʃˤ ʃˤʼ ʃ ʒ ʒˤ, ts tsʼ tsˤ tsˤʼ ts dz dzˤ, s sʼ sˤ sˤʼ s z zˤ, k kʼ q qʼ kʷ g ɢ
4. q qʼ qˤ qˤʼ qʷ ɢ ɢˤ → ʔ ʔ ʔ ʔ ʔ ɦ ɦ, k kʼ kˤ kˤʼ kʷ g gˤ, q qʼ ʔ ʔ qʷ ɢ h
5. ŋʷ kʷ → m p, ŋ k
6. kʷ qʷ → k q, p q, p k, p p
7. CˤVCˤ → CˤVCˤ, CVC, CVˤC
8. aʕ → aʕ, ɑʕ, aː, ɑː, a, ɑ
9. {kʷ,qʷ} → w / #_
10. r z → r z, r r, l z, l r (with v → w)
11. k s → s ʃ / _i
12. ŋʷ → m / #_, → ŋ else

Conjunctions
Conjunctions in this language are verbs (cf. the situation for "and" in Walman). They agree with the main verb of the clause in tense.

uapʼ "and"
ʊ̯ˤɔ "or"
uɴˤɢˤ "but, except"

Consider this case:

[g=2SG.S 3SG.M.O PST-and house-DEF PST-build-PERF-switch.reference]ɔtʼ ɔɓɔrz kʷɔ-uapʼ ɛqˤiɓɛ=ɢˤ kʷɔ-ŋʷˤɔ-kʷɔ=r[/g]
You and him built a house.

[g=2SG.S 3SG.M.O PST-and house-DEF PST-build-PERF]*ɔtʼ ɔɓɔrz kʷɔ-uapʼ ɛqˤiɓɛ=ɢˤ kʷɔ-ŋʷˤɔ-kʷɔ[/g]
*You were with him, you built the house/*you were with him, the house built (something).

I'm thinking about changing the language to be SOV and then employing the switch-reference marker if there's conjoined objects.

[g=2SG.S 3SG.M.S 3SG.F.O PST-and PST-meet-PERF-switch.reference]ɔtʼ ɔbz dir kʷɔ-uapʼ kʷɔ-ŋʷiqʼziqʷ-kʷɔ=r[/g]
You met them (those men and those women).
Unless there are differences I'm missing, it appears that this part of the post above is repeated twice.

Also, what does the format [g= … ] … [/g] you're using on some of the sentences mean?

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by thaen » 27 Feb 2015 23:27

It looks like they are indicating where the glossing begins and ends.
:con: Nillahimma
:con: Øð!
:con: Coneylang

I am the Great Rabbit. Fear me, O Crabs!
Spoiler:
ı θ ð ʃ ɲ ŋ ʔ ɛ ə ø ʑ ɕ ʷ ʲ ⁿ

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by shimobaatar » 27 Feb 2015 23:30

thaen wrote:It looks like they are indicating where the glossing begins and ends.
Oh, wow, I suppose they are. I've never seen it done that way before, but I should have guessed.

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 28 Feb 2015 03:19

shimobaatar wrote:
thaen wrote:It looks like they are indicating where the glossing begins and ends.
Oh, wow, I suppose they are. I've never seen it done that way before, but I should have guessed.
It's actually syntax from the ZBB that I forgot to edit out. Sorry.
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by shimobaatar » 28 Feb 2015 04:25

Linguifex wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:
thaen wrote:It looks like they are indicating where the glossing begins and ends.
Oh, wow, I suppose they are. I've never seen it done that way before, but I should have guessed.
It's actually syntax from the ZBB that I forgot to edit out. Sorry.
No worries. [:)]

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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 25 Mar 2015 07:18

Color space
The color system in this language is a three-color system consisting of ɔŋʷˤ white/yellow, ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange, and wusqˤ blue/green/black.

People
The culture that speaks this language basically practices Iroquois kinship.

ɢɔɴˤzuɢˤ mother, maternal aunt
ɔtʼŋˤɔŋ father, paternal uncle
ʕɔɛkˤpʼ paternal aunt
iwʊ̯ˤvɔ maternal uncle
aqˤʼɗɛz sibling, parallel cousin
ɪ̯amra sister, female parallel cousin
rɔaqˤʷ brother, male parallel cousin
ɗiɓqʷ cross-cousin
ɔqʼŋa grandmother
uɗgˤu grandfather
ɛsɛqʷ nuclear/close family
ŋuɢˤɪ̯̥ikʼq extended/distant family
qʼaqʷŋˤʷɔq someone of the same tribe/group
ŋˤʷunɢ friend
quʊ̯ˤɢ guest
saɢˤ foreigner
dɛtʼ marry (spouse)
aqˤ join someone in marriage

A few parts of the body

ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm
kʼup lower arm
aŋˤkˤʼ fingernail, claw
ɔ finger
wɛkˤʼ knuckle
ʕuɪ̯ˤ thumb
qˤɔʕn upper leg
ʕiqˤʼ spine

To refer to a whole arm, one would say ŋʷɔmkˤʷɔqʼ (lit. two upper arms) or, less commonly, kʼupuqʼ (lit. two lower arms). To refer to a pair or arms one would say ŋʷɔmkˤʷɔqʼ kʼupuqʼ uapʼ "two upper arms and two lower arms" and then use the switch-reference marker on the verb, if necessary.

A bunch of miscellaneous vocabulary you can skip if you want to

a heat
ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢ sleep
ʊ̯ˤɛqʼ gag, wheeze
aʕqˤʼ cough, vomit
quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll
ɔŋʷˤ shovel, small shovel
ŋʷɛp celebrate
qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal
qˤu type of small mammal-like animal
jiŋqˤʷ school
kˤipʼ cause something to skip or bounce on a surface
kˤiɢˤ jam, paste
vɔʕ pebble
ŋʷɔqˤʼ tie (knot)
kʼaɢ tie, affix
ɔɗʊ̯ˤ sack, bag
ɔɓ up, above
down, below
ŋˤʷuɓ run away in fear
ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light
qʼuqˤʷ compel
utqˤ main road in a village
kˤɔqˤʷuŋʷˤ pot
ɢˤiŋʷ type of bird-like animal
ɔqˤʼɔkˤʷ type of bird-like animal
ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house
ŋˤukʷɓɔpʼ strike on the head
qˤʼaɴˤ burlap-like material
uqˤʷɔd type of fruit
ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit
qˤʷukʼ type of fruit
uŋˤɢɔʊ̯ˤtʼ type of fruit
sakʼ type of fruit
ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material
diwkʷ fishing net, spider web
ɛpʼsu eating utensil
iŋʷu sky
uɓc type of fine meal powder
ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder
ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop
gakˤʷpɛkʷ inside
anun from
ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place
qʼiŋʷˤk die
ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal
ukˤʷŋak type of bird-like animal
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult
kˤʷuŋɓ bone
nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join
akˤʼakˤs split, cut
kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat
bear, carry
aŋʷinqʼ cloud
ɛɴˤkaŋˤgˤ basic, elementary
without, lacking
ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼ child's toy
muɪ̯̥ɢˤ mother
qʼɔc eat
ŋˤʷuqʷkˤʼi taste
aɢˤɔt digest
qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture)
gˤu feel (temperature, weather)
ɢˤɛʕ smell
qʷɔd perceive
ɔqʷɔ record
uwi read
ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write
ɔɛŋʷ understand
aɪ̯̥ɢˤ hear
ŋʷai track a source of sound
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J_from_Holland
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by J_from_Holland » 25 Mar 2015 07:41

Linguifex wrote:Color space
The color system in this language is a three-color system consisting of ɔŋʷˤ white/yellow, ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange, and wusqˤ blue/green/black.

People
The culture that speaks this language basically practices Iroquois kinship.

ɢɔɴˤzuɢˤ mother, maternal aunt
ɔtʼŋˤɔŋ father, paternal uncle
ʕɔɛkˤpʼ paternal aunt
iwʊ̯ˤvɔ maternal uncle
aqˤʼɗɛz sibling, parallel cousin
ɪ̯amra sister, female parallel cousin
rɔaqˤʷ brother, male parallel cousin
ɗiɓqʷ cross-cousin
ɔqʼŋa grandmother
uɗgˤu grandfather
ɛsɛqʷ nuclear/close family
ŋuɢˤɪ̯̥ikʼq extended/distant family
qʼaqʷŋˤʷɔq someone of the same tribe/group
ŋˤʷunɢ friend
quʊ̯ˤɢ guest
saɢˤ foreigner
dɛtʼ marry (spouse)
aqˤ join someone in marriage

A few parts of the body

ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm
kʼup lower arm
aŋˤkˤʼ fingernail, claw
ɔ finger
wɛkˤʼ knuckle
ʕuɪ̯ˤ thumb
qˤɔʕn upper leg
ʕiqˤʼ spine

To refer to a whole arm, one would say ŋʷɔmkˤʷɔqʼ (lit. two upper arms) or, less commonly, kʼupuqʼ (lit. two lower arms). To refer to a pair or arms one would say ŋʷɔmkˤʷɔqʼ kʼupuqʼ uapʼ "two upper arms and two lower arms" and then use the switch-reference marker on the verb, if necessary.

A bunch of miscellaneous vocabulary you can skip if you want to

a heat
ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢ sleep
ʊ̯ˤɛqʼ gag, wheeze
aʕqˤʼ cough, vomit
quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll
ɔŋʷˤ shovel, small shovel
ŋʷɛp celebrate
qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal
qˤu type of small mammal-like animal
jiŋqˤʷ school
kˤipʼ cause something to skip or bounce on a surface
kˤiɢˤ jam, paste
vɔʕ pebble
ŋʷɔqˤʼ tie (knot)
kʼaɢ tie, affix
ɔɗʊ̯ˤ sack, bag
ɔɓ up, above
down, below
ŋˤʷuɓ run away in fear
ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light
qʼuqˤʷ compel
utqˤ main road in a village
kˤɔqˤʷuŋʷˤ pot
ɢˤiŋʷ type of bird-like animal
ɔqˤʼɔkˤʷ type of bird-like animal
ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house
ŋˤukʷɓɔpʼ strike on the head
qˤʼaɴˤ burlap-like material
uqˤʷɔd type of fruit
ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit
qˤʷukʼ type of fruit
uŋˤɢɔʊ̯ˤtʼ type of fruit
sakʼ type of fruit
ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material
diwkʷ fishing net, spider web
ɛpʼsu eating utensil
iŋʷu sky
uɓc type of fine meal powder
ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder
ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop
gakˤʷpɛkʷ inside
anun from
ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place
qʼiŋʷˤk die
ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal
ukˤʷŋak type of bird-like animal
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult
kˤʷuŋɓ bone
nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join
akˤʼakˤs split, cut
kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat
bear, carry
aŋʷinqʼ cloud
ɛɴˤkaŋˤgˤ basic, elementary
without, lacking
ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼ child's toy
muɪ̯̥ɢˤ mother
qʼɔc eat
ŋˤʷuqʷkˤʼi taste
aɢˤɔt digest
qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture)
gˤu feel (temperature, weather)
ɢˤɛʕ smell
qʷɔd perceive
ɔqʷɔ record
uwi read
ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write
ɔɛŋʷ understand
aɪ̯̥ɢˤ hear
ŋʷai track a source of sound
Sounds cool, why are you making a language made out of tongue twisters? [;)]
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Darvince » 25 Mar 2015 18:20

Labialization and pharyngealization are pretty common features in the phoneme inventories of languages.
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 27 Mar 2015 07:48

Ordinals

I'm a bit torn in how I want to form the ordinals. None of the final consonants in the numbers would violate my phonotactics if part of a cluster, so I'm tempted to turn the cardinals into ordinals by the addition of a suffix -f. On the other hand, if I set the clitic as -ʊ̯ˤ, then it would surface as following a consonant (possibly pharyngealizing it as well, not sure) and as [ʊ̯ˤ] following a vowel; this lends itself to possibly messing up the ordinal for the number two, creating an irregular form. Maybe I'll make it variable between different groupings of languages and just say some languages ended up going with one option and the rest with the other.

1. qʼuk > qʼukf ~ qʼuku
2. ɔpkˤʼɔ > ɔpkˤʼɔ ~ ɔpkˤʼɔʊ̯ˤ
3. ɔt > ɔtf ~ ɔtu
4. aŋˤwɛpʼ > aŋˤwɛpʼf ~ aŋˤwɛpʼu
5. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ > ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤf ~ ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤu

Adverbs and adverbial constructions

I'm thinking of an adverbializing clitic =ʕn/=an that attaches to either the end of the phrase or the end of the head. One can loosely translate it "in the way/manner (of)" or "like".

ʕikʼɛ
ʕikʼɛ
slow
slow

ʕikʼɛʕn
ʕikʼɛ=ʕn
slow=ADV
slowly

ɪ̯ɛŋˤ
ɪ̯ɛŋˤ
red
red/orange

ɪ̯ɛŋˤan
ɪ̯ɛŋˤ=an
red=ADV
while red

qʼuk
qʼuk
one
one

qʼukan
qʼuk=an
one=ADV
one time

qʼukʊ̯ˤan
qʼuk-ʊ̯ˤ=an
one-cardinal.number=ADV
first(ly)

qʼukfan
qʼuk-f=an
one-cardinal.number=ADV
first(ly)

Possessives

I'm thinking that possessives will follow the noun but not agree with it in number. This way I can create some variation—fusing it to the noun in some languages, analogizing it to an adjectival form in others. Possessives cannot occur with an argument with a definite article.

ukʼsu 1SG
ɔtʼrɔ 2SG
ɔɓzɔ 3SG.M
iɗri 3SG.F
ukru 1DL
ɔrta 2DL
ɔbza 3DL.M
irdi 3DL.F
kura 1PL
tɔra 2PL
bɔza 3PL.M
diri 3PL.F

qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔqʼ ɔtʼrɔ
qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤc-ɔqʼ ɔtʼrɔ
eyes-DL 2SG.POSS
your eyes

ɴˤɛtʼ ɔɓzɔ
ɴˤɛtʼ ɔɓzɔ
comb 3SG.M.POSS
his comb

Compounds

I'm thinking I want an interfix between compound components. As to the form, I'm thinking -ci- or -ciʕ-. I'm dithering on this too—if I keep the /ʕ/, then it would prevent lengthening of the vowel in a lot of syllables in branches that develop open-syllable lengthening. On the other hand, it kind of feels unwieldy that long. Then again I could just have descendants just drop *ʕ or turn it into a glide and resolve that way. *c is there so I can do stuff with palatalization or turning the consonant into, say, /s/. I'm thinking compounding would go as in English in terms of the head of the compound.

gˤɛpsciʕqˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ
gˤɛps-ciʕ-qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ
boulder-compound-wind
landslide

uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼciʕus(n)
uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ-ciʕ-us(n)
fish-compound-coat
fish scales

ɔɢarciʕɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
ɔɢar-ciʕ-ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
steep.side.of.hill-compound-river
waterfall

adtʼɔɓciʕɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
adtʼɔɓ-ciʕ-ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
shallow.side.of.hill-compound-river
cataract

(Speaking of which, how do you handle compounding interfixes under the Leipzig glossing rules? Is there even a rule?)
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 30 Mar 2015 09:01

To give

ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf is the verb meaning "to give", but the semantics are a bit strange. Instead of the object being given being the direct object, the recipient is the direct object and the object given is shunted off into its own postpositional phrase.

kˤɛqʷcɔrɢˤ aqʷpʼam ɔbza ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼɔɢˤ kʷɛ kʷaŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔfkʷɔ
kˤɛqʷcɔ-r=ɢˤ aqʷpʼam ɔbza ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼ=ɔɢˤ kʷɛ kʷa-ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf-kʷɔ
parent-DL.sentient=DEF child 3DL.M.POSS toy.for.child=DEF with PST-give-PERF
the parents gave their child the toy

"To teach" and "to learn"

These verbs (ŋˤʷɔqˤʼtʼuw, aqakʷqɪ̯ˤi) are kind of fuzzy as to which part of the teaching/learning dichotomy they represent. Branches differ in which meaning ultimately wins out.

Some derivational morphology

-qˤʼɛs small bit of mass noun (aŋʷˤmɴˤɛ water > aŋʷˤmɴˤɛqˤʼɛs drop of water; ɪ̯afu snow > ɪ̯afuqˤʼɛs snowflake)

Sample sentences

From Rossman and Mills (1922), Graded Sentences for Analysis.

1. Birds sing.

iŋˤʷuʊ̯ˤqɔʊ̯ˤ qˤiqɔn
iŋˤʷuʊ̯ˤq-ɔʊ̯ˤ qˤiqɔ-n
bird-PL.animal sing-HAB
birds sing

qˤiqɔ is almost exclusively used of bird-like animals.

2. Children play.

aqʷpʼaman ɴˤitaɓ / ɴˤitan
aqʷpʼam-an ɴˤita-ɓ / ɴˤita-n
child-PL.sentient play-STAT / play-HAB
children play

ɴˤita is an interesting case. It cannot occur in the defective or progressive and typically it occurs in the stative.

5. Baby laughed.

ɔkˤʼiqˤʷ kʷa-qɛɢaɪ̯̥-kʷ
ɔkˤʼiqˤʷ kʷa-qɛɢaɪ̯̥-kʷ
baby PST-laugh-PERF
(a) baby laughed

6. The sun shines.

uɢˤ qɔɴɔn
u=ɢˤ qɔɴɔ-n
sun=DEF shine-HAB
the sun shines

7. The wind blows.

qˤapʼikˤuɢˤ akʼɛŋˤɔn
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ=ɢˤ akʼɛŋˤ-ɔn
wind=DEF gust-HAB
the wind blows

akʼɛŋˤ is used for "blow" in the sense of "gust" or "force".

8. The car started.

tʼɔŋʷgˤɛqʷikʷ
kʷa-tʼɔŋʷgˤɛqʷɪ̯-kʷ
PST-wake.up-PERF
woke up

No word for "car" in this protolang because protolang, but this is how they would say "start".

9. School began again.

ŋˤʷɔqˤʼtʼuwgˤ kʷabɛnŋʷɔkˤʼkʷɔ qʼukan ɔkɢˤɴˤiqˤ
ŋˤʷɔqˤʼtʼuw-gˤ kʷa-bɛnŋʷɔkˤʼ-kʷɔ qʼuk=an ɔkɢˤɴˤiqˤ
learn-ABSTR.NMLZ PST-begin-PERF one-ADV further
learning started again

Abstract processes don't tʼɔŋʷgˤɛqʷɪ̯ "wake up", they bɛnŋʷɔkˤʼ "commence" instead.

10. The child ran quickly.

aqʷpʼamɢˤ kʷauakʷ tɛdɔŋan
aqʷpʼam=ɢˤ kʷa-ua-kʷ tɛdɔŋ=an
child=DEF quick-ADV PST-run-PERF quick=ADV
the child ran quickly

As with adjectives and nouns, adverbs follow the verb. I'm considering changing this to make the verb obligatorily dead last but I'm not sure if that's naturalistic given the other rules in the language.

11. Yellow daffodils nodded gaily.

qʼɔtʼɔaɓɔn ɔŋʷˤɔn kʷaɢˤaʊ̯ˤɢˤɓifɓɛ ɛŋatkˤɛɴan
qʼɔtʼɔaɓ-ɔn ɔŋʷˤ-ɔn kʷa-ɢˤaʊ̯ˤɢˤɓif-ɓɛ ɛŋatkˤɛɴ=an
flower-PL.plant yellow-PL.plant PST-bob.in.the.wind-STAT happy=ADV
yellow flowers bobbed happily in the wind

12. Little Marigold cried bitterly.

qʼɔtʼɔaɓ ɔŋʷˤ it kʷaavi qɔŋqˤʼsɛtan
qʼɔtʼɔaɓ ɔŋʷˤ it kʷa-avi-ɓɛ
flower yellow little PST-cry-STAT
little yellow flower cried deeply

Note the use of the stative here.

13. All the people shouted.

ɔɗŋˤʷiʕɢˤ ɔʊ̯ˤuʕ kʷaɢˤɔuckʷɔ
ɔɗŋˤʷi-ʕ=ɢˤ ɔʊ̯ˤu-ʕ kʷa-ɢˤɔuc-kʷɔ
person-PL.sentient-DEF all-PL.sentient PST-shout-PERF
all the people shouted

14. I recited twice.

ukʼs kʷaqˤʼaqˤʼuɓɛ ɔpkˤʼɔʕn
ukʼs kʷa-qˤʼaqˤʼu-ɓɛ ɔpkˤʼɔ=ʕn
1SG.S PST-say-STAT two=ADV
I spoke twice at length

15. The weary traveler slept soundly.

ɢˤɔpʼjɔpʼʊ̯ˤɛɢˤ ɔkˤʷɔɴag kʷaŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢɓɛ
ɢˤɔpʼjɔpʼ-ʊ̯ˤɛ=ɢˤ ɔkˤʷɔɴ-ag kʷa-ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢ-ɓɛ
travel-M.A=DEF tire-PART.A PST-sleep-STAT
the tired traveler slept for a long time

16. The little brook flows swiftly.

ɪ̯ɔaɴɢˤ it aɢkˤʷicɔn tɛdɔŋan
ɪ̯ɔaɴ=ɢˤ it aɢkˤʷic-ɔn tɛdɔŋ=an
stream=DEF little flow-HAB quick=ADV
the little stream flows quickly

Note the habitual rather than the stative.

17. Softly the great white snowflakes fell.

ɪ̯afuqˤʼɛsɔkˤʷɢˤ ɔŋˤʷɔkˤʷ ɔqʼɔɢɔkˤʷ kʷaɴɔbɛɓ ɔŋˤqɔʕn
ɪ̯afu-qˤʼɛs-ɔkˤʷ=ɢˤ ɔŋˤʷ-ɔkˤʷ ɔqʼɔɢ-ɔkˤʷ kʷa-ɴɔbɛ-ɓ ɔŋˤqɔ-ʕn
snow-particle-PL.INAN=DEF white-PL.INAN large-PL.INAN PST-fall-STAT gentle=ADV
the little white snowflakes fell softly

18. The kind old man laughed pleasantly.

iɪ̯ɔfɔɢˤ utʼpɔk kʷaqɛɢaɪ̯̥kʷ ɛkˤʷŋʷɔqʷan
iɪ̯ɔf=ɔɢˤ utʼpɔk kʷa-qɛɢaɪ̯̥-kʷ ɛkˤʷŋʷɔqʷ=an
old.man-DEF kindly PST-laugh-PERF agreeable-ADV
the kind old man laughed pleasantly

19. The happy days passed quickly.

aqtʼutkuɢˤ ɛŋatkˤɛɴk kʷaɪ̯̥akˤʷkˤɔɪ̯ˤ tɛdɔŋan
aqtʼut-k=uɢˤ ɛŋatkˤɛɴ-k kʷa-ɪ̯̥akˤʷkˤɔɪ̯ˤ tɛdɔŋ=an
day-PL.force=DEF happy-PL.force PST-end quick=ADV
the happy days ended quickly

20. Up jumped the smallest boy.

ɛɔqˤʼɴˤaqʼaɢˤ itri kʷaakˤʼŋˤuqʷkʷɔ ɔɔc
ɛɔqˤʼɴˤaqʼ=aɢˤ it-ri kʷa-akˤʼŋˤuqʷ-kʷɔ ɔɔc
boy=DEF small-superlative PST-jump-PERF up
the smallest boy jumped up

22. Slowly the great door opened.

giqˤɔɢɔɢˤ ɔqʼɔɢ kʷaɔqʼcibiqʼ ʕikʼɛʕn
giqˤɔɢ=ɔɢˤ ɔqʼɔɢ kʷa-ɔqʼcibiqʼ ʕikʼɛ=ʕn
door=DEF large PST-open slow=ADV
the large door opened slowly

37. I will go now.

There are actually several ways to go about saying this since this language lacks an overt future:

dakʷɔɪ̯̥c ui ukʼus qʷuʊ̯ˤɢˤɔɪ̯
dakʷɔɪ̯̥-c ui ukʼus qʷuʊ̯ˤɢˤɔɪ̯
leave-INF now 1SG.O plan
I plan to leave now

The semantics of qʷuʊ̯ˤɢˤɔɪ̯ are a bit odd. Its meaning covers both "want" and "plan to", and what in English would be the subject and object are reversed. ui now follows the infinitive.

ukʼs dakʷɔɪ̯̥ ui
ukʼs dakʷɔɪ̯̥ ui
1SG.S leave now
I'm leaving now

The vanilla utterance, though it carries the connotation that you're actually in the process of leaving.

ukʼs dakʷɔɪ̯̥s ui
ukʼs dakʷɔɪ̯̥s ui
1SG.S leave-OPT now
I want to leave now

This construction uses the optative, which I hope to change into an overt future in some of the descendant langs.

Miscellanea

nɔsŋˤʷatʼ-ɓɛ holding something together

More roots/words

amziqfij fall apart (stative lie in a heap)
kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man
kʷuɔf female, woman
ɔiɓi boyar
ɔkɢˤɴˤikqˤ more, further
itbu more (number)
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J_from_Holland
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by J_from_Holland » 30 Mar 2015 15:43

Linguifex wrote:
Compounds

I'm thinking I want an interfix between compound components. As to the form, I'm thinking -ci- or -ciʕ-. I'm dithering on this too—if I keep the /ʕ/, then it would prevent lengthening of the vowel in a lot of syllables in branches that develop open-syllable lengthening. On the other hand, it kind of feels unwieldy that long. Then again I could just have descendants just drop *ʕ or turn it into a glide and resolve that way. *c is there so I can do stuff with palatalization or turning the consonant into, say, /s/. I'm thinking compounding would go as in English in terms of the head of the compound.

gˤɛpsciʕqˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ
gˤɛps-ciʕ-qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ
boulder-compound-wind
landslide

uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼciʕus(n)
uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ-ciʕ-us(n)
fish-compound-coat
fish scales

ɔɢarciʕɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
ɔɢar-ciʕ-ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
steep.side.of.hill-compound-river
waterfall

adtʼɔɓciʕɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
adtʼɔɓ-ciʕ-ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
shallow.side.of.hill-compound-river
cataract
I think this will make your language more constructed'ish and less natural. It's a cool idea, but not a good idea for a natural language, unless your goal isn't making a natural language.
By the way, do you really write 'waterfall' like this? ɔɢarciʕɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ. It looks pretty phonetic to me. Did you forget to include the actual spelling, or don't you have one yet?
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Prinsessa
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Prinsessa » 30 Mar 2015 15:59

Some North Germanic languages actually kind of do that.

Originally, as in Icelandic, generally singular or plural genitives were attached to declined heads in compounds.

In a lot of modern Swedish, this has been generalised to singular genitive -s, which is very commonly used to link words in compounds.

But there are exceptions: the plural genitives are preserved or even intuitive sometimes and sometimes other strategies are used (IMD we keep or change stem-final vowels whereas in Stockholm and generally "standard" they simply remove the vowel, but with no -s in either case, and these words originally didn't have a genitive in -s either).

In Icelandic too some words simply use bare compound stems, and Icelandic hasn't generalised singular -s but also uses endings like -ar, -ur, -a and -u (and plurals vary between -a, -na, -ja and others).

But even so, I can definitely see greater generalisation taking place. Swedish is halfway there, after all. But for naturalism, I would still leave a couple of irregularites, remnants of an older system, and possibly even a second pattern used for certain words, keeping one generalised system largely the dominant and productive one.

Birdlang
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Birdlang » 30 Mar 2015 20:48

Do you have a romanization yet? I would like to see one.
Ꭓꭓ Ʝʝ Ɬɬ Ɦɦ Ɡɡ Ɥɥ Ɫɫ Ɽɽ Ɑɑ Ɱɱ Ɐɐ Ɒɒ Ɓɓ Ɔɔ Ɖɖ Ɗɗ Əə Ɛɛ Ɠɠ Ɣɣ Ɯɯ Ɲɲ Ɵɵ Ʀʀ Ʃʃ Ʈʈ Ʊʊ Ʋʋ Ʒʒ Ꞵꞵ Ʉʉ Ʌʌ Ŋŋ Ɂɂ Ɪɪ Ææ Øø Ð𠌜 Ɜɜ Ǝɘ

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Linguifex
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Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 30 Mar 2015 21:11

J_from_Holland wrote:By the way, do you really write 'waterfall' like this? ɔɢarciʕɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ. It looks pretty phonetic to me. Did you forget to include the actual spelling, or don't you have one yet?
Birdlang wrote:Do you have a romanization yet? I would like to see one.
It's supposed to be a protolang, so I'm not too concerned about a romanization. Further, the phonology is so complex I really don't feel like writing with a romanization. Some of the daughterlangs, maybe, but I'd probably just go with a sort of academic transcription like you'd see Native American languages written down in.
Prinsessa wrote:Some North Germanic languages actually kind of do that.
Germanic was actually my inspiration for this. I figured it'd make for some interesting diachronics, at least.

Some more derivational morphology

-gˤ(ɔ) abstract nominalizer – Things like abstract qualities, gerunds, -ness, and -ship.

apʼɪ̯̥ɔ be able > apʼɪ̯̥ɔ-gˤ ability

-kˤʼuʕ motion purpose

qʼɔc eat > qʼɔckˤʼuʕ go to dinner
iqˤiqˤʷ farm > iqˤiqˤʷkˤʼuʕ go to the fields
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede > kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷkˤʼuʕ rush to defend against
ŋˤʷuɓ run away in fear > ŋˤʷuɓkˤʼuʕ panic

-ni something made from X – This gets used for both nouns and adjectives, the latter more common when it comes to materials.

aŋʷinqʼ cloud > aŋʷinqʼni rain
ɢˤɔqˤʼa silver > ɢˤɔqˤʼani silver coin
uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ fish > uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼni fish dinner
gˤɔra type of spice used for food > gˤɔrani a type of dish made with gˤɔra

-sɛ malady, illness – This can be applied to the cause, result, object, or metaphor of an illness.

u sun > usɛ heatstroke
si disposition > sisɛ depression
ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕiqˤʼsɛ hunchback, scoliosis
kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kˤʷuŋɓsɛ broken bone

-q(ɔ) place of

ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ɔqʷgˤrɛmq boulder field
uwi read > uwiq study, library
qʼɔc eat > qʼɔcqɔ dining room
uɓc type of fine meal powder > uɓcqɔ storage container for uɓc

-s(ɔ) become X – Used with abstract qualities like colors. Not used if something else is stated to be causing the change.

ɔŋˤʷ white/yellow > ɔŋˤʷus turn white/yellow
ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange > ɪ̯ɛŋˤus turn red/orange

-ust cause X to be Y – Used with abstract qualities like colors. Not used for unless something else is stated to be causing the change.

ɔŋˤʷ white/yellow > ɔŋˤʷust whiten/yellow
ɪ̯ɛŋˤ red/orange > ɪ̯ɛŋˤust redden/orange

-k(ɛ) cause X to do Y – Creates a verb that takes some sort of postpositional argument.

-atʼ adjectivizer – This is the vanilla noun-to-adjective affix.

ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔ sleep (n.) > ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔatʼ sleepy
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤatʼ windy

-ŋ(ɛ) lacking in – This typically produces adjectives.

ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔ sleep (n.) > ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔŋ sleepless
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤuŋ windless

-ɔqʷ abounding in – This typically produces adjectives.

ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔ sleep (n.) > ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢgˤɔɔqʷ well-rested
qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ wind > qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤɔqʷ blustery
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