The Ban De Languages

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 31 Mar 2015 06:47

So let's take a moment and sketch out a quick preliminary descendant to this protolanguage.

Resyllabification of syllables with *ʕ

Probably the defining trait of this family is the development of *ʕ. ʕV and Vʕ sequences became diphthongs with an offglide at the same POA of the vowel (except for *ʕa, *aʕ which > aː).

Change of *r and loss of implosives
*r > l, and *ɓ *ɗ > w r.

Assimilation in dorsal clusters
Clusters of dorsal consonants (including *c) progressively assimilate in phonation and regressively assimilate in place, roundedness, and pharyngealness.

Hiatus resolution
If two vowels in hiatus are the same, the sequences reduces to one. If the sequence is *a + high vowel, a diphthong is formed; if *a + non-high vowel, the result is aː.

Vowel lowering before pharyngealized consonants
*u *i > o e / _Cˤ, and then pharyngealized consonants lose this articulation.

*c lenition
*c > s

Vowel lowering before aː
u o {ɔ,ɛ} e i > o ɔ a ɛ e / _(C)(C)(C)aː

Dorsal shifts
The *k-series and the *q-series shift forward in POA to become a tʃ series (losing its contrastive rounding) and a k series (retaining its contrastive rounding). *ɢ > ɣ except C_#, where > Ø.

Lenition of word-final nasals
Word-final nasals become the appropriate semivowel.

Vocalic offglides
These simply become their consonantal counterparts (except for the voiceless palatal, which becomes ʃ).

Final custers
Final stops in clusters are lost.

Vowel raising
ɔ ɛ > o e

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > kʼutʃ
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > optʃʼo
*ɔt three > ot
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aɲwepʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ŋeɲ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > kʼutʃŋeɲ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > optʃʼoŋeɲ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > otŋeɲ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aɲwepʼŋeɲ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ŋeɲtʃwo
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aːkʼ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ɲabaː
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > tʃesːo
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jatʃʼew
*kˤuʕ shorelines > tʃwa
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > retʃtoj
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > koj
*vɔʕ pebble > vwa
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > apʼʃodʒ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ajkʼ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > odʒːlew
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kapʼetʃu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ɲewɔf
*uɢˤ the sun >
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > kʼatʼaːw
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light >
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > okʷod
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɲakʷɲeŋ
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > awʃ
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > tʃorɣajkʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > omkʷːu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > tʃeɣetʃ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > tʃwof
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ɲunɣ
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kowɣ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ɲomtʃ
*kʼup lower arm > tʃʼup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kwar
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > kʷuʒ
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ɲiwkʷetʃ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > kʼeɲ
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > wameŋu
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > tʃoɲdʒoj
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kʼir
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ojʃakʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nosɲatʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > tʃuŋu
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 31 Mar 2015 09:04

Shall we do another?

Nasalization
VN > V[+ nasalized] / _{C,#}

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > mˤ nˤ

High vowels near uvular consonants
High vowels become mid-close adjacent to a uvular consonant.

Uvular merger
The uvular series merges with the velar series.

Hiatus resolution
uu ɔɔ aa ɛɛ ii > ow oɔ a eɛ ej
Other combinations produce a semivowel

Vowel pharyngealization
Vowels bordered on both sides by a pharyngeal(ized) consonant become pharyngealized; pharyngealized consonants drop this secondary articulation. *ʕ drops completely.

Ejective loss
Cʼ > C

Semivowel stuff
The non-syllabic vowels become semivowels (except the voiceless palatal becomes /s/). This is more for convenience than sound change proper.

*a-raising
a > ɛ / j_
a > ɔ / w_

Lowering of final high vowels
Final high vowels become mid-close.

Rounded velars
Rounded velar consonants become bilabial.

Intervocalic voicing
Voiceless obstruents become voiced when between vowels (except for [ʔ]).

*c loss
*c > tʃ

Cluster resolution
Clusters of dorsal consonants drop the second consonants (except [w]). Clusters of a dorsal and a non-dorsal drop the dorsal (except [w]).

Glide fortition
wː jː > v dʒ

Lowering of nasal mid vowels
õ ẽ > ɔ̃ ɛ̃ (unless part of a diphthong)

Selected vocabulary

Again, these may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > kok
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > ɔpɔ
*ɔt three > ɔt
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > ãwɛp
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ŋẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > kokẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > ɔpkɔˤŋẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > ɔtẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > ãwɛpẽˤɛ̯̃ˤk
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ŋẽˤɛ̯̃ˤŋwo
*aʕqˤʼ cough >
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > mɛba
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kɛptʃɔ
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jɛˤgɛ̃ˤ
*kˤuʕ shorelines > koˤ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > nɛtɔ̃
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kɔ̃
*vɔʕ pebble >
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > abjɔg
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > eˤk
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ɔprɛ̃
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kabigu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ŋiˤwɔf
*uɢˤ the sun > og
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > kɔdwɔ̃
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > ezg
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > obɔd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > maˤpɛ̃ˤt
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ɔs
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kɔriˤp
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > ɔ̃pu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > kɛgɛp
*kʷuɔf female, woman > pwɔf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > mɔ̃g
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kowg
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > mɔ̃p
*kʼup lower arm > kup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kɔˤn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > poj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > miˤmip
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > kɛ̃k
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ɔmĩm
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kɔ̃ˤguŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kɛ̃g
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ɔdʒap
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nɔsat
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > pũˤm
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

shimobaatar
korean
korean
Posts: 11658
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 22:09
Location: PA → IN

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by shimobaatar » 31 Mar 2015 16:40

All of the sound changes you've posted here are interesting, but my personal favorites have got to be the two ways in which you've dealt with implosive loss. Oh, and the glide fortition.

User avatar
kilenc
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 142
Joined: 27 Mar 2015 23:14
Location: louisville
Contact:

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by kilenc » 31 Mar 2015 22:46

I can't comment much on the sound changes (I'm no expert at diachronic conlanging) but I do have to say this thread is really inspiring and makes me want to do my own proto-lang business. Good job with this!
eventually ill work out a good conlang :)

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 01 Apr 2015 06:38

Another descendant.

Dorsal resolution
Clusters of two dorsal plosives assimilate to the first one.

Uvular loss
q qʼ ɢ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ ɢˤ qˤʷ > k x ɣ kʷ ʡ ʡ ʢ ʡʷ

Vowel breaking
u i > aw aj after a pharyngeal(ized) sound.
a > ɑ after a pharyngeal(ized) sound.

Vowel deletion
Unstressed short vowels are deleted unless an illegal cluster is created.

Loss of bilabial sounds
f v > h w

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > b d

Decomposition of rounded consonants
Cʷ > Cw

Vowel shift
ɔ ɛ > o e
aw aj > ɔ ɛ

Vowel lengthening process
VCw > VːC
w > Ø

Intervocalic lenition
s z > z r / V_V
p b t d c k g > b v d z j g ɣ

Loss of *c
c > Ø

Umlaut
u o > i e before palatal sounds. The voiceless palatal semivowel is deleted.

Dorsal metathesis
In a cluster of a non-dorsal and a dorsal, the order of the phones reverses to place the dorsal first.

Second vowel shift
u o ɔ ɑ > ɨ u o ɔ

Ejective loss
Cʼ > C

Assimilations
Word-final clusters assimilate in voicing. Nasals assimilate in place to a following stop.

Pharyngeal merger
ʕ > j

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > ʡɨ
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > ukp
*ɔt three > ut
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aːmp
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > eŋk
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > ʡɨgeŋk
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > ukpŋeŋk
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > uteŋk
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aːmpeŋk
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > eŋk ezets (loan)
*aʕqˤʼ cough > ɔjʡ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋevaj
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > keːkʷ
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jɔk
*kˤuʕ shorelines > kɨj
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > dektuːŋ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kɨːŋ
*vɔʕ pebble > wuj
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > ɛpk
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > jiʡ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ugʷrem
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kokpɨ
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ŋɛːh
*uɢˤ the sun > ɨʢ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > xutab
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light >
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > ɨːgd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋɔːget
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > je
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kurʢɛjk
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > uŋk
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > keɣg
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kɨh
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋɔŋɣ
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kɔːɣ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋuŋk
*kʼup lower arm > xɨp
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kujn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > kij
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ŋɛːkbiːk
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > xiːŋk
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ɔjmb
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kuːŋgɔŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > xiɣd
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ɛjk
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nuŋst
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kɔmb
Last edited by Linguifex on 08 Apr 2015 01:46, edited 1 time in total.
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 01 Apr 2015 20:38

Let's go for another descendant, shall we?

Dorsal harmony
Dorsal consonants in a word harmonize to match the place of the first dorsal consonant in the word.

Simplification of semivowel-vowel clusters
wɛ wi > o u
ju jɔ > i e
wa ja > ɔ ɛ

Rhinoglottophilia
ɴ ɴˤ > h ħ
{hC[- voice],C[- voice]h} > Cʰ

Second vowel shift
u i > oʊ eɪ
o ɔ ɛ e > u o e i

Loss of nasals after semivowels
N > Ø / {w,j}_

Implosive loss
{ɓ,ɗ} > ʔ

Obstruent loss
O > Ø / _#

Voicing of initial obstruents and loss of certain consonants
O > [+ voice] / #_
b d {g,ɢ}(ˤ) > w r Ø / #_

Breathy voice
CʼV > CV[+ breathy]

Fronting of pharyngeal consonants
ħ ʕ > χ ʁ

Nasal assimilation
NS > Nː

Intervocalic voicing
C > C[+ voice] / V_V

Pharyngealization loss
Pharyngealized uvulars become plain uvular; pharyngealized velars become uvular.

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one >
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > opqo̤
*ɔt three > o
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aɴu
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ɦeɴ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > o̤ʊ̤qχeɴ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > opqo̤heɴ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > otʰeɴ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aɴupʰeɴ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > heɴqʁʷo
*aʕqˤʼ cough >
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋeba
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > ego
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > ege̤
*kˤuʕ shorelines >
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ʔektuŋˤ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll >
*vɔʕ pebble > voʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > abṳ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʁeɪ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > oɢrem
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > abe̤ɪ̤ɢoʊ
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ɴeɪʁʷo
*uɢˤ the sun > oʊɢ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > odo̤a
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > e
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > oʊɢo
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɴaqɴe
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʁoj
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > orgeɪʁ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > omqoʊ
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > eɢe
*kʷuɔf female, woman > oʊo
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ɴoʊn
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > oʊw
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋom
*kʼup lower arm >
*qˤɔʕn upper leg >
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > oʊi
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ɴeɪʔqi
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > eɪh
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > oʁmih
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > oɴɢoʊɴ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > eɪʔ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ojɛ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nosɴa
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > oʊɴ
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 03 Apr 2015 19:12

And another one!

*r fortition
r > d / N_

*c loss
c > ʃ

Palatalization
t d > tʃ dʒ / _{i,j, various flavors of ɪ̯}

Pharyngealized semivowels
ɪ̯ˤ ʊ̯ˤ > ʕ ʕʷ

Betacism
b > w

*a-coloring and pharyngeal processes
a > ɔ / _ʕʷ > ɔ
aʕ > aː
ʕ(ʷ) > Ø / _C
{gˤ,ɢˤ} > ʕ

Uvular loss
q qʼ ɢ qʷ qˤ qˤʼ qˤʷ > x h w xʷ χ h χʷ

Umlaut
a aː > ɛ ɛː / _(C)(C)(C){i,j,ɛ,some flavor of palatal semivowel}
ɛː > ɛɪ

Loss of unstressed vowels
V[- long] > Ø / [- stress] (if no unwieldy cluster is created)
V[- long] > ə / [- stress] (if an unwieldy cluster would be created)

Ejective disharmony
C[+ glottal] > C[- glottal] / C[+ glottal]…_

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > b d

Uvularization of pharyngealized velars
Pharyngealized velars become uvulars; *ŋˤ > Ø

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > huk
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > ɔpqʼ
*ɔt three > ɔt
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > awpʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ɛq
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > hukɛq
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > ɔpqʼɛq
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > ɔtɛq
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > awpʼɛq
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ɛq ɛʃɛtʃ (loan)
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aːh
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋɛwaː
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > qɛxʷʃə
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > ʕɛqʼ
*kˤuʕ shorelines > quʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > dɛktə
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > xuː
*vɔʕ pebble > vɔʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > ɛpʼʃəɢ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕih
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ɔxʷɢrəm
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > xɛpʼqu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > iʕʷɔf
*uɢˤ the sun >
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > hɔtʼab
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > ɛʒʕ
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > oχʷəd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɛχʷət
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʕɔʃ
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kɔrʕəχʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > ɔmqxə
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > qɛwkʷ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kʷuf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > un(w)
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > xuw
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ɔmqʷ
*kʼup lower arm > kʼup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > χɔn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > xʷuj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ibxʷəqʷ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > xik
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ɔmb
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > qɔɢə
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > xinʕ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ojʃəxʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nɔsətʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > qʷuŋb
Last edited by Linguifex on 08 Apr 2015 01:46, edited 1 time in total.
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

opipik
runic
runic
Posts: 2763
Joined: 12 Mar 2015 19:41

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by opipik » 04 Apr 2015 14:16

I tried to evolve something from this, so here it is:
Spoiler:
1. qʼuk > kʊʔ
2. ɔpkˤʼɔ > ʌ.kɑ
3. ɔt > ʌʔ
4. aŋˤwɛpʼ > ɥ̩̃ː.æβ
5. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ > ŋæ̃ːʔ
6. qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ > kʊɲɪãβ
7. ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ > ʌ.kʷʊŋĩʔ
8. ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ > ɑnːʲɤŋ
9. aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ >aɥ̃ɤʔŋə̃
10. ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ > ŋ̩ə̃kʷʌ
ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ɥ̃ɤ̃ːʔ
kʼup lower arm >kʊβ
aŋˤkˤʼ fingernail, claw > ɑ̃ʔ
ɔ finger > ʌ
wɛkˤʼ knuckle > ʊʔ
ʕuɪ̯ˤ thumb > xʊi̯
qˤɔʕn upper leg > kʷʊnː
ʕiqˤʼ spine > iʔ
ŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢ sleep > ŋaiʔ
ʊ̯ˤɛqʼ gag, wheeze > wæʔ
aʕqˤʼ cough, vomit > aʔ
quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kʊ̃
ɔŋʷˤ shovel, small shovel > ʌ̃
ŋʷɛp celebrate > ɥ̃æʔ
qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal >kʷʊi̯
qˤu type of small mammal-like animal > kʊ
jiŋqˤʷ school > jĩʔ
kˤipʼ cause something to skip or bounce on a surface > kiβ
kˤiɢˤ jam, paste > kiʔ
vɔʕ pebble > βɤ
ŋʷɔqˤʼ tie (knot) > ɥ̃ʊʔ
kʼaɢ tie, affix > kaʔ
ɔɗʊ̯ˤ sack, bag > ɤtʊ
ɔɓ up, above > ɤʔ
aɗ down, below > aʔ
ŋˤʷuɓ run away in fear > ɥ̃ʊβ
ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > iːʔ
qʼuqˤʷ compel > kʊʔ
utqˤ main road in a village > ʊʔ
kˤɔqˤʷuŋʷˤ pot > kʌɥ̃ʊ̃(β)
ɢˤiŋʷ type of bird-like animal > kĩβ
ɔqˤʼɔkˤʷ type of bird-like animal > ɤkʌʔ
ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ɥ̃æβaː
ŋˤukʷɓɔpʼ strike on the head > ŋʊβɤʔ
qˤʼaɴˤ burlap-like material > kɑ̃ŋ
uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > ʊkʷɤʔ
ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ɥ̃aʔŋæ̃ʔ
qˤʷukʼ type of fruit > ɥ̃ʊʔ
uŋˤɢɔʊ̯ˤtʼ type of fruit > ʊɥ̃ʌʊʔ
sakʼ type of fruit > saʔ
ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ɥ̃iβʷiʔ
diwkʷ fishing net, spider web > ciʊʔ
ɛpʼsu eating utensil >æʔsʊ
iŋʷu sky > iɥ̃ʊ
uɓc type of fine meal powder > ʊβcʊ
ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > ʌʔɹæ̃m
ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > ʌmĩːβ
gakˤʷpɛkʷ inside >kaʔpæʔ
anun from > anũn
ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʌɪ
qʼiŋʷˤk die > kĩ.ɥ̩̃ʔ
ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > ʌ̃mkʷʊ
ukˤʷŋak type of bird-like animal > ʊkʷnaʔ
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kʌɹkʷə̃ʔʔ
kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kʷʊ̃β
nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nʌsɥ̃ɑʔ
akˤʼakˤs split, cut > akaʔɕ̩
kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kʌɥ̃ʊ̃
iʕ bear, carry > iː
aŋʷinqʼ cloud > aɥ̃ĩʔ
ɛɴˤkaŋˤgˤ basic, elementary > æ̃kɑ̃ʔ
aɓ without, lacking > ɑβ
ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼ child's toy > ʌʊʔkɤʔ
muɪ̯̥ɢˤ mother > mʊiː
qʼɔc eat > kʌci
ŋˤʷuqʷkˤʼi taste > ɥ̃ʊʔki
aɢˤɔt digest > akʌʔ
qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kitə̃ʔ
gˤu feel (temperature, weather) > kʊ
ɢˤɛʕ smell > kæː
qʷɔd perceive > kʷɤʔ
ɔqʷɔ record > ɤkʷʌ
uwi read > u̯i
ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ɤjiaʔ
ɔɛŋʷ understand > ʌ̯æɥ̃
aɪ̯̥ɢˤ hear > aiʔ
ŋʷai track a source of sound > ɥ̃ai
You can use it.

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 04 Apr 2015 20:58

opipik wrote:I tried to evolve something from this, so here it is:
[vocab from a new language]
You can use it.
I have fanfiction! Thank you, opipik! I would like to use this. May I have a list of the sound changes you applied, please?
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 14 Apr 2015 06:21

Let's do another.

Initial fortition of *r

r > dʒ / #_

Palatalization

The *k-series becomes an s-series before front vowels.

Loss of *c

c > s / _i

Vowel shift

ɔ u > u i / open syllables

Mid-open lowering

{ɔ,ɛ} > a

Pharyngealization processes

Pharyngealization spreads regressively in clusters.
Ejective consonants become pharyngeal.
Vowels before a pharyngeal(ized) consonant become pharyngealized.
Consonant pharyngealization is lost, but *ʕ remains.

Long vowels

VV > Vː

Loss of *ɴ *ɴˤ

*ɴ *ɴˤ are lost with compensatory lengthening of a preceding short vowel

Loss of *r

r > Ø

Uvular fronting

The uvular series becomes a velar series.

Minor stuff

The first element of a mixed-voice cluster of dorsal obstruents drops out.

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > kuk
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > aˤpka
*ɔt three > at
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aˤŋwaˤp
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > aˤːŋk
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > kukaˤːŋk
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > aˤpkaˤːaˤːŋk
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > aˤtaˤːŋk
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aˤŋwaˤpaˤːŋk
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > aˤːŋkwu
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aˤʕk
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > nʷabaˤʕ
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kakʷʃu
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jaˤkaː
*kˤuʕ shorelines > kuˤʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ɗaktaŋʷ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > kuˤŋʷ
*vɔʕ pebble > vaˤʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > aˤpjaˤg
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕik
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > aˤkʷam
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > kaˤpiˤki
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > niˤwaf
*uɢˤ the sun > uˤg
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > kuˤtuːɓ
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > aˤjg
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > iˤkʷad
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋʷaˤqʷŋaˤːt
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʕaj
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kaˤgiˤʕkʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > aˤmqʷu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > sagakʷ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kʷiːf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋʷing
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > kuˤwg
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋʷamkʷ
*kʼup lower arm > kup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > kaˤʕn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > kʷuj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > nʷiɓkʷiˤkʷ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > kiˤŋk
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > aˤʕmiˤːɓ
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kaˤŋʷguˤŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kiˤɗg
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ajakʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > naˤsŋʷaˤt
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kʷuŋɓ
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Scratchpad – Some sort of a protolanguage, hopefully

Post by Linguifex » 15 Apr 2015 01:09

Vowel breaking
ɔ ɛ > wa ja / #_(C)i

Loss of unstressed high vowels
u i > x ʃ / [- stress] (voiced if between two voiced sounds)
{ɔ,ɛ} > ə / [- stress]

Merger of mid-open vowels to high
ɔ ɛ > u i

Implosive loss
ɓ ɗ > b d

Umlaut
a > e / _(C)(C)(C){palatal}

Palatalization
Consonants palatalize before a front vowel.

Vowel merger
{a,e} > a
{u,i} > ə

Consonant harmony
Non-semivowels are palatalized or not palatalized depending upon the first obstruent in the word.

Palatalization reduction
*pʲ-series > pʃ-series (fʲ vʲ > x ɣ)
*tʲ-series > tʃ-series (sʲ zʲ > ʃ ʒ)
*kʲ-series > s-series
*qʲ-series > k-series

*ʕ syllabifies
*ʕ > a / O_O

Selected vocabulary

These may be incorrect as I did them myself.

*qʼuk one > qʼək
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > apkˤʼə
*ɔt three > at
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > anˤwəpʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > ŋˤaəŋˤkˤ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > qʼəkŋˤəaŋˤkˤ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > apkˤʼəŋˤaəŋˤkˤ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > atŋˤəaŋˤkˤ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aˤŋwəˤpʼŋˤaəŋˤkˤ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > ŋˤaəŋˤkˤwˤa
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aʕqˤʼ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > nʷabaʕ
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > saqʷca
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jˤasˤʼaɴ
*kˤuʕ shorelines > kˤəʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > dʒaktaŋˤʷ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > qəŋˤʷ
*vɔʕ pebble > vaʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > apʼʃjagˤ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ɣək
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > aqʷgˤʒam
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > qˤapʼʃkˤə
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > nˤəwˤaf
*uɢˤ the sun > əɢˤ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > qʼatʼəab
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > aˤjɢˤ
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > əqˤʷəd
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤaɴˤt
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ɣaj
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > karɢˤʒaqˤʷ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > amkˤqʷə
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > sˤagakʷ
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kʷəaf
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋˤʷənɢ
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > qəwˤɢ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋʷamkˤʷ
*kʼup lower arm > kʼəp
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > qˤaʕn
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > qʷəj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > nʷibqʷʒkˤʷ
*qʼiŋˤʷk die > kʼəˤŋˤʷk
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > aʕmʃɴˤb
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kˤaŋʷˤgɣˤŋ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > kʼədɢˤ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ajaqʷ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nasŋˤʷatʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > kʷəŋb
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by Linguifex » 10 Feb 2016 03:52

Yet another descendant, this one on the western edge of the speakers' range and, given its distant position, rather conservative, I hope. What I want is for this language and its descendants to come into contact with the Mute Caber and influence each other (and ultimately to adopt the Caber logograms for its own use, which will be an adventure to try and get to go smoothly).

f v > h w
ɢ ɢˤ > ɣ ʕ
Kʷ Qʷ > Kw Qw
w > Ø / C_{C,#}
Q(ˤ) > QX (i.e., affricates)
C > Ø / C_#
K(ˤ) > TŚ / _V[+ high]
V > Ø / _V
ʊ̯ˤ ɪ̯̥ ɪ̯ ɪ̯ˤ > wˤ x j jˤ
VN > V[+ nasalized] / _{C,#}
ɔ ɛ > u i
ɹ > ə̯ / V_{C,#}
uə iə > ɔ ɛ
C[+ implosive] > [- implosive] / _{C,#}
c > tɕ / _#
c > ɕ
Word-final homorganic semivowels drop after high vowels
w(ˤ)i j(ˤ)u > ɔ ɛ (under influence from Mute Caber)
x ɣ > ɕ ʑ (under influence from Mute Caber)
{s,z} {ɕ,ʑ} {x,ɣ} > n ȵ ŋ / #_ (under influence from Mute Caber)
ɹ > n (under influence from Mute Caber)

ukʼs ~ ukʼus > ukʼ ~ utɕʼus 1SG
ɔtʼ ~ ɔtʼɔr > utʼ ~ utʼɔ 2SG
ɔɓz ~ ɔɓɔrz > ub ~ uɓɔ 3SG.M
iɗ ~ iɗir > id ~ iɗɛ 3SG.F

uks ~ ukur > uk ~ ukɔ 1DL
ɔt ~ ɔrt > ut ~ ɔ 2DL
ɔbz ~ ɔbɔz > ub ~ ubuz 3DL.M
id ~ ird > id ~ ɛ 3DL.F

ku ~ kur > tɕu ~ tɕɔ 1PL
tɔ ~ tɔr > tu ~ tɔ 2PL
bɔz ~ bɔrz > buz ~ bɔ 3PL.M
di ~ dir > di ~ dɛ 3PL.F

uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼ > uwˤukˤʼ fish
uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼuŋˤʷ > uwˤutɕʼuŋˤʷ two fish
uʊ̯ˤwukˤʼɔʊ̯ˤ >uwˤukˤʼu fish

ʊ̯ˤɛkˤ > ɔkˤ deer
ʊ̯ˤɛkˤuŋˤʷ >ɔtɕuŋˤ two deer
ʊ̯ˤɛkˤɔʊ̯ˤ >ɔkˤuwˤ deer

qˤʼukˤʷɛ > qχ'ukˤɔ type of bird
qˤʼukˤʷɛuŋˤʷ > qχʼukˤwuŋˤ two of a type of bird
qˤʼukˤʷɛɔʊ̯ˤ > qχʼukˤu three or more of a type of bird

ŋˤʷɛkɪ̯̥a > ŋˤɔkɕa bear-like animal
ŋˤʷɛkiʕuŋˤʷ > ŋˤɔtɕiʕuŋˤ two of a bear-like animal
ŋˤʷɛkiʕɔʊ̯ˤ > ŋˤɔtɕiʕu three or more of a bear-like animal

atʼfɛɪ̯ˤ > atʼhi half of the body
atʼfɛɪ̯ˤqʼ > atʼhiqχʼ body
atʼfɛɪ̯ˤkˤ > atʼhikˤ bodies

qˤʼukˤʷɛ > qχʼukˤɔ foot

kʼivkˤinɗ > tɕʼiwtɕĩ liver

us(n) > us coat of hair or fur
usnuqʼ > usnuqχʼ two coats of hair or fur
usnukˤ > usnukˤ three or more coats of hair or fur

qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤc > qχukˤŋutɕ eye
qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔqʼ > qχukˤŋuɕuqχʼ two eyes
qɔkˤŋɔʊ̯ˤcɔkˤ > qχukˤŋuɕukˤ three or more eyes

qˤatc > qχat trunk, proboscis
qˤatcaqʼ > qχat.ɕaqχʼ two trunks, two probosces
qˤatcakˤ > qχat.ɕakˤ three or more trunks, three or more probosces
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by Linguifex » 10 Feb 2016 07:57

ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ > jˤakˤʼĩ river
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴkˤʼ > jˤakˤʼĩkˤ two rivers
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴʕ > jˤakˤʼĩkˤ rivers

ɔɢar > uɣan steep side of a hill
ɔɢarkˤʼ > uɣan
ɔɢarʕ > uɣan

kˤu > tɕu shoreline, riverbank
kˤukˤʼ > tɕukˤʼ
kˤuʕ > tɕuʕ

kʼɛvqʷɛ > kʼiwqχi island
kʼɛvqʷɛkˤʼ > kʼiwqχikˤʼ
kʼɛvqʷɛʕ > kʼiwqχiʕ

ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ > ɗiktũ forest
ɗɛktɔŋˤʷkˤʼ > ɗiktũ (analogy might kick in and restore the -kˤʼ)
ɗɛktɔŋˤʷa > ɗiktuŋˤa (analogy might kick in and make this end in -ũʕ)

ikʼqʷis(n) > itɕʼis clearing
ikʼqʷisnukˤʼ > itɕʼisnukˤʼ
ikʼqʷisna > itɕʼisna

zuɓaqʼ > nuɓaqχʼ lake, channel
zuɓaqʼukˤʼ > nuɓaqχʼukˤʼ
zuɓaqˤʼa > nuɓaqχʼa

gˤɛps > gˤip boulder
gˤɛpskˤʼu > gˤipstɕʼu
gˤɛpsa > gˤipsa

qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ > qχapʼitɕu wind
qˤapʼikˤun > qχapʼitɕũ
qˤapʼikˤukˤ > qχapʼitɕukˤ

ugaŋʷtʼ > ugã fire
ugaŋʷtʼni > ugãtʼni
ugaŋʷtʼki > ugãtɕʼi

u > u sun
un > ũ
uk > uk

tupqʷa > tupqχa tide, wave
tupqʷan > tupqχã
tupqʷak > tupqχak

ɛb > ib push
ɛbni > ibni
ɛbki > iptɕi

ɛpʼvikˤʼ > ipʼɔkˤʼ shock, stun
ɛpʼvikˤʼni > ipʼɔkˤʼni
ɛpʼvikˤʼi > ipʼɔtɕʼi

ɢˤɔqˤʼa > ʕuqχʼa silver
ɢˤɔqˤʼagˤ > ʕuqχʼaqχ two kinds/mixes of silver
ɢˤɔqˤʼaŋˤ > ʕuqχʼã

gˤɔra > gˤuna type of spice used for food

gˤɔra > gˤuna type of plant from which a kind of spice is obtained
gˤɔrʕɔɗ > gˤɔʕud two of these plants
gˤɔrʕɔn > gˤɔʕũ many of these plants

ukˤpʼ > ukˤ type of decorative plant
ukˤpʼɔɗ > ukˤpʼud
ukˤpʼɔn > ukˤpʼũ

ɛtkʷ > it pebble
ɛtkʷʊ̯ˤɔ > itkwˤu two pebbles
ɛtkʷɔkˤʷ > itkwukˤ pebbles

kˤɛqʷcɔ > kˤiqχɕu parent
kˤɛqʷcɔr > kˤiqχɕɔ two parents, married couple
kˤɛqʷcɔʕ > kˤiqχɕuʕ

iɴkʷaɪ̯̥ > ĩkwaɕ biological child
iɴkʷaɪ̯̥r > ĩkwaɕ
iɴkʷaɪ̯̥ʕ > ĩkwaɕ

ɴˤikˤcɔ > ikˤɕu adopted child
ɴˤikˤcɔr > ikˤɕɔ
ɴˤikˤcɔʕ > ikˤɕuʕ

iɪ̯ɔf old person > ijuh
iɪ̯ɔfrɔ > ijuhnu
iɪ̯ɔfan > ijuhã

dɛ > di dishonest person
dɛr > dɛ
dɛʕ > diʕ

zaqʼ > naqχʼ spear
zaqʼrɔ > naqχʼnu
zaqʼan > naqχʼã

uʊ̯ˤ > u shoe (this will probably get replaced with a loan from Mute Caber)
uʊ̯ˤr > u
uʊ̯ˤʕ > u

ɛmkʼˤit(ŋʷ) > ĩtɕʼit identity
ɛmkʼˤitŋʷrɔ > ĩtɕʼitŋu
ɛmkʼˤitŋʷan > ĩtɕʼitŋwã

ɴˤɛtʼ > itʼ comb
ɴˤɛtʼrɔ > itʼnu
ɴˤɛtʼan > itʼã

si > si disposition
sir > sɛ
siʕ > siʕ
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by Linguifex » 16 Feb 2016 20:29

*qʼuk one > qχʼuk
*ɔpkˤʼɔ two > upkˤʼu
*ɔt three > ut
*aŋˤwɛpʼ four > aŋˤɔpʼ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ five > iŋˤ
*qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ six > qχʼukiŋˤ
*ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ seven > upkˤʼiŋˤ
*ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ eight > utiŋˤ
*aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ nine > aŋˤɔpʼiŋˤ
*ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ ten > iŋˤkˤwˤu
*aʕqˤʼ cough > aʕ
*ŋʷɛbaʕ pet, domesticated animal around the house > ŋɛbaʕ
*kˤɛqʷcɔ parent > kˤiqχɕu
*ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ river > jˤakˤʼi
*kˤuʕ shorelines > tɕuʕ
*ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ forest > ɗiktuŋˤ
*quŋˤʷ type of food similar to a cinnamon roll > qχuŋˤ
*vɔʕ pebble > wuʕ
*apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ ability > apʼxugˤ
*ʕiqˤʼ spine > ʕiqχʼ
*ɔqʷgˤrɛm boulder > uqχnim
*qˤapʼikˤʊ̯ˤ [qˤapʼikˤu] wind > qχapʼitɕu
*ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf give > ŋˤiwˤuh
*uɢˤ the sun > uʕ
*qʼɔtʼɔaɓ flower > qχʼutʼaɓ
*ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ shine, glow, give off light > ix
*uqˤʷɔd type of fruit > uqχwud
*ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt type of fruit > ŋˤwaqχŋit
*ʕɔɪ̯̥ farm, vegetable patch, garden, food place > ʕux
*kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ impede, make something difficult > kunʕiʕ
*ɔmkˤqʷu type of bird-like animal > umqχwu
*kˤɛɢɛkʷ male, man > kˤiɣik
*kʷuɔf female, woman > kwuh
*ŋˤʷunɢ friend > ŋˤwun
*quʊ̯ˤɢ guest > qχuwˤ
*ŋʷɔmkˤʷ upper arm > ŋwum
*kʼup lower arm > tɕʼup
*qˤɔʕn upper leg > qχuʕ
*qʷuɪ̯ type of bird-like animal > qχuj
*ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ canvas-like material > ŋwiɓqχikˤ
*qʼiŋʷˤk die > qχʼiŋˤ
*ɔʕmiɴˤɓ wedge, doorstop > uʕmiɓ
*kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ type of small boat > kˤuŋˤdʑuŋˤ
*qʼiɗɢˤ feel (texture) > qχʼiɗ
*ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ write > ujɕaqχ
*nɔsŋˤʷatʼ stick together, join > nusŋˤwatʼ
*kˤʷuŋɓ bone > tɕuŋ
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

Ephraim
sinic
sinic
Posts: 386
Joined: 15 Nov 2013 13:10
Location: Sweden

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by Ephraim » 16 Feb 2016 21:57

This is a pretty cool-looking language family. It has quite an original feel to it in terms of phonology and morphology. It sort of looks vaguely Northeast Caucasian, which I think has somewhat similar general word length, and which shares some exotic phonological characteristics with this family. Also, it has word classes. But in many respects, the grammar and phonology is actually quite different from NE Caucasian.

A note on the phonology: How do you realize the contrast between /kˤ/ and /qˤ/? It seems to be increadibly rare to distinguish pharyngealized velars and uvulars. Many Caucasian languages have a threeway distinction between /k/:/q/:/qˁ/ but they lack the pharyngealized velar series. I think there's a reason for that. Since pharyngealization involves retracting the tongue root, it may be hard to simultaneously articulate a velar with the back of the tongue against the velum.

Khwarshi and Tsez have been claimed to contrast pharyngealized uvulars and velars, but they seem to have a strange distribution. Phonologically, pharyngealization seem to be a property of the following vowel, and it certainly affects both the consonant and the vowel phonetically. However, pharyngealized uvulars (but not velars) can also appear without any following vowel so it seems that there is actually a pharyngealized uvular series phonologically (a three-way contrast /k/:/q/:/qˁ/).

So before vowels, Khwarshi and Tsez seem to contrast pharyngealized velars, but not word-finally (Khwarshi qˤubab ‘dirty’ vs kˤabˤa ‘black’). I'm not sure about the phonological details about this contrast, but it may be that the pharyngealized velars are only very slightly retracted and that most of the contrast is made on the following vowels. So even if it is possible to have a contrast before vowels, it may be difficult to maintain this contrast word-finally.

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by Linguifex » 17 Feb 2016 17:14

Thank you!
Ephraim wrote:How do you realize the contrast between /kˤ/ and /qˤ/?
I actually have that more for the sake of diachronics, to give different reflexes in different languages.
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

cntrational
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 05 Nov 2012 03:59

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by cntrational » 17 Feb 2016 18:39

you want to ban the languages?

rude

User avatar
Lambuzhao
korean
korean
Posts: 7800
Joined: 13 May 2012 01:57

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by Lambuzhao » 17 Feb 2016 21:34

cntrational wrote:you want to ban the languages?

rude
OMG

When I saw this I was like "SH*T! Whose languages were banned‽ What for‽‽"

Stoopid me. [:x] [:$]

opipik
runic
runic
Posts: 2763
Joined: 12 Mar 2015 19:41

Re: The Ban De Languages

Post by opipik » 21 Aug 2016 20:15

A fan-descendant replacing the previous one:
Spoiler:
V=aeiouɛɔæ
O=ɑɛeɔoaɑ
L=āēīōū
C=ptcbdgmnlrhsɴɟkqɲŋʕjʃwɓɗɰʁʔ
F=ie
B=ou
S=ptc
Z=bdg
J=ɲcɟj
K=ŋkgɰ
Q=ɴqɢʁ




ʕ/h/_/V_
ʕ/ˤ/V_
r/ɗ/_
d/ⁿd/_
b/ᵐb/_
j/d/_
w/b/_
ɪ̯/j/_
ʊ̯/w/_
ɢ/ʁ/_
ɴ/̃/V_
ɴ/ʁ/_
q/ʔ/_
h/ʔ/_
f/h/_
j̥/ʃ/_
ʔʼ/ʔˤ/_
ʔˤʼ/ʔˤ/_
c/t͡ʂ/_
K/J/_/_ˤ
Q/K/_/_ˤ
Cˤ/\\/_/#_
ʼˤ/\\/_/#C_
ʷˤ/\\/_/#C_
ˤʷ/\\/#C_
Cˤ/\\/_/#_
̃ˤ/\\/_
ˤV/\\/#C(C)_
ˤV/\\/_
ˤˤ/ˤ/_
ˤˤ/ˤ/_
ɓ/ˀm/_
ɗ/ˀn/_
z/ɟ/_
Vˤ/O/_
ɛa/aa/_
aa/a/_
e/ɪ/_
ɛ/e̞/_
a/æ/_
kʼ/ʔ/_
k//_/_ʷ
p/k/_
kʷ/p/_
ʔʷ/p/_
u/ɨ/_
o/u/_
ɰ/j/C_
j/i/#_C
ɨ/ɰ/V_V
i/ɨʝ/_
ɪ/i/_
ʝC/\\/_
ʝ/j/_
g/j/C_
ɨ/ə/_
t͡ʂt͡ʂ/ʧ/_
tt͡ʂ/ʧ/_
[ktp]j/ʧ/_
[gdb]j/ʤ/_
[hʃf]j/ɕ/_
[nmŋ]j/ɲ/_
j//C_
ʧ/t͡ʂ/_
ʃ/ʂ/_
ˤ//_
Spoiler:
qʼuk
ɔpkˤʼɔ
ɔt
aŋˤwɛpʼ
ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
qʼukɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
ɔpkˤʼɔɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
ɔtɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
aŋˤwɛpʼɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤ
ɴˤɛɛŋˤkˤʊ̯ˤɔ
aʕqˤʼ
ŋʷɛbaʕ
kˤɛqʷcɔ
ɪ̯ˤakˤʼɛɴ
kˤuʕ
ɗɛktɔŋˤʷ
quŋˤʷ
vɔʕ
apʼɪ̯̥ɔgˤ
ʕiqˤʼ
ɔqʷgˤrɛm
qˤapʼikˤu
ŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔf
uɢˤ
qʼɔtʼɔaɓ
ɛɪ̯̥ɢˤ
uqˤʷɔd
ŋˤʷaqˤʷŋˤɛɴˤt
ʕɔɪ̯̥
kɔrɢˤiʕqˤʷ
ɔmkˤqʷu
kˤɛɢɛkʷ
kʷuɔf
ŋˤʷunɢ
quʊ̯ˤɢ
ŋʷɔmkˤʷ
kʼup
qˤɔʕn
qʷuɪ̯
ŋˤʷiɓqʷikˤʷ
qʼiŋʷˤk
ɔʕmiɴˤɓ
kˤɔŋʷˤgˤuŋˤ
qʼiɗɢˤ
ɔjɪ̯̥aqʷ
nɔsŋˤʷatʼ
ukʼs apʼɪ̯̥ɔqˤʷ, ukʼs ŋʷˤɔqˤʷ ɛqˤiɓɛ
ɔtʼ ɔbz dir kʷɔuapʼ kʷɔŋʷiqʼziqʷkʷɔr
kˤɛqʷcɔrɢˤ aqʷpʼam ɔbza ɔʊ̯ˤkʼgɔqˤʼɔɢˤ kʷɛ kʷaŋˤiʊ̯ˤɔfkʷɔ
qʼɔtʼɔaɓɔn ɔŋʷˤɔn kʷaɢˤaʊ̯ˤɢˤɓifɓɛ ɛŋatkˤɛɴan
ɔɗŋˤʷiʕɢˤ ɔʊ̯ˤuʕ kʷaɢˤɔuckʷɔ
ɢˤɔpʼjɔpʼʊ̯ˤɛɢˤ ɔkˤʷɔɴag kʷaŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢɓɛ
ɪ̯afuqˤʼɛsɔkˤʷɢˤ ɔŋˤʷɔkˤʷ ɔqʼɔɢɔkˤʷ kʷaɴɔbɛɓ ɔŋˤqɔʕn
aqtʼutkuɢˤ ɛŋatkˤɛɴk kʷaɪ̯̥akˤʷkˤɔɪ̯ˤ tɛdɔŋan
ɛɔqˤʼɴˤaqʼaɢˤ itri kʷaakˤʼŋˤuqʷkʷɔ ɔɔc
qʼɔtʼɔaɓ ɔŋʷˤ it kʷaaviɓɛ
ukʼs kʷaqˤʼaqˤʼuɓɛ ɔpkˤʼɔʕn
ɢˤɔpʼjɔpʼʊ̯ˤɛɢˤ ɔkˤʷɔɴag kʷaŋˤaɪ̯̥ɢɓɛ

-->

ʔuc
ɑkʔɔ
ɔt
ɑŋbe̞kʼ
ʁæŋ
ʔucʁæŋ
ɑkʔɑ̃æŋ
ɑtʁæŋ
ɑŋbækʼʁæŋ
ʁæŋwɔ
ɑʔ
ɲʷe̞ᵐbɑ
æpt͡ʂɔ
jɑʔẽ̞
u
ˀne̞ctɑŋʷ
ʔuŋʷ

ækʼʂɑg
ʔiʔ
ɑt͡ʂˀne̞m
ʔɑkʼiə
ŋiwɔh

ʔɑtʼɔæˀm
æʂʁ
upɔⁿd
ŋʷɑpŋæ̃t
ʔɔʂ
cɑˀnʁip
ɑmpə
æɰe̞cʷ
cʷəɔh
ŋʷuɲ
ʔuw
ɲʷɑmp
cʼək
ʔɑn
pəj
ŋʷiˀmpip
ʔiɲʷc
ɑmĩˀm
ɑɲʷguŋ
ʔiˀnʁ
ɔdʂæp
nɑsŋʷætʼ
əcʼs ækʼʂɑp, əcʼs ɲʷɑp æʔəjˀme̞
ɔtʼ ɔᵐbɟ ⁿdəjˀn cʷɔɰækʼ cʷɔɲʷiʔɟət͡ʂcʷɔˀn
æpt͡ʂɑˀnʁ æpkʼæm ɔᵐbɟæ ɑwcʼɟɑʔɑʁ cʷe̞ cʷɑŋiwɔhcʷɔ
ʔɑtʼɔæˀmɔn ɑɲʷɔn cʷɑʁɑwʁˀməɕˀme̞ e̞ɲɑtẽ̞æn
ɑˀnŋʷiʁ ɑwu cʷɑʁɔət͡ʂcʷɔ
ʁɑkʼdɑkʼwæʁ ɑpɔ̃æɟ cʷɑŋæɕˀme̞
jæhuʔe̞sɑpʁ ɑŋʷɑp ɑʔɔɰɑp cʷæ̃ɔᵐbe̞ˀm ɑŋʔɑn
æʔtʼətcuʁ e̞ɲɑtẽ̞c cʷæʂɑpɑj te̞ⁿdɔɲæn
e̞ɑʔʁɑʔɑʁ ət͡ʂˀnə cʷæɑʔŋəpcʷɔ ɔɔt͡ʂ
ʔɑtʼɔæˀm ɑɲʷ ət͡ʂ cʷævəjˀme̞
əcʼs cʷɑʔɑʔəˀme̞ ɑkʔɑn
ʁɑkʼdɑkʼwæʁ ɑpɔ̃æɟ cʷɑŋæɕˀme̞
/p pʼ b ᵐb t tʼ d ⁿd t͡ʂ c cʼ cʷ ɟ ɟʷ k kʼ kʷ ɡ ɡʷ ʔ/ <p pʼ b mb t tʼ d nd ṭ ţ ţʼ ţw j jw k kʼ kw g gw ꞌ>
/m ˀm n ˀn ɲ ˀɲ ɲʷ ŋ ŋʷ/ <m ʼm n ʼn ñ ñw ŋ ŋw>
/v s ʂ ɕ h/ <v s ṣ ś h>
/w l j ɰ ʁ/ <w l y ŵ ɣ>

/i e̞ ə æ ɑ ɔ u/ <i e ơ æ a o u>
/ĩ ẽ̞ ə̃ æ̃ ɑ̃ ɔ̃ ũ/ <i̧ ȩ ơ̧ æ̧ a̧ o̧ u̧>

Ơţʼs ækʼṣap, ơţʼs ñwap æꞌơyʼme. Otʼ ombj ndơyʼn ţwoŵækʼ ţwoñwiꞌjơṭţwoʼn. Æpṭaʼnɣ æpkʼæm ombjæ awţʼjaꞌaɣ ţwe ţwaŋiwohţwo. ꞌAtʼoæʼmon añwon ţwaɣawɣʼmơśʼme eñatȩæn. Aʼnŋwiɣ awu ţwaɣoơṭţwo. Ɣakʼdakʼwæɣ apo̧æj ţwaŋæśʼme. Yæhuꞌesapɣ aŋwap aꞌoŵap ţwæ̧ombeʼm aŋꞌan. Æꞌtʼơtţuɣ eñatȩţ ţwæṣapay tendoñæn. Eaꞌɣaꞌaɣ ơṭʼnơ ţwæaꞌŋơpţwo ooṭ. ꞌAtʼoæʼm añw ơṭ ţwævơyʼme. Ơţʼs ţwaꞌaꞌơʼme akꞌan.

Post Reply