The original reason for making Old Arassenian was to have a protolang to derive daughterlangs from. For an unknown reason I spent more time working on it than on any other of my languages, so I suppose it's fair to say it's become my main conlang. That doesn't mean it's any good, I am a terrible conlanger.
The language presented here is Old Arassenian version 5000, because I rebooted it so many times it's funny how unfunny it is. The old versions were almost always kitchensinky. This time, I actually have an idea.
Without further ado, let's start with, as is this board's tradition,
It's slightly more European that I normally do, so if you're allergic to anything resembling Eurolangs, I'd recommend averting your gaze now.
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| Consonants | labial | coronal | palatal | velar | pharyngeal | |----------------+--------+---------+---------+-------+------------| | nasal | m | n | ŋ | | | vl stop | | t | c | k | | | vd stop | | d | ɟ~ɡ | | | vl fricative | f | θ | ç | x | | | vd fricative | v | ð | ʝ~ɣ | | | vl sibilant | | s | | | | | vd sibilant | | z | | | | | lateral liquid | | l | | | lˤ | | central liquid | | r | | | ʔ | | Vowels | front | back | |----------+-----+------+------+------+ | high | i | iː | u | uː | | high-mid | e | eː | o | oː | | low-mid | ɛ | ɛː | | | | low | a | aː | ɑ | ɑː |
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| | labial | alveolar | dorsal | guttural | |----------+--------+----------+--------+----------| | ejective | | tʼ | kʼ | qʼ | | vl stop | p | t | k | q | | vd stop | b | d | ɡ | | | glide | w | | j | ʕ |
And that glottal stop? It's a remnant of /ʕ/. In fact, what happened was /ʕ/ → /ʔ/. The language is somewhat inconsistent with regard to its treatment of /ʔ/, it can't decide whether it's a glottal stop or a pharyngeal approximant.
Onset: (N/L)C. /ʔ/ is not a valid liquid here. Null onset is strictly speaking not allowed unless the nucleus starts with a semivowel, but nobody will look askance at you if you consider sole /ʔ/ a de facto null onset. In fact, that's what I'm doing.
- short vowels – (W)V(W) – where W is /i/ or /u/ and allowed only when V is not /i/ nor /u/ itself; each vowel is moraic, except the semivowel closer to the onset when it's null; or
- a long vowel – Vː – always two moras
No syllable may have more than three moras. Should a four-mora syllable arise, its semivowel closer to the coda is dropped.
When syllabifying, medial clusters are split between syllables even if they form a valid onset. For example, /anta/ is syllabified /an.ta/, not /a.nta/.
Basically, allophony, but includes some stuff that's not allophony, so I'm not calling it allophony, because it's not only allophony. Hope it's clear.
- Palatal stops and fricatives are commonly realized as alveolopalatal affricates and sibilants.
- /k x/ → [q χ] or [ʡ ħ] before /e eː i iː/. Yes, it looks weird, but look at the parent lang table above. They were uvulars that fronted. This is where they didn't front to avoid a merger.
- /ŋ ɟ~ɡ ʝ~ɣ/ → [ɲ ɟ ʝ] before palatals and /e eː i iː/.
- /ŋ ɟ~ɡ ʝ~ɣ/ → [ŋ ɡ ɣ] before velars, pharyngeals back vowels.
- Elsewhere, /ŋ/ is [ŋ], but both /ɟ~ɡ/ and /ʝ~ɣ/ are in free variation.
- Fricatives become stops after a nasal.
- Liquids assimilate to a following liquid. /ʔ/ is not a liquid here.
- /l r/ are contrastive only before /a aː/, back vowels and word-finally; become /r/ before /ʔ/; become /l/ elsewhere.
- Word-medial stops spirantize before a consonant.
- Obstruents assimilate in voice to a following obstruent.
- Nasals and non-sibilant obstruents assimilate in PoA to a following nasal or non-sibilant obstruent.
- /θ ð/ → /s z/ when near /s z/.
- /ð/ becomes /l/ near a /l/.
- Short vowels /i e ɛ a ɑ o u/ become [ɪ ɪ ə̟ ɐ̟ ʌ ɵ̠ ʊ] in closed syllables.
- Vowels become nasalized after nasals and /ʔ lˤ/.
- Vowels assimilate in nasalization to a preceding vowel.
- Two adjacent vowels of the same position become a single long vowel; /ʔ/ is inserted between any other two adjacent syllabic vowels.
- Tripled consonants become doubled. This obviously concerns only nasals and true liquids.
In an effort to create a nice rhythmic stress patterns that are something more than "every second syllable is stressed", I fear I might've overcomplicated things. Oh well. At least it's regular.
Stress assignment is done in four steps:
- Drop prefixes.
- Assign stress to (3k + 1)th mora. That is, to the 1st, 4th, 7th, etc.
- Remove stress from the lighter syllable if there are two consecutive stressed syllables.
- Remove stress from the syllable following another stressed syllable, starting from the beginning of the word, if there still are two consecutive stressed syllables.
It's useful to be able to write the language in something else than IPA.
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| Consonants | labial | coronal | palatal | velar | pharyngeal | |----------------+--------+---------+---------+-------+------------| | nasal | m | n | ñ | | | vl stop | p | t | c | k | | | vd stop | b | d | g | | | vl fricative | f | th | ch | h | | | vd fricative | v | dh | j | | | vl sibilant | | s | | | | | vd sibilant | | z | | | | | lateral liquid | | l | | | ł | | central liquid | | r | | | x | | Vowels | front | back | |----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+ | high | i | í | u | ú | | high-mid | ì | î | o | ó | | low-mid | e | é | | | | low | a | á | à | â |
That would be it for now. Feedback welcome!