Proto-Eurasian

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Artaxes
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Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 04 Apr 2015 19:34

Proto-Eurasian

It's a next equivalent of the Proto-Indo-European.

Phonology

Consonants

p t tʲ k q [p t tj k q]
pʰ tʰ tʲʰ kʰ qʰ [ph th thj kh qh]
b d dʲ g ɢ [b d dj g ǧ]
t͡s t͡sʲ t͡ʃ [c cj č]
t͡sʰ t͡sʰʲ t͡ʃʰ ch chj čh
d͡z d͡zʲ d͡ʒ [dz dzj dž]
s sʲ ʃ x~χ h [s sj š ḫ h]
z zʲ ʒ ɣ~ʁ [z zj ž x]
m n nʲ ŋ~ɴ [m n nj ŋ]
ɾ ɾʲ r rʲ l lʲ [r rj rr rrj l lj]
j w [j w]

Vowels

Short

ɪ ʊ i u
ɛ ɔ e o
ɐ a

Long

iː uː ī ū
eː oː ē ō
ā

Phonotactics

CCVCC

- Geminated consonants in the same syllable are not allowed.
- /h/ is disallowed after aspirated plosives.

Stress accent

Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

Nominals

Structure of Eurasian noun

Possession + Root + Root's extension + Gender + Case + Number

Gender

I. Human -a, human persons, anthropomorphic beings: mana human person, tjama god/goddess
II. Animate -i, animals, plants, animated phenomenons, parts of body: mani animate being, malwi tongue
III. Inanimate -u, inanimated objects: manu inanimate object, dželqu iron

Case

sjeta - woman
threŋki - hand
ǧōdu - mountain

Nominative - mana / threŋki / ǧōdu
Accusative manaŋ / threŋkiŋ / ǧōduŋ
Instrumental -ko manako / threŋkiko / ǧōduko
Genitive -s manas / threŋkis / ǧōdus
Benefactive -lja manalja / threŋkilja / ǧōdulja
Vialis -rri manarri / threŋkirri / ǧōdurri
Locative -se manase / threŋkise / ǧōduse

Number

Singular mana / threŋki / ǧōdu
Plural manath / threŋkith / ǧōduth

Personal pronouns

Singular

1. ni
2. muh
3. tja / tji / tju

Plural

1. rith
2. weth
3. tjath / tjith / tjuth

Possessive prefixes

Singular

1. ni-
2. mu-
3. tja- / tji- / tju-

Plural

1. ri-
2. we-
3. ti- / tj-

Demonstrative pronouns

Proper / Distant

Person / Object sa si su this / da di du that
Place sume here / dume there
Source īs sume from here / īs dume from there
Purpose direction te sume to here / te dume to there
Path suče through this way / duče through that way
Time inse now / inde then
Method supā through this method / dupā through that method
Quantity sewele so much
Qualify suqsadw- like this here / duqsadw- like this there
Reason selja for this reason / dulja for that reason

Adjectives

Adjectives are the same as nouns, but have three degrees of comparison. Degree's affix is placed between stem and gender ending.

čāna / čāni / čānu - good

I. Positive -ø- čān-
II. Comparative -irj- čānirj-
III. Superlative -taz- čāntaz-

Adverbs

Adverbs have the same degree's affixes as adjectives, but different ending, -e.

I. Positive -ø- čāne
II. Comparative -irj- čānirje
III. Superlative -taz- čāntaze

Numbers

Cardinal

1. or
2. qoja
3. sorrja
4. čārpa
5. djothe
6. kasqu
7. thjespu
8. armā
9. jemin
10. sjegin
100. ǧochin
1000. doḫlin

Ordinal

Ordinal numbers are created through suffix -c- + gender ending. In similar way are created adverbial numbers with adequate ending.

1. orca / orci / orcu ← or
2. qojaca / qojaci / qojacu ← qoja
3. sorrjaca / sorrjaci / sorrjacu ← sorrja
4. čarpaca / čarpaci / čarpacu ← čārpa
5. djotheca / djotheci / djothecu ← djothe
6. kasquca / kasquci / kasqucu ← kasqu
7. thjespuca / thjespuci / thjespucu ← thjespu
8. armāca / armāci / armācu ← armā
9. jeminca / jeminci / jemincu ← jemin
10. sjeginca / sjeginci / sjegincu ← sjegin
100. ǧochinca / ǧochinci / ǧochincu ← ǧochin
1000. doḫlinca / dḫlinci / doḫlincu ← doḫlin

Verbs

Structure of Eurasian verb

Preverb + (Root + Aspect) + Root's extension + Causative + Voice + Subject + Mood

Preverbs

bī- - to beat

Towards: te- te-bī- - to beat down, to fasten
Away from: īs- īs-bī- - to beat away, to bounce, to reflect
Inside: in- in-bī- - to beat in, to stick
Outside: ūz- ūz-bī- - to beat out, to knock out

Aspect

em- to go
qut- to carry

Imperfective -ø- - em- / qut-
Iterative ~ Habitual čhā- - čhāem- / čhāqut-
Perfective reduplication of first consonant of root with added -e- Ce-CV..., or full reduplication of short root - emem- / qequt

Causative

Causative is marked with suffix -ta-.

emta- - to set in motion (← em- to go)
teḫta- - to hold (← teḫ- to stop)

Voice

Active - teḫta- to hold / mečh- to wash
Reflexive -š- teḫtaš- to hold self / mečhš- to wash self

Subject

Singular

1. -in
2. -am
3. -e

Plural

1. -irth
2. -awth
3. -eth

Mood

Indicative
Conditional -wa
Potentional -meḫ
Eventive -mēa
Hortative -jōs
Imperative

Participles

Participles are created by suffix -l- + gender or adverbial ending.

phič- - to drink

Adjectival -l-a / -l-i / -l-u - phičla / phičli / phičlu drinking
Adverbial -e - phičle - drinking

Gerund

Gerund is name for actional noun, marking through affix -mu.

bīmu - beatings
phičmu - drinking
teḫtamu - holding
emmu - going

Prepositions

in - in
un on
īs from
če with
qoča beside
te to
inqōj between
ūz to outside
īsdūm from down
inqoloŋ around
tedūm into down, downward
indūm under
teǧōd upward
orče together with
traḫ through
by
ḫad over
prezj before
inqōč behind
qa after
qaqōč outside, beyond
undjōlc along
seŋ without
unchar against
inklād instead
hes like, similar to
sox as, like, under a character
teindūm from under
teḫad from over

Conjunctions

ha - and
tjulja - because
ēš - so
- or
ḫāl - but
ōl - if

Particles

la - no, not
la- - privative prefix
daēš - also
da - yes
ēš - so
- exclamation particle
ō - exclamation particle
sjōrr - now
je - that (connector of subordinate clauses)
thī - interrogative particle
- yet, also
žēm - still
tenab - anew
ore - only
ōc - already
haōc - even
ḫūze - too
zječe - soon
daje - exactly

Word formation

Nouns

Person -ka - ǧūbka cowman ← ǧubi cow
Object -ku - threŋkku towel ← threŋki hand
Place -amu - tēcamu a high place ← tēc- high
Contradiction la- - lamana non-person ← mana person
Similarity qsadu- - qsaduhīrrja insect similar to a bee, pseudo-bee ← hīrrja bee
Half pala- - palašweŋi half-dog / wolf-dog ← šweŋi dog
Relational abstract -mu - aǧismu brotherhood ← aǧisa brother
Collective -an- - korrani cattle ← korru horn
Singulative -or- - apori drop of water ← api water
Diminutive -ilj- - aǧisilja little brother ← aǧisa brother
Augmentative -īd- - ǧōdīdu large mountain ← ǧōdu mountain
Descendant -ūg- - ḫakrūga son of chief ← ḫakra chief

Noun to adjective

Possessive -ačh- - manačh- personal, in possession by a person ← mana person
Originative -ūg- - ḫeqqūg- derived from horse ← ḫeqqi horse
Similaritive -e-qsadw- - kakteqsadw- felid ← kakti cat
Feature -ekh- - pīlekh- hairy ← pīlu hair
Affiliative -īm- - džīmīm- familiar ← džīma family, house
Privative seŋ-...-ekh- - seŋgemphekh- toothless ← gemphi tooth

Adjective to noun

Abstract -mu - čānmu goodness ← čān- good

Verb to noun

Agentive -ka - tlōrka speaker ← tlōr- to speak
Experiencer, adressee -meša - bīmeša he who is beaten ← to beat
Result -mu - bōwmu fall ← bōw- to fall
Instance -m- - tlōrmi speech ← tlōr- to speak
Instrument -menu - bīmenu whip ← bī- to beat
Place -amu - ktādamu field of battle ← ktād- to fight

Verb to verb

Reaction -ep- - tlōrep- to reply ← tlōr- to speak
Intensification -īd- - tlōrīd- to talk a lot ← tlōr- to speak

Syntax

Word order

SOV Subject - Object - Verb

Noun and descriptive words

All descriptive words (adjectives, genitives, numerals) are positioned before descripted noun.

laḫju ḫazu - white house
manas šweŋi - dog of a person
or kholmu - one boat

Copular verbs

Positive

Translative jath- to become
Essive heth- to be
Excessive both- to cease to be

Negative

Translative la jath- don't to become
Essive la heth don't to be
Excessive la both don't cease to be

Ditransitivity (verb 'to give')

It looks like this:

Agent of ditransitive verb = Nominative
Theme = Instrumental
Recipient = Accusative

džāj- - to give

cjēri - flower

Sjeta ḫakraŋ cjērikoth džāje. - Woman gives flowers chief.

Lexicon

Kinship

aǧisa - brother
chimsa - sister
adasa - father
amasa - mother
gnēbka - parent
adāmasa, gnēbkath - parents
prezjada - grandfather
prezjama - grandmother
moŋekha īštka (← moŋa man, īšti blood) - male cousin
sjetekha ištka - female cousin
moŋisa - husband
sjetisa - wife
čemaljgika - spouse
šēnisa - son
tjhōnisa - daughter
bīna / bīnath - child / children
qašēnisa - grandson
qathjōnisa - granddaughter
qabīna / qabīnath - grandchild / grandchildren
gnēbūgana - siblings
tequtmūga (adj. 'from adoption') - in-law

Colours

thōsmu - colour

jāḫ- - light
xarz- - dark
laḫj- - white
dlerr- - black
šrut- - brown
krīzj- - red
mlučh- - orange
žajk- - yellow
teljk- - blue
glīš- - green
šejḫ- - grey
ljōks- - violet
čejn- - purple
čōlkh- - pink
īcharr- - silver
ḫerrj- - gold

Animals

chari a female animal
biški a fly
quŋgi a male animal
qogli a male goat
qusqi a male roe-deer
laški amphibian
djwāži animal
žītki ant
čūrri aurochs
qoroqti baldicoot
nīmpari bat
zaxǧi bear
qhuzdi beast, monster
dzjarrbi beaver
hīrrja bee
hīrrjasīchki bee-eater
ḫaščaki beetle
čhapki bird
želpi bivalve
phalki black kite
xarzaki blackbird
rulti blackcock
ǧmūri boar
ḫapapi booby
tharmaki borer
berri bug
jerja bug, worm
gwōli bull
buzuqi bustard
lješti butterfly
kajki capercaillie
zjerthi carp
kakti cat
rjašiki caterpillar
rjēbi catfish
korrani cattle
šukti cock
čereŋi cockchafer
arceri cockroach
ǧubi cow
ḫerḫi crane
xāqi crow
kučki cuckoo
elgi deer
šweŋi dog
ihuqi donkey
kloški dormouse
phōri dove
čwački duck
kwīli eagle
huḫūki eagle-owl
sarbakwīli eagle-vulture
warki earwig
ŋulgi elk
mīčki ermine
džūrri european bison
skūli falcon
ḫaldi female deer
hentji finch
čiljbi fish
šiški flea
lupi fox
žaḫri frog
mēčki goat
gwāŋi goose
ḫučuti grasshopper
qlaŋki greenfly
krābi grub, worm
mašči hamster
golbi hare
lobriči hawk
jaldji hedgehog
krani hen
budmu herd
ḫarrli heron
čepekekhi hoofed animal
ḫeqqi horse
bāzgi insect
dučhini jackdaw
caŋki jay
cjarguli kestrel
tjhardali kingfisher
egni lamb
lačpi lark
čpīli leech
parruzi leopard
ḫrāwi lewos
ūsuči lizard
čači louse
karaksi lynx
ksawli magpie
sēči mare
ljabi mink
naŋiwi minnow
džuki mole
žnoŋi mosquito
thūmi moth
pīški mouse
iljiwi nematode
pelčiki nightingale
karranori one cattle (cow or bull)
ōkhiri otter
suwli owl
wūši ox
iščēri partridge
orčhi perch
wīčhi pig
otḫi polecat
draqki predator
marbi ram
chūči rat
ǧxuqi raven
dlēŋi reptile
šerki roe-deer
žwačili ruminant
loksi salmon
ksūsmi serpent
abi sheep
šerici shrew
džargi shrike
slejki snail, slug
laḫju parruzi snow leopard, irbis
priŋki sparrow
čhōni spider
sthajki squail
marjači squirrel
orjani starling
qlička stork
sudmu stud, flock, herd
gručki sturgeon
sekwīni swallow
albari swan
qwīči swine
nečki tench
phrisi thrush
kitri tick
kejqi tineid
sitwi tit
rokhti toad
razaqi bird of prey
perqi turtle, tortoise
tričikti turtledove
džwāši viper
ūdwi wagtail
ḫassahi wasp
skejli weasel
wečki whelp
xūdzi wild boar
xarri wolf
karapi woodpecker
ždjeli young animal

Body parts

džawgi head
pīlu hair
prezjdžawgi forehead
owi eye
šremi eyebrow
kuŋi nose
šipi lip
šipith mouth
čadži cheek
džuksi chin
sarbi beard
juži moustache
jasi ear
malwi tongue
kačwowi eyelid
kaču skin
boki bone
džibmi rib
džrāqi skull
threŋki hand
bukti leg
alpi arm
prezjalpi forearm
tuliqi finger, toe
thiqti thumb
kajti nail
tophi foot
tjarpi elbow
taki knee
indūmtaki knee shin
kuldži thigh
daqti fist
pandji handpalm
sjochu heel
blaču stomach
čugdu abdomen
limani lung
qurči heart
žižwi vein
žalki artery
žučmi kidney
puluči spleen
prithi breast
gemphi tooth
halphi gum
žužmi jaw
xaxǧi throat
tuxmi larynx
Last edited by Artaxes on 16 Apr 2015 17:29, edited 33 times in total.
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/əːˈʈä́ʂis/

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qwed117
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by qwed117 » 04 Apr 2015 20:09

Artaxes wrote:Proto-Eurasian

It's a next equivalent of the Proto-Indo-European.
Wait, what? If I'm getting this correctly, it's a protolanguage that you are planning to massively differentiate?
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 04 Apr 2015 20:18

qwed117 wrote:
Artaxes wrote:Proto-Eurasian

It's a next equivalent of the Proto-Indo-European.
Wait, what? If I'm getting this correctly, it's a protolanguage that you are planning to massively differentiate?
Yes, but the stage of a "massive" differentiation will be some later. I'm planning only circa 2-4-5 descendants of this protolanguage.
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Ahzoh » 04 Apr 2015 20:19

Why is /q/ represented with an s-caron?
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 04 Apr 2015 20:24

Ahzoh wrote:Why is /q/ represented with an s-caron?
Because I have such keyboard layout. [;)] Corrected now.
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Ahzoh » 04 Apr 2015 20:30

Artaxes wrote:
Ahzoh wrote:Why is /q/ represented with an s-caron?
Because I have such keyboard layout. [;)] Corrected now.
And you are missing characters for most of your voiceless fricatives...
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 05 Apr 2015 13:02

I have finished all grammar info in first post.
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Ahzoh » 05 Apr 2015 16:42

Last nitpick, but for the inventory of sounds, your writing system should be in angle brackets < > and your phonemes in slashes / /.
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 06 Apr 2015 15:43

Added list of animals in lexicon.
Modified participles' suffix.
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 06 Apr 2015 22:59

Proto-Western lineage

Depalatalization of palatalized alveolars

tʲ tʲʰ dʲ t͡sʲ t͡sʰʲ d͡zʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ ɾʲ rʲ lʲ → t tʰ d t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z s z n ɾ r l

tjhōnisa [tʲʰoːnɪsɐ] → conesə] [t͡sonesə] - daughter

Merger of rhotics

ɾ r → ɾ

sorrja [sɔrʲɐ] → sarə [sɑɾə] - three

Shift of affricates

t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ → t θ d t͡ʃ ʃ d͡ʒ

orca [ɔɾt͡sɐ] → artə [ɑɾtə] - first (for a human)
chimsa [t͡sʰɪmsɐ] → themsə [θemsə] - sister
dzjarrbi [d͡zʲɐrbɪ] → dərbe [dəɾbe] - beaver
čwački [t͡ʃwɐt͡ʃkɪ] → čvəčkje [t͡ʃʋət͡ʃce] - duck
čhapki [t͡ʃʰɐpkɪ] → šəpkje [ʃəpce] - bird
džawgi [d͡ʒɐwgɪ] → džəvge [d͡ʒəʋge] - head

Affricatization of aspirated plosives

pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ → p͡f t͡s k͡x q͡χ

phalki [pʰɐlkɪ] → pfəlkje [p͡fəlc͡çe] - black kite
thūmi [tʰuːmɪ] → cúme [t͡sume] - moth
rokhti [ɾɔkʰtɪ] → rakjte [ɾɑc͡çte] - toad

Velars shifted to palatals

k k͡x g x ɣ ŋ → c c͡ç ɟ ç ʝ ɲ

Uvulars shifted to velars

q q͡χ ɢ χ ʁ ɴ → k k͡x g x ɣ ŋ

Changes in approximants

j w → ʝ ʋ

Short vowel shift

ɪ ʊ → e o
ɛ ɔ → æ ɒ
ɐ → ə

Diphthongic shift

ej oj æj ɒj əj → iː eː æː æː iː
eːj oːj ɛːj ɔːj aːj → ej oj æj ɒj æj

final z → r

h → ø

initial ŋ → n

Retroflexization

tɾ dɾ sɾ zɾ θɾ nɾ lɾ → ʈ ɖ ʂ ʐ ɽ ɳ ɭ

kitri [kɪtɾɪ] → kjetre [c͡çeʈe] - tick

θ disappeared

θ → s

Affricativization of the palatal plosives

c c͡ç → c͡ç
ɟ → ɟ͡ʝ

Shortenning of long vowels

iː uː → i u
eː oː → e o
aː → ɑ

Merger of the open-back vowels

ɒ ɑ → ɑ

Intervocalic lenition

[+voiceless] → [+voiced]

džrāqi [d͡ʒɾaːqɪ] → [d͡ʒɾɑge] - skull
taki [tɐkɪ] → təgje [təɟ͡ʝe] - knee
prithi [pɾɪtʰɪ] → [pɾede] - breast
karapi [kɐɾɐpɪ] → kjərəbe [c͡çərəbe] - woodpecker

[+voiced + plosive] → [+voiced + fricative]

krābi [kɾaːbɪ] → krave [kɾɑβe] - grub, worm
adasa [ɐdɐsɐ] → əðəzə [əðəzə] - father
aǧisa [ɐɢɪsɐ] → əgezə [əgezə] - brother
gnēbūgana [gneːbuːgɐnɐ] → gnevuxənə [gneβuɣənə] - siblings

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ → d͡ʒ ʒ

ḫučuti [xʊt͡ʃʊtɪ] → hodžode [xod͡ʒode] - grasshopper
čadži [t͡ʃɐd͡ʒɪ] → čəže [t͡ʃəʒe] - cheek

s ʃ x~χ → z ʒ ç~x

amasa [ɐmɐsɐ] → əməzə [əməzə] - mother
jāḫa [jaːxɐ] → jaçə [ʝɑçə] - light, shine [human]

z ʒ ɣ~ʁ → ɦ ɣ ɦ

krīzja [kɾiːzʲɐ] → kjrihə [c͡çɾiɦə] - red (human)
juži [jʊʒɪ] → joxe [ʝoɣe] - moustache

Numbers

Cardinal

1. oror
2. qojakaja
3. sorrjasarə
4. čārpačərpə
5. djothedatæ
6. kasqukjəsko
7. thjesputæspo
8. armāərma
9. jeminjæmen
10. sjeginsægen
100. ǧochingašen
1000. doḫlin → dohlen
Last edited by Artaxes on 07 Apr 2015 18:39, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 07 Apr 2015 14:07

Proto-Eastern lineage

Full palatalization of palatalized alveolars

tʲ tʲʰ dʲ t͡sʲ t͡sʰʲ d͡zʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ ɾʲ rʲ lʲ → c cʰ ɟ c͡ç c͡çʰ ɟ͡ʝ ç ʝ ɲ ʝ r̘ ʎ

tjhōnisa [tʲʰoːnɪsɐ] → çónísá [çonisa] - daughter

Merger of tap rhotic with lateral

ɾ l → l

sorrja [sɔrʲɐ] → sořa [sɔr̝ɐ] - three
čārpa [t͡ʃaːɾpɐ] → šálpá [ʃalpa] - four

Deaffricatization

t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ c͡ç c͡çʰ ɟ͡ʝ → s s z ʃ ʃ ʒ ç ç ʝ

orca [ɔɾt͡sɐ] → orsa [ɔrsɐ] - first (for a human)
chimsa [t͡sʰɪmsɐ] → simsa [sɪmsɐ] - sister
dzjarrbi [d͡zʲɐrbɪ] → jarbi [d͡ʑɐrbɪ] - beaver
čwački [t͡ʃwɐt͡ʃkɪ] → šwaški [ʃwɐʃkɪ] - duck
čhapki [t͡ʃʰɐpkɪ] → šapki [ʃɐpkɪ] - bird
džawgi [d͡ʒɐwgɪ] → žawgi [ʒɐwgɪ] - head

Deaspiration of aspirated plosives

pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ qʰ → p t c k q

phalki [pʰɐlkɪ] → palki [pɐlkɪ] - black kite
thūmi [tʰuːmɪ] → túmí [tumi] - moth
rokhti [ɾɔkʰtɪ] → lokti [lɔktɪ] - toad

Merger of voiceless velar fricative with glottal fricative

x~χ → h

ḫassahi [xɐssɐhɪ] → hassahi [hɐssɐhɪ] - wasp

final post-vocalic ʎ → j

Shortenning of long vowels (tense-lax contrast)

iː uː → i u
eː oː → e o
aː → a

Vocalic harmony: tense-lax.

i~ɪ u~ʊ
e~ɛ o~ɔ
a~ɐ

ʝ → j

Fronting of the palatals

c͡ç ɟ͡ʝ ç → t͡ç d͡ʑ ɕ

initial ŋ → ɣ

s → h _C
ʃ → x _C

thjespu [tʲʰɛspʊ] → ćehpu [t͡ɕɛhpʊ] - seven

Numbers

Cardinal

1. orol
2. qojaqoya
3. sorrja → sora
4. čārpa → čálpá
5. djothe → jote
6. kasqu → kasqu
7. thjespu → ćehpu
8. armā → alma
9. jemin → yemin
10. sjegin → çegin
100. ǧochin → ǧošin
1000. doḫlin → dohlin
Artaxes' Home Page - Skurdúškos - Indo-European Satəm conlang [First attempt]
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 08 Apr 2015 21:37

Proto-Southern lineage

Depalatalization of alveolar palatalized consonants

tʲ tʲʰ dʲ t͡sʲ t͡sʰʲ d͡zʲ sʲ zʲ nʲ ɾʲ rʲ lʲ → t tʰ d t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z s z n ɾ r l

tjhōnisa [tʲʰoːnɪsɐ] → thonisa [tʰonɘsɐ] - daughter

Merger of tap rhotic with lateral approximant

ɾ l → l

džrāqi [d͡ʒɾaːqɪ] → dzláki [d͡zlakɘ] - skull

Only aspirated affricates are fricativized

t͡s t͡sʰ d͡z t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ → t͡s s d͡z t͡ʃ ʃ d͡ʒ

Preservation of aspirated plosives

pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ → pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ

Palatalization of velars with /j/ and before front vowels

k kʰ g x ɣ ŋ → c cʰ ɟ ç j ɲ

Merger of uvulars with velars (after the palatalization)

q qʰ ɢ χ ʁ ɴ → k kʰ g x ɣ ŋ

draqki [dɾɐqkɪ] → dlakkji [dlɐkc͡çɘ] - predator

ɪ ʊ → ɘ ɵ
ɛ ɔ → ɜ ɞ
ɐ → ɐ

iː uː → i u
eː oː → e o
aː → a

Voicing after nasals, rhotics and laterals.

Prothetic glides /j w/ before central vowels in word onset.

elgi [ɛlgɪ] → jelgi [jɜlgɘ] - deer
otḫi [ɔtxɪ] → wotḫi [wɞtxɘ] - polecat

Merger of affricates:

t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ → t͡s d͡z

čadži [t͡ʃɐd͡ʒɪ] → cadzi [t͡sad͡zɘ] - cheek
džargi [d͡ʒɐɾgɪ] → dzalgi [d͡zɐlgɘ] - shrike

Disappearance of high-mid vowels before resonants + other consonant → Production of syllabic /r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩ ŋ̩/ and /j w/ → /i u/.

/ɜ ɞ/ collapsed into /ɐ/ before resonants.

Numbers

Cardinal

1. or → ol
2. qoja → koja
3. sorrja → sora
4. čārpa → cálpa
5. djothe → dothe
6. kasqu → kasku
7. thjespu → thespu
8. armā → almá
9. jemin → jemin
10. sjegin → segin
100. ǧochin → gocin
1000. doḫlin → doḫlin
Last edited by Artaxes on 15 Apr 2015 19:20, edited 2 times in total.
Artaxes' Home Page - Skurdúškos - Indo-European Satəm conlang [First attempt]
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Artaxes » 15 Apr 2015 19:03

Proto-Jichlashan from Southern lineage

Jichlashan ← from Proto-Eurasian Žíchlačha [ʒɪt͡sʰlɐt͡ʃʰɐ] (of someone who lives), *žích- - 'to live'.

Plosives after fricatives aspiratized

sp spʰ → sf
st stʰ → sθ
sk skʰ → sx

Proto-Eurasian thjespu [tʲʰɛspʊ] → Proto-Southern thespu [tʰɜspɵ] → Proto-Jichlashan thasfə [tʰasfə] - seven
kasqukaskukasxə [kasxə] - six
sthajki [stʰɐjkɪ] → sthajki [stʰɐjkɘ] → sθajkə [sθajkə] - squail

Mergers of central vowels under stress

ɘ ɵ → e o
ɜ ɞ ɐ → a

Central vowels are dropped in the position VC_CV

ɜ ɞ ɐ → 0

bīmenu [biːmɛnʊ] → bímenu [bimɜnɵ] → bimnə [bimnə] - whip

Unaccented central vowels shifted to /ə/

Palatals shifted to postalveolars

c cʰ ɟ ç → t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ ʃ

draqki [dɾɐqkɪ] → dlakkji [dlɐkc͡çɘ] → dlakčə [dlakt͡ʃə] - predator

Merger of /x/ with /h/

x h → h

otḫi [ɔtxɪ] → wotḫi [wɞtxɘ] → wathə [wathə] - polecat

Intervocalic merger of voiced velar fricative with /r/

ɣ → r

Retroflex resonants shifted into alveolars

ɽ ɳ → l n

P₁P₂ → P₂P₂ before vowels

žītki [ʒiːtkɪ] → žítki [ʒitkɘ] → žikkə [ʒikkə] - ant

Increasing of labiovelars

kw kʰw gw ɣw → kʷ kʷʰ gʷ w

kwīli [kwiːlɪ] → kwíli [kwilɘ] → kwilə [kʷilə] - eagle
Artaxes' Home Page - Skurdúškos - Indo-European Satəm conlang [First attempt]
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by loglorn » 21 Sep 2015 23:01

Me likes diachronics. And your diachronics look quite well done
Diachronic Conlanging is the path to happiness, given time. [;)]

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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Bristel » 22 Sep 2015 01:44

I know I don't have to remind you, but please remember semantic drift is a thing! :)

I love the diachronics, I think looking at yours will help me understand how to do that better in my own conlangs. (I'm terrible at it.)

Keep going, it's looking great!
[bɹ̠ˤʷɪs.təɫ]
Nōn quālibet inīqua cupiditāte illectus hōc agō.
[tiː.mɔ.tʉɥs god.lɐf hɑwk]

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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by Znex » 22 Sep 2015 01:52

It's looking great! Are you going to have any parallel texts comparing how the descendant languages work with their parent languages at some point? I'd really love to see the overall difference. [:D]
:eng: : [tick] | :grc: :wls: : [:|] | :chn: :isr: : [:S] | :nor: :deu: :rom: :ind: :con: : [:x]
Conlangs: Pofp'ash, Ikwawese, Old Quelgic, Nisukil Pʰakwi, Apsiska

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loglorn
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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by loglorn » 22 Sep 2015 01:54

Znex wrote:It's looking great! Are you going to have any parallel texts comparing how the descendant languages work with their parent languages at some point? I'd really love to see the overall difference. [:D]
Hey! That was my idea! [:P]
Diachronic Conlanging is the path to happiness, given time. [;)]

Gigxkpoyan Languages: CHÍFJAEŚÍ RETLA TLAPTHUV DÄLDLEN CJUŚËKNJU ṢATT

Other langs: Søsøzatli Kamëzet

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Re: Proto-Eurasian

Post by shimobaatar » 22 Sep 2015 14:33

[+1] To what others have said. It's a shame for me that I'm only seeing this for the first time today. Everything looks well done and well thought-out, in my opinion. [:)]

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