Proto-Avestan

A forum for all topics related to constructed languages
Post Reply
User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Proto-Avestan

Post by Linguifex » 21 Apr 2015 01:44

No, not [əˈvɛstn̩], [ˈævɨstæn]. This is largely, although it is not entirely, based on gleb seed 1642162080.

/m n ɲ ŋ/
/p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ/
/s ʃ h/
/ɾ/
/w l j/

/u o a e i/

Syllable structure: (C)V(N,h)

The name comes from Proto-Avestan *ad-is-taɲi, "(in) the way of the people of the Ed (River)".

*-is "people of"
*-taɲi "(in) the way of"

To Avestan:

S[- voice] > Ø / V_V#
ŋ > n / #_
b d {g,ɟ} > v ð j / V_V
S > S[+ aspirated] / _Vh
u o a > ʉ ɵ æ / _(C)(C){i,j}
a > e / #_
a > ɑ
ɲ > n / _#
nj > ɲ / _V#
j > Ø / C_V#
V > Ø / _#
ɑ > o / _w
æ > e / _j
h > w / B_#
h > w / _B
h > j / E_#
h > j / _E
ʉ ɵ > y ø
ʃ > s / ! V[+ high]_
V[- low] V[+ low] > ɨ ə / unstressed
ð > v / #(C)V_
ð > l
w > v
{b,g} d ɟ > Ø l z
c cʰ > s sʰ
ʃ > x
o ø e > u y i / _#
Vw Vj > wV jV / VC_#
{l,r} > s / _#

*ŋohu one > now [now]
*ɟosu two > zos [zos]
*uŋuɾa three > uǹes [ˈuŋɨs]
*kujonja four > cüjeñ [ˈkyjɨɲ]
*ʃaɟesu five > sejes [ˈsejɨs]
*miɾi six > mis [mis]
*miriŋohu seven > mireǹow [ˈmiɾɨŋow]
*miriɟosu eight > mirejos [ˈmiɾɨjos]
*miɾiuŋuɾa nine > mireuǹes [ˈmiɾɨuŋɨs]
*mirikujonja ten > mirecüjeñ [ˈmiɾɨkyjɨɲ]
*loŋuga thirty-six > loǹje [ˈloŋjɨ] [loŋuj̥a]
*adistaɲi Avestan > avestan [ˈævɨstæn]
*ʃusuno wheel (*ʃus-u-no spin-middle.voice-A) > susen [ˈsusɨn]
*ɾaje > rej [ɾej]
*loɟe > löj [løj]
*caʃa > sås [sɑs]
*koʃo > cose [kos]
*ŋaɾawa > nårwa [ˈnɑɾwə]
*ɾoe > ru [ɾu]
*suhu > suw [suw]
*ʃoja > söj [søj]
*suʃoʃo > suches [ˈsuxɨs]
*lunoŋu > luneǹ [ˈlunɨŋ]
*jasuwo > jåswe [ˈjɑswɨ]
*ʃoɲo > son [son]
*hupalu > wupas [ˈwupəs]
*poɾojo > porje [ˈpoɾjɨ]
*ɾaduʃao > råvecha [ˈɾɑvɨxa]
*jidawu > jivwa [ˈjivwə]
*ɾuja> rüj [ɾyj]
*ŋaju > nej [nej]
*buse > us [us]
*laʃuna > låsen [ˈlɑsɨn]
*uɟanu > üjan [ˈyjən]
*botajo > otje [ˈotjɨ]
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Proto-Avestan

Post by Linguifex » 21 Apr 2015 08:04

Pronouns and their reflexes in Avestan. The default third-person forms are the "not recently seen" forms.

*ɾoe > ru [ɾu] 1SG
*ɾuja > rüj [ɾyj] 1DL
*lunoŋu > luneǹ [ˈlunɨŋ] 1PL
*ʃoɲo > son [son] 2SG
*ʃoja > söj [søj] 2DL
*suʃoʃo > suches [ˈsuxɨs] 2PL
*uɟanu > üjan [ˈyjən] 3SG recently seen
*jidawu > jivwa [ˈjivwə] 3DL recently seen
*jasuwo > jåswe [ˈjɑswɨ] 3PL recently seen
*buse > us [us] 3SG not recently seen
*botajo > otje [ˈotjɨ] 3DL not recently seen
*poɾojo > porje [ˈpoɾjɨ] 3PL not recently seen

The pronouns are turned into possessive forms with a prefix *i(ʃ)- and into accusative forms with a prefix *u(ʃ)-.

Possessive forms:

*iɾoe > ire [ˈiɾɨ] 1SG
*iɾuja > irej [ˈiɾɨj] 1DL
*ilunoŋu > ilenoǹ [ˈilɨnoŋ] 1PL
*iʃoɲo > ichen [ˈixɨn] 2SG
*iʃoja > ichej [ˈixɨj] 2DL
*isuʃoʃo > isechos [ˈisɨchos] 2PL
*iʃuɟanu > ichejån [ˈixɨjɑn] 3SG recently seen
*ijidawu > ijevwå [ˈijɨvwɑ] 3DL recently seen
*ijasuwo > ijaswu [ˈijəswu] 3PL recently seen
*ibuse > ives [ˈivɨs] 3SG not recently seen
*ibotajo > ivetjå [ˈivɨtjɑ] 3DL not recently seen
*ipoɾojo > iperjo [ˈipɨɾjo] 3PL not recently seen

Accusative forms:

*uɾoe > ure [ˈuɾɨ] 1SG
*uɾuja > urej [ˈuɾɨj] 1DL
*ulunoŋu > ulenoǹ [ˈulɨnoŋ] 1PL
*uʃoɲo > uchen [ˈuxɨn] 2SG
*uʃoja > uchej [ˈuxɨj] 2DL
*usuʃoʃo > usechos [ˈusɨchos] 2PL
*uʃuɟanu > uchejån [ˈuxɨjɑn] 3SG recently seen
*ujidawu > üjevwå [ˈyjɨvwɑ] 3DL recently seen
*ujasuwo > ujaswu [ˈujəswu] 3PL recently seen
*ibuse > uves [ˈuvɨs] 3SG not recently seen
*ibotajo > uvetjå [ˈuvɨtjɑ] 3DL not recently seen
*ipoɾojo > uperjo [ˈupɨɾjo] 3PL not recently seen

Proto-Avestan had SOV word order.

The definite article was *-im (*ʃusuno > susen [ˈsusɨn] "(a) wheel", *ʃusuno-im > susenöem [ˈsusɨnøɨm] "the wheel"). There was also a contrastive article *-ʃi (*ʃusuno-ʃi > susenös [ˈsusɨnøs] "this (other) wheel").

Verbs
Proto-Avestan had three voices: Active, middle (indicated by a suffix *-u), and passive (indicated by a suffix *-ti).

*laʃuna > låsen [ˈlɑsɨn] "cook"

*buse laʃuna > us låsen "he is cooking (something)"
*buse laʃuna-u > us låsenå "it is cooking (it's in the oven)"
*buse laʃuna-ti > us låsenåt "it is being cooked"
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

User avatar
Linguifex
roman
roman
Posts: 953
Joined: 03 Aug 2012 07:07
Location: Ohio

Re: Proto-Avestan

Post by Linguifex » 21 Apr 2015 09:29

Tenses

*-han historical tense
*-hon past tense
*-Ø present tense
*-s(i) still tense (negated = no longer)
*-hi hodiernal tense (can refer to either past or future events)
*-ki not-yet tense (negated = already)
*-ni future tense

Active voice:
*buse laʃuna-har ibuse > us låsenåvan uves "he baked it (a long time ago)"
*buse laʃuna-hon ibuse > us låsenåven uves "he baked it"
*buse laʃuna-Ø ibuse > us låsenå uves "he's baking it"
*buse laʃuna-s ibuse > us låsenås uves "he's still baking it"
*buse laʃuna-hi ibuse > us låsenaj uves "he baked it today/he'll bake it today"
*buse laʃuna-ki ibuse > us låsenac uves "he hasn't baked it yet"
*buse laʃuna-ni ibuse > us låsenan uves "he'll bake it"

Middle voice:
*buse laʃuna-u-har ibuse > us låsenåevån uves "it baked (a long time ago)"
*buse laʃuna-u-hon ibuse > us låsenåevon uves "it baked"
*buse laʃuna-u-Ø ibuse > us låsenåe uves "it's baking"
*buse laʃuna-u-s ibuse > us låsenåes uves "it's still baking"
*buse laʃuna-u-hi ibuse > us låsenåej uves "it baked today/it'll bake today"
*buse laʃuna-u-ki ibuse > us låsenåe uves "it hasn't baked yet"
*buse laʃuna-u-ni ibuse > us låsenåen uves "it'll bake"

Passive voice:
*buse laʃuna-ti-har ibuse > us låsenatevån uves "it was baked (a long time ago)"
*buse laʃuna-ti-hon ibuse > us låsenatevon uves "it was baked"
*buse laʃuna-ti-Ø ibuse > us låsenat uves "it is being baked"
*buse laʃuna-ti-s ibuse > us låsenates uves "it's still being baked"
*buse laʃuna-ti-hi ibuse > us låsenatej uves "it was baked today/it'll be baked today"
*buse laʃuna-ti-ki ibuse > us låsenatec uves "it hasn't been baked yet"
*buse laʃuna-ti-ni ibuse > us låsenaten uves "it'll be bake"

I'm considering fusing the pronouns with the verb to make a set of verbal prefixes. This would lead to pro-drop (and possibly VSO word order?). Is it realistic for the unstressed syllable to drop in this process and then the stressed syllable reduces like in the below paradigm?

re-låsen
rej-låsen
len-låsen
sen-låsen
sej-låsen
sech-låsen
ejn-låsen
jiv-låsen
jes-låsen
es-låsen
(t)je-låsen
(is it better as je- or tje-?)
per-låsen
(Avatar via Happy Wheels Wiki)
Index Diachronica PDF v.10.0
Conworld megathread

AVDIO · VIDEO · DISCO

Ithisa
cuneiform
cuneiform
Posts: 187
Joined: 14 May 2013 12:14

Re: Proto-Avestan

Post by Ithisa » 24 Apr 2015 01:35

Fluent: :chn: :eng:
Intermediate: :jpn:

shimobaatar
korean
korean
Posts: 11658
Joined: 12 Jul 2013 22:09
Location: PA → IN

Re: Proto-Avestan

Post by shimobaatar » 24 Apr 2015 01:39

Since the OP starts out with this:
Linguifex wrote:No, not [əˈvɛstn̩], [ˈævɨstæn].
I'm pretty sure they know about that.

opipik
runic
runic
Posts: 2763
Joined: 12 Mar 2015 19:41

Re: Proto-Avestan

Post by opipik » 06 Mar 2016 20:41

Spoiler:
-//_
h//_
ŋ/h/_
[ɾr]/ɽ/_
nj/ɲ/_
ɟ/ʝ/V_V
a/æ/_(C)F
o/ə/_(C)F
u/y/_(C)F
ei/ɪ/_
ə/ɪ/_
ou/ʊ/_
e//J_
i//J_#
a//_#
uj/y/_
i//_C/C_CiC
i/j/_V
ju/y/C_
jC/\\/_
[gd]j/ɟ/_
e/i/_
əi/əj/_
æ/e/_
ej/i/_
əj/i/_
oj/e/_
y/ɨ/_
h/ʔ/_
ɨ/i/_
u//_P
ao/a/_
F/j/_V
o//C_R
ɽ[ʝj]/ʝ/_
[tk]j/c/_
ɟ/ʝ/_
s/h/_
ʝ//V_V
ʃ/ʝ/_
th/t/_
C//C_C
o/a/_(C)o
Va/aa/_
aa/aː/_
ɪi/ɪ/_
uu/ʊ/_
a/ɐ/_
ə/ɨ/_
o/ʊ/_#
ɐw/o/_
Z/S/_#
ei/ɪ/_
ou/ʊ/_
ɐː/aː/_
Spoiler:
adistaɲi
ŋohu
ɟosu
uŋuɾa
kujonja
ʃaɟesu
miɾi
miriŋohu
miriɟosu
miɾiuŋuɾa
mirikujonja
loŋuga
ʃusuno
ɾaje
loɟe
caʃa
koʃo
ŋaɾawa
ɾoe
suhu
ʃoja
suʃoʃo
lunoŋu
jasuwo
ʃoɲo
hupalu
poɾojo
ɾaduʃao
jidawu
ɾuja
ŋaju
buse
laʃuna
uɟanu
botajo
buse laʃunahar ibuse
buse laʃunatis ibuse
iʃuɟanu

thus yields:

edteɲ
ʔʊ
ʝohu
uʔuɽ
coɲ
ʝeʝhu
mɽi
miɽʔʊ
miohu
mɽiʔuɽ
miɽcoɲ
loʔuk
ʝuhunʊ
ɽi
lɪʝ
cɐʝ
kɐʝʊ
ʔɐɽo
ɽɪ

ʝe
huʝɐʝʊ
lunoʔu
jɐhwʊ
ʝɐɲʊ
pɐlu
pʝʊ
ɽɐduʝɐ
ʝʊ
ɽi
ʔɐju
bihi
lɐʝun
aːnu
botɐjʊ
bihi lɐʝunaːɽ bihi
bihi lɐʝunet bihi
ʝaːnu
Spoiler:
V=aeiouæ
L=āēīōū
C=ptcqbdgmnlrɽhsjɟcʝʃɲŋk
F=ie
B=ou
S=ptkc
Z=bdgɟ
N=mnŋɲ
J=jɟcʝʃɲ
P=mpbw
R=ɽl

Ælfwine
roman
roman
Posts: 880
Joined: 21 Sep 2015 00:28
Location: New Jersey

Re: Proto-Avestan

Post by Ælfwine » 06 Mar 2016 23:52

Interesting use of umlaut.
My Blog
Current Projects:
Crimean Gothic — A Gothic language spoken in Crimea (duh)
Pelsodian — A Romance language spoken around Lake Balaton
Jezik Panoski — A Slavic language spoken in the same area
An unnamed Semitic language spoken in the Caucus.

Post Reply