Çuvvaccoçim redux

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Çuvvaccoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 30 Apr 2015 23:55

This is a reboot of the first language I ever posted to the Internet, back in 2009. If you read my recent post in the random phonology/phonemic inventory thread, here's the language.

/m ɲ ŋ/ <m ñ ⅁>
/b c ɟ k g ʔ/ <b ć ǵ c g ɂ>
/v ç ʝ x ɣ h/ <v ç ģ č ǧ h>
/ʟ ʎ/ <ł l>
/w j/ <w y>
Contrastive gemination on all but /h/

/u ɯ o ɤ a e i/ <u ï o ë a e i>
/oɪ̯~oɯ̯ ao̯ ae̯~aɤ eʊ̯~ɤʊ̯/ <oi ao ae eu>

Vowel harmony
There is a harmony process operating in non-low unrounded vowels. In a word, non-low unrounded vowels can exist only at one place of articulation—they must all either be front or back. The first such vowel in the word determines which set the vowels must come from. Rounded vowels and /a/ are exempt.

Alignment
This is basically a form of Austronesian alignment with four cases (direct, ergative, accusative, prepositional). There's five prefix sets, which don't really have much of a rhyme or reason as to which gets which except for the last one, which tends to be used for mass nouns. The dictionary form is the accusative plural. If you know the accusative plural you can figure out which set of prefixes the word takes. A colon indicates that a following consonant is lengthened.

Direct çu:- ~ çuh- / ñu:- ~ ñuh-
Ergative e:- ~ eh- / ye:- ~ yeh-
Accusative u- / wu-
Prepositional Ø- / o:-/oh-

Direct ç(o)- / ʝ(o)-
Ergative k(o)- / c(o)-
Accusative h(o)- / ç(o)-
Prepositional Ø- / o:-/oh-

Direct ʔ(u)- / m(u)-
Ergative k(u)- / ŋ(u)-
Accusative h(u)- / m(u)-
Prepositional Ø- / o:-/oh-

Direct aev-V ~ ae-C / ev-V ~ ae-C ~ eyy-(h)
Ergative ŋao- / uŋ-{V/C} ~ uŋŋ-(h)
Accusative eu- / ŋ-V ~ ŋao-C
Prepositional Ø- / k(u:)-

Direct ç- / ʝ-
Ergative k- / ŋ-
Accusative w- / ʎ-
Prepositional Ø- / k-

Verbs
Two tenses, present and past.

Present tense : Past Tense
Agent trigger x(i)- : ç(i)-
Patient trigger m(i)- : ñ(i)-
Locative trigger y(i)- : ģ(i)-
Benefactive trigger ki:- ~ kih- : ci:- ~ cih-

vah- agree

xivah : çivah
mivah : ñivah
zivah : ģivah
kivvah : civvah

Pronouns

1SG direct aeh
1SG ergative hëvaeh
1SG accusative eyyaeh
1SG prepositional uvaeh

1PL direct ëh
1PL ergative hëvëh
1PL accusative ëyyëh
1PL prepositional uvëh

2SG direct mu
2SG ergative ñu
2SG accusative ïñ
2SG prepositional ïñ

2PL direct he
2PL ergative çe
2PL accusative ëç
2PL prepositional ëç

3SG direct oh
3SG ergative ov
3SG accusative oh
3SG prepositional ov

3PL direct eh
3PL ergative ev
3PL accusative eh
3PL prepositional ev
Last edited by Linguifex on 18 Sep 2015 04:01, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by shimobaatar » 01 May 2015 01:36

Linguifex wrote:/m ɲ ŋ/ <m ñ ⅁>
/b c ɟ k g ʔ/ <b ć ǵ c g ɂ>
/v ç ʝ x ɣ h/ <v ç ģ č ǧ h>
/ʟ ʎ/ <ł l>
/w j/ <w y>
Contrastive gemination on all but /h/
Interesting way to romanize the nasals! I don't think I'd ever even seen <⅁> before.

My favorite part has got to be how the symmetrical romanization of the obstruents leads to /x/ <č>!
Linguifex wrote:/u ɯ o ɤ a e i/ <u ï o ë a e i>
/oɪ̯~oɯ̯ ao̯ ae̯~aɤ eʊ̯~ɤʊ̯/ <oi ao ae eu>

Vowel harmony
There is a harmony process operating in non-low unrounded vowels. In a word, non-low unrounded vowels can exist only at one place of articulation—they must all either be front or back. The first such vowel in the word determines which set the vowels must come from. Rounded vowels and /a/ are exempt.
Oh, are the diphthongs affected by vowel harmony now?

Also, do rounded vowels and /a/ block vowel harmony or something similar, or are they completely removed from the process?

I'm still trying to understand Austronesian alignment in general, so there's not much more I can say for now, other than I like how some prefixes cause gemination. Overall, as I'm sure I said in the other thread, I like the looks of this and I hope to see more in the future! [:D]

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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 01 May 2015 02:16

shimobaatar wrote:Interesting way to romanize the nasals! I don't think I'd ever even seen <⅁> before.
William Ridley romanized /ŋ/ this way (although he set it lower; I can't on here unless I do this <>) in Gamilaraay (image link):
Image
shimobaatar wrote:]My favorite part has got to be how the symmetrical romanization of the obstruents leads to /x/ <č>!
I was actually worried about that part of the romanization but there are only so many precomposed characters for <g>. Glad to see you like it!
shimobaatar wrote:Oh, are the diphthongs affected by vowel harmony now?
Yes.
shimobaatar wrote:Also, do rounded vowels and /a/ block vowel harmony or something similar, or are they completely removed from the process?
No, they don't matter to the process. This process only concerns non-low unrounded vowels.
shimobaatar wrote:I'm still trying to understand Austronesian alignment in general, so there's not much more I can say for now, other than I like how some prefixes cause gemination. Overall, as I'm sure I said in the other thread, I like the looks of this and I hope to see more in the future! [:D]
[:D]! I do hope to post more about this.
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 01 May 2015 04:08

New pronouns. I'm thinking of making these the masculine set and the other third-person ones the feminine set.

3SG.M direct avec
3SG.M ergative aveh
3SG.M accusative aveu
3SG.M prepositional avi

3PL.M direct umoi
3PL.M ergative umi
3PL.M accusative ao
3PL.M prepositional uñao

Hopefully these next couple of sentences are able to illustrate by example some of the workings of the case-system in this language.

çičeu avec hogëǧ hae ǧëǵïm
çi-čeu avec ho-gëǧ hae Ø-ǧëǵ=ïm
PST.A-apply 3SG.M.DIR ACC.SG-paint to PREP.SG-surface=DEF
'he applied paint to the surface'

mičeu çogëǧ aveh hae ǧëǵïm
mi-čeu ço-gëǧ aveh hae Ø-ǧëǵ=ïm
PST.P-apply DIR.SG-paint 3SG.M.ERG to PREP.SG-surface=DEF
'he applied paint to the surface'

ģičeu ɂuǧëǵ aveh hogëǧïm
ģi-čeu ɂu-ǧëǵ aveh ho-gëǧ=ïm
PST.LOC-apply DIR.SG-surface 3SG.M.ERG ACC-paint=DEF
'he applied paint to the surface'

ćiččeu ɂuǧëǵ aveh hogëǧïm
ći:-čeu ɂu-ǧëǵ aveh ho-gëǧ=ïm
PST.BEN-apply DIR.SG-surface 3SG.M.ERG ACC-paint=DEF
'he applied paint to the surface'

So the thought came to me to make certain verbs (like lëçç "eat") require the use of the benefactive rather than the agent. Now I'm wondering about maybe turning it into a reflexive distinction instead (for verbs like, e.g., coǧa "wash"), but I'm not sure if I should make verbs like lëçç "eat" take agent-accusative marking or if I should have the two coexist.

çicoǧa avec
çi-coǧa avec
PST.A-wash 3SG.M.DIR
'he washed (something)'

ciccoǧa avec
ci:-coǧa avec
PST.BEN-wash 3SG.M.DIR
'he washed (himself)'
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by shimobaatar » 02 May 2015 23:54

Linguifex wrote:William Ridley romanized /ŋ/ this way (although he set it lower; I can't on here unless I do this <>) in Gamilaraay (image link)
Oh, interesting!
Linguifex wrote:I was actually worried about that part of the romanization but there are only so many precomposed characters for <g>. Glad to see you like it!
Linguifex wrote: [:D]! I do hope to post more about this.
[:D] :!:
Linguifex wrote:New pronouns. I'm thinking of making these the masculine set and the other third-person ones the feminine set.
[+1] So the language's gender/noun class system is divided up into two groups (masculine and feminine)? Or is there no such system, and the pronouns are the only place (or one of the only places) where gender is marked in the language?

These are some lovely, lovely looking words, by the way!
Linguifex wrote:Hopefully these next couple of sentences are able to illustrate by example some of the workings of the case-system in this language.
I wouldn't say I understand things perfectly, but those examples certainly helped! And whether I fully understand it or not, this looks really cool!

So, it looks like the direct case is used to mark whatever the "subject" is, and the ergative and accusative cases are used to mark the agent and patient, respectively, when the verb of a sentence doesn't have an agent or patient trigger, (again) respectively? And the prepositional case is used for oblique arguments when the verb doesn't have a locative or benefactive trigger? And essentially any argument can be the "subject/direct argument" depending on what kind of trigger the verb has? What's the difference in connotation between the four sentences given?

I wish I could say something about the problem/situation with lëçç and all at the bottom there, but I don't think I understand it well enough.

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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 03 May 2015 05:45

shimobataar wrote:
Linguifex wrote:New pronouns. I'm thinking of making these the masculine set and the other third-person ones the feminine set.
[+1] So the language's gender/noun class system is divided up into two groups (masculine and feminine)? Or is there no such system, and the pronouns are the only place (or one of the only places) where gender is marked in the language?
You actually gave me an idea here, of actually giving noun classes/genders as opposed to letting it be more or less random.
shimobataar wrote:These are some lovely, lovely looking words, by the way!
Thank you!
shimobataar wrote:
Linguifex wrote:Hopefully these next couple of sentences are able to illustrate by example some of the workings of the case-system in this language.
I wouldn't say I understand things perfectly, but those examples certainly helped! And whether I fully understand it or not, this looks really cool!
Glad it did, and thank you!
shimobataar wrote:So, it looks like the direct case is used to mark whatever the "subject" is, and the ergative and accusative cases are used to mark the agent and patient, respectively, when the verb of a sentence doesn't have an agent or patient trigger, (again) respectively? And the prepositional case is used for oblique arguments when the verb doesn't have a locative or benefactive trigger? And essentially any argument can be the "subject/direct argument" depending on what kind of trigger the verb has? What's the difference in connotation between the four sentences given?
Right. The difference between the sentences is mainly one of what's being put in the spotlight—the first sentence stresses the man did it; the second, that it was paint that was applied; the third sentence stresses that it was the surface that was painted; the fourth, that painting the surface was apparently a good thing.
shimobataar wrote:I wish I could say something about the problem/situation with lëçç and all at the bottom there, but I don't think I understand it well enough.
Basically I'm wondering if certain verbs should disallow the agent trigger and force the benefactive, and if so should it just develop into a reflexive construction.

So the new noun-class/gender system:

Masculine — accusative plural m(u)-
Feminine — accusative plural ç(o)-
Neuter — accusative plural wu-
Mass — accusative plural l-
Miscellaneous — accusative plural (ao)-

The categories are a bit arbitrary at times—the "mass" nouns aren't all mass nouns, but most are. There's a few exceptions or semantic drifts, e.g. lae⅁⅁e "wind" from e "gust (of wind)", laeññeul "language" from ñeul "word". Place names often end up in the mass-noun class as well. Further, there's a bit of a grab bag in terms of certain words—ǧëǵ "surface" is masculine, and gëǧ "paint" is feminine.

⅁⅁u (m) "cube"
çëluɂu (f) "sound"
wuģaovv (n) "stalk of hay, feed" (singulatives of mass-noun plants typically end up in the neuter)
laoģaovv (mass) "hay(stack)" (mass nouns often take an echo vowel of whatever the first vowel of the word is)
aobëčwa (misc) "nail, claw"

Adjectives

At least some adjectives are formed from nouns by the circumfix ae<>oɂe. They take the prefixes appropriate to the word being modified.

ɂeǧǧoǧ "man" > -aeɂeǧǧoǧoɂe "for men"
çeǧǧoǧ "woman" > -aeçeǧǧoǧoɂe "for women"
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by shimobaatar » 04 May 2015 04:05

Linguifex wrote:Basically I'm wondering if certain verbs should disallow the agent trigger and force the benefactive, and if so should it just develop into a reflexive construction.
Hmm… I'd personally say "go for it" for now, and see if you like how it works "in action" or not.

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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Shemtov » 04 May 2015 04:32

I like the lack of coronals.
Linguifex wrote:
shimobaatar wrote:I'm still trying to understand Austronesian alignment in general, so there's not much more I can say for now, other than I like how some prefixes cause gemination. Overall, as I'm sure I said in the other thread, I like the looks of this and I hope to see more in the future! [:D]
[:D]! I do hope to post more about this.
If you can wrap your mind around it, can you please make some kind of Layman's guide to Austronesian alignment in the teach and share section?
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 05 May 2015 21:03

I think I'm going to go ahead and make the benefactive shift to a reflexive when there isn't another benefactive argument in the utterance (maybe another language can keep it as just a benefactive). This means that you can't have, like, an antipassive-like construction anymore using the benefactive:

ćiccoǧa avec "he washed (himself)"
ćihaoģ avec "he cleaned (himself)"
*ćilleçç avec "?he ate himself" (not "he ate (something)")
čilleçç avec "he ate (something)" (note the agent prefix)

There's still some shades of the original benefactive construction:

ćiccoǧa avec wë⅁⅁u "he brushed his teeth"
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 05 May 2015 21:49

I'm thinking of making different prepositions for different noun classes. I'm also thinking of "and" not being different from "with".

Masculine/feminine/neuter prepositions
maov with
uva for
ëč before, in front of
eu under
waçe without
i behind
keuh to the left of
yae to the right of
aģoǧ above
with, using

Other/mass prepositions
laeh with
ģoi for
ae before, in front of
vïm under
ë without
vae behind
umeu to the left of
hïñ to the right of
ćëu above
wi with, using

If "and" is the same as "with", then only the first word in the conjoined phrase takes the appropriate marking:

çičeu ɂeǧǧoǧim maov eǧǧoǧ hogëǧ hae ǧëǵïm
"the man and the woman painted the wall"
(here the lack of a case-marker for the prepositional form may be a problem, but in this case it'd likely be understood from context that "woman" is meant—another possible reading is "the man and the man painted the wall")
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by shimobaatar » 05 May 2015 22:48

Interesting idea! [+1]

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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 07 May 2015 01:58

Prepositions conjoin NPs. Verb and clause coordination takes actual conjunctions.

Masculine/feminine/neuter conjunctive prepositions
maov and
beǧ except
eheč or (inclusive)
ahuǧ or (exclusive)

Other/mass-noun conjunctive prepositions
laeh and
ełe except
ɂoǧ or (inclusive)
e or (exclusive)

Verbal conjunctions
ɂaece and
hoič except
eǧǧ or (inclusive)
ɂeue or (exclusive)
učča for, because
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 07 May 2015 06:21

To say things like "I want to start" you do something like this; the second pronoun can be omitted if it's the same as the first one.

čiyaeǧǧah aeh čiheugeǧ (aeh)
či-yaeǧǧah aeh či-heugeǧ (aeh)
NPST.A-want 1SG.DIR NPST.A-start (1SG.DIR)
"I want to start"

In the past tense, the second verb remains in the present tense.

çiyaeǧǧah aeh čiheugeǧ (aeh)
çi-yaeǧǧah aeh či-heugeǧ (aeh)
PST.A-want 1SG.DIR NPST.A-start (1SG.DIR)
"I wanted to start"

Negation is handled with a negative verb -ɂe, which also means "avoid". When used as a negative, it always takes the agent trigger and the pronoun in the following clause is typically produced (though the subsequent pronoun after that may not be if it might not ordinarily occur).

čiɂe aeh čiyaeǧǧah aeh čiheugeǧ (aeh)
či-ɂe aeh či-yaeǧǧah aeh či-heugeǧ (aeh)
NPST.A-avoid 1SG.DIR NPST.A-want 1SG.DIR NPST.A-start (1SG.DIR)
"I don't want to start"

Similarly, putting the negative verb in the past tense will mean subsequent verbs appear in the nonpast.

çiɂe aeh čiyaeǧǧah aeh čiheugeǧ (aeh)
çi-ɂe aeh či-yaeǧǧah aeh či-heugeǧ (aeh)
PST.A-avoid 1SG.DIR NPST.A-want 1SG.DIR NPST.A-start (1SG.DIR)
"I didn't want to start"
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 07 May 2015 19:42

Agent participle -:o (after a consonant) or -yo (after a vowel) < *-zɔ
Patient participle -coç
Locative participle palatalization + -e (after consonants) or -ye (after vowels)
Benefactive participle -me

Glottal stop deletes before another consonant.
Glottal stops can geminate, /h/ does not.

haeɂ "build, construct" + -:o agent participle = haeɂɂo "builder, construction worker"?
haeɂ "build, construct" + -coç patient participle = haecoç "house" (a constructed thing)
haeɂ "build, construct" + -e locative participle = haeɂe "building-place"
haeɂ "build, construct" + -me benefactive participle = haeme "homeowner, resident" (someone who benefits from construction)

oģëv "live (somewhere)" + -:o agent participle = oģëvvo "resident"
oģëv "live (somewhere)" + -e locative participle = oģëve "residence"

ɂoč "draw" + -:o agent participle = ɂoččo "artist"
ɂoč "draw" + -coç patient participle = ɂočcoç "drawing, illustration"
ɂoč "draw" + -(y)e locative participle = ɂoçe "artist's desk"
ɂoč "draw" + -me benefactive participle = ɂočme "artistic subject" (< "one who commissions a drawing")

ëvae "juggle" + -yo agent participle = ëvaeyo "juggler"
ëvae "juggle" + -coç patient participle = ëvaecoç "something that is juggled"
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by shimobaatar » 07 May 2015 20:34

I don't want to keep saying "this is so cool!" and nothing else every few posts, but for languages this impressive, I find it hard to give constructive feedback, since there's often nothing I feel needs changing or clarification.

To be more specific, though, I like seeing mentions of the morphophonology and the various allomorphs of some of the affixes/particles. I find the uses of these last four particles in particular very cool as well. I assume most verbs could take any of the four particles, but some verb + particle combinations are just very uncommon, such as ëvaeme "someone who benefits from juggling". Or maybe "an audience member at a juggling performance"? Either way, not a very common word, I'd assume.

In the previous post, I also quite like how only the first verb is placed in the past tense. It's interesting that the negative causes the pronoun of the second clause to be included typically!

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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 08 May 2015 05:48

So picking a category to go after on WALS, I found one on action nominal constructions and I decided to use a relative construction instead of having possessors or something. This may mean I need to focus on relatives soon.

ëɂ<>ë gerund, action nominal

ëyëčë e çiyeč avec huoiam
ëɂ<yeč>ë e çi-yeč avec hu-oia=m
gerund<cook> where PST.A-cook 3SG.DIR ACC.PL.M-oia=DEF
"his cooking (of) the oias"

ëwoçï⅁⅁ë e çiwoçi avec uëvoǧïm
ëɂ<woçi>ë e çi-woçi avec u-ëvoǧ=ïm
gerund<review> where PST.A-review 3SG.DIR ACC.SG.N-review=DEF
"his review(ing) of the paper"
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Re: Çuvvakkoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 30 May 2015 05:46

The relative word is e and when not used in an action-nominal construction it gets placed after the verb in the relative clause. It is always in the direct case.

ɂeǧǧoǧim ciyyuǧeuł e muoiam
ɂ-eǧǧoǧ=im ci:-yuǧeuł e mu-oia=m
DIR.SG.M-person=DEF PST.BEN-eat REL ACC.PL.M-oia=DEF
"the man who ate the oias"

If more than one noun is joined by an and but are modified, the construction looks like this:

çičeu ɂeǧǧoǧim maov eǧǧoǧim ciyyuǧeuł e muoiam hogëǧ hae⅁ ǧëǵïm
çi-čeu ɂ-eǧǧoǧ=im maov Ø-eǧǧoǧ=im ci:-yuǧeuł e mu-oia=m ho-gëǧ hae⅁ ǧëǵ=ïm
PST.A-paint DIR.SG.M-person=DEF and PREP.SG-woman=DEF PST.BEN-eat REL ACC.PL.M-oia=DEF

This sentence could be read two ways: "The man and the woman who ate the oias painted the wall (both of them ate the oias)", or "The man and the woman who ate the oias painted the wall (the woman ate the oias)". Generally, if the latter meaning is meant, the word for "woman" (çeǧǧoǧ in the direct case) would be the first word in the construction.

Questions are marked by a rapid upshift then drop in pitch, usually on the verb in question.
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Re: Çuvvaccoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 04 Jul 2015 04:31

Quick update: I decided that the pronouns listed as third-person masculine in one of my subsequent posts are used for masculine, neuter, and miscellaneous nouns. The pronouns in the original post are used for feminine and mass nouns.
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Re: Çuvvaccoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 04 Jul 2015 08:35

To ask things like "what is X", the relative pronoun e is used in a construction such as the following:

E Ɂëbaë meǧǧao e aveh?
e Ɂ-ëbaë m-eǧǧao e aveh?
REL M.DIR.SG-name PRES.P-have REL 3S.M.ERG
What is his name?

"Where is X" and "when is X" use a construction with a locative trigger, typically with the verb havea "stand":

Yihavea e hohaecoçim?
yi-havea e ho-haecoç=im
PRES.LOC-stand REL F.ACC.SG-house=DEF
Where is the house?

Ģihavea e hëɁhoëm?
ģi-havea e h-ëɁ<ho>ë=m?
PST.LOC-stand REL M.ACC.SG-GER<go>=DEF
Where was the event?/When was the event?

To be less ambiguous in the second example above, one could use a construction like the first one I posted:

E çoguǧe ģihavea e hëɁhoëm?
e ço-guǧe ģi-havea e h-ëɁ<ho>ë=m
REL F.DIR.SG-time PST.LOC-stand REL M.ACC.SG-GER<go>=DEF
At what time did the event happen?
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Re: Çuvvaccoçim redux

Post by Linguifex » 02 Mar 2016 08:44

I'm thinking of introducing some allophony whereby /v/ becomes [β] before back unrounded vowels.

Also, I've done some work on a daughterlang, provisionally called Chuzvacsacham /xuzvakˈsaxam/ (yes, the names are cognates). Some correspondences below—the asterisked form is the protolanguage form; the first entry below is Çuvvaccoçim, and the second entry is Chuzvacsacham.

*sekɯ
> heke
> sika

*pɤsbi
> hɤbːa
> pizbi

*doiko
> joɪ̯ku
> duːko

*sɛɣte
> heh
> saxse

*lɔɛzɣɔ
> woɪ̯ɣː
> laːɣza

*di
> ja
> zi

*pʌzka
> hɤkː
> paksa

*tuɛ
> ʔao̯
> tuː

*lisxi
> wae̯xːa
> lixsi

*wɛxdo
> wexju
> waɣdo

*gozjɯ
> guʝe
> goza

*ɣasta
> ɣaʔː
> ɣasta

*ʌsɯi
> ɤheʊ̯a
> asiː

*dɔɣdɔxɤ
> joɣjox
> daɣdaha

*sɯpe
> heʊ̯h
> sapa

*bɛɣe
> beɣ
> baɣe

*jɤzʟuz
> ɤʟːao̯
> uzluz

*ʌɯɣ
> ae̯uɣ
> aːɣ

*pjintjɤ
> hae̯ʔ
> pinda

*lɯ
> we
> la

*doʟje
> joʎ
> dole

*ɛŋjɤ
> iɲ
> aŋa

*nuvja
> mao̯v
> nuva

*ʟjʌzxjɔ
> ʟɤçː
> laxso

*izŋjɤn
> ae̯ɲːɯŋ
> iznan

*doʟe
> joʟ
> dole

*tjɯle
> ʔeʊ̯
> sile

*odu
> uva
> udu
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