Shonkasika (WIP)

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Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 21 May 2015 00:27

I have hesitated to start a thread on Shonkasika because I am always tweaking this and that. However, I have been working on it for awhile and it won't ever be done unless I stop working on it so here goes.
It is more of a personal conlang than anything, although I have thought of the bare-bones of a conculture. I see the original speakers as a very open minded people who lived in a mountainous region. 'Shonkasika' means 'mountain speech'.

General Info
Shonkasika is a highly inflectional language, being mostly agglutinative with some fusional affixes here and there. Its tends to be head final, with a predominate SOV word order, although there is some flexibility.

Phonology

Consonants
/m n ɲ/ <m n ñ>
/p t k/ <p t k>
/b d g/ <b d g>
/t͡s t͡ʃ/ <ts c>
/d͡z d͡ʒ/ <dz j>
/f s θ ʃ x h/ <f s th sh x h>
/v z ð ʒ/ <v z dh zh>
/w j/ <w y>
/l r/ <l r>

Vowels
/a e i o u/ <a e i o u>

Syllables
Basic syllable structure is (C)(C)V(C)
Any single consonant may begin or end a syllable
 
Syllables may start with
 
· stop + l, r (except *tl, dl*)
· fricatives s, z, sh, f, v + l, r (except sr*, zr*)
· s or sh + unvoiced stop, f, m, or n
· z (or zh - rare) + voiced stop, v
· any consonant + w, y
· xr, xw

Stress
Stress is normally on the penultimate syllable of a word, unless marked with an acute accent on the accented vowel.

Nouns
Nouns are divided into six genders or noun classes. I see this system as having evolved from an earlier system of three genders that later added a distinction for animacy. The genders are common, masculine, feminine (all animate), neuter, celestial, and terrestrial (all inanimate). For most nouns, their gender is obvious from form based on stem:

Code: Select all

animate o-stems: masculine
animate a-stems: feminine
all other animate stems: common
inanimate o-stems: celestial
inanimate a-stems: terrestrial
all other inanimate stems: neuter
Nouns decline for definiteness (indefinite or definite), number (singular or plural) and case (nominative, genitive, accusative, dative, allative, locative, ablative, instrumental, and comitative).

There is a big split in declension groups based on whether a noun is animate or inanimate as most of the inflections based on that fact and only minor differences exist within those two broad groups.

To start, here is an example of the declension of the noun aindi light, which is a good example of neuter vowel stem noun:
Spoiler:
aindi light
Image
I plan on adding more information later. Please excuse errors, tinkering, or revisions. Feedback welcome!
Edit: Edited for clarity and to add a tidbit about stress
Last edited by felipesnark on 21 May 2015 23:32, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by shimobaatar » 21 May 2015 02:05

Yay, a Shonkasika thread! [:D] Not much to say as of now other than I'm quite looking forward to seeing more!

Also, I hope you don't feel like you absolutely have to keep things the way they are at the moment now that you've started the thread. It's hard for a conlang to ever really be done, so if there's ever anything you want to tweak or change, go for it! Don't let the thread pressure you into putting up with something you don't love, especially when it comes to personal conlanging! [:)]

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by Sḿtuval » 21 May 2015 02:13

So what happens if /t/ is next to /h/, giving <th> (which is already assigned to /θ/) for /th/? Do you keep the spelling, or do they assimilate to /θ/?

I have to say, I really like the six gender system (and how animacy works). [:)]
I have absolutely no idea what I'm doing.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 21 May 2015 02:55

shimobaatar wrote:Yay, a Shonkasika thread! [:D] Not much to say as of now other than I'm quite looking forward to seeing more!

Also, I hope you don't feel like you absolutely have to keep things the way they are at the moment now that you've started the thread. It's hard for a conlang to ever really be done, so if there's ever anything you want to tweak or change, go for it! Don't let the thread pressure you into putting up with something you don't love, especially when it comes to personal conlanging! [:)]
Thanks for the feedback!
Sḿtuval wrote:So what happens if /t/ is next to /h/, giving <th> (which is already assigned to /θ/) for /th/? Do you keep the spelling, or do they assimilate to /θ/?

I have to say, I really like the six gender system (and how animacy works). [:)]
Not that I think it would come up much, but I think I would just keep the spelling and it would be one of those deceptively spelled words. [:)] I'm glad you like the gender system; it's one of the things I like most about this conlang. When I have some more time, perhaps tomorrow or this weekend, I'll post some information on other declensions and some semantics involved with the gender system.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 21 May 2015 23:31

More Nouns!

Gender
Now for a bit more on noun gender! While in general, a noun's gender is obvious from its form, there is semantic basis for the gender of many nouns. Celestial (inanimate o-stem) nouns include many atmospheric phenomena, celestial bodies, and fruits. Terrestrial (inanimate a-stem) nouns include trees, bodies of water, plants, and geographical features. Masculine (animate o-stem) nouns include words that refer to male humans, deities and animals. Feminine (animate a-stem) nouns refer to female humans, deities, and animals. Common (animates with other stems) refer to humans, deities and animals of both sexes or refer to no sex at all. Neuter (other inanimates) nouns, as a class, do not have any special semantic association.

Despite those labels, the gender an inanimate noun belongs to is somewhat arbitrary, and there exceptions to the semantic rules. Likewise, a few non-living things are in animate gender. Kunkos fire and zefros wind are both masculine.

Now on to some more declensions! Previously, I showed the declension of aindi light, an i-stem neuter noun. Other vowel-stem neuters, u-stem and e-stems, are declined the same way. Consonant-stem neuters are declined like e-stems, except that they end in no vowel in the indefinite nominative singular though occasionally may have an irregular definite stem.

Example declensions the following nouns under the spoiler tag:
mubu garlic, vese coin, boz day (24-hours)
Spoiler:
Image
Image
Image
Celestial (inanimate o-stem) and terrestrial (inanimate a-stem) nouns are declined similarly to neuter nouns, except they use different affixes for their definite forms. Whereas the neuter nouns use -ne, celestial and terrestrial nouns use -no and -na respectively.


Example declensions the following nouns under the spoiler tag:
xauvo sky, kivra river
Spoiler:
Image
Image
With that we cover the major declensions of inanimate nouns. There are are still some small subgroups with particular quirks I will address later. Before I get to those, I will get to the animate genders!

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by shimobaatar » 22 May 2015 02:29

felipesnark wrote:Celestial (inanimate o-stem) nouns include many atmospheric phenomena, celestial bodies, and fruits.
Any particular reason why this class also generally includes fruits?
felipesnark wrote:Now for a bit more on noun gender! While in general, a noun's gender is obvious from its form, there is semantic basis for the gender of many nouns.
Do you mean that the semantics of a noun sometimes "overrides" the gender you'd expect based on the noun's form? That is, if an o-stem noun has something to do with women or the earth, would that noun be considered feminine/terrestrial (based on semantics) or masculine/celestial (based on form)?

I assume you just meant that, while gender is completely predictable based on the form of a noun, sometimes a noun's meaning matches up well with the gender it's in. The part above was the other interpretation that occurred to me a little later, and I just wanted to double check to be absolutely clear.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by Sḿtuval » 22 May 2015 02:38

felipesnark wrote:Despite those labels, the gender an inanimate noun belongs to is somewhat arbitrary, and there exceptions to the semantic rules. Likewise, a few non-living things are in animate gender. Kunkos fire and zefros wind are both masculine.
Words like fire being animate doesn't seem arbitrary at all. [:D]

Maybe the ancestors of the conculture that speaks Shonkasika (if you have one) originally thought fire was alive, like some sort of spirit or formless being.

Same goes with wind too.
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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 22 May 2015 02:56

shimobaatar wrote:Any particular reason why this class also generally includes fruits?
Good question! I actually have two reasons. One, I see the original speakers of the language as conceptualizing fruits as something fleshy hanging from trees, or hanging from the sky, hence celestial. The other reason was to make a correspondence with a 'natural pair' with another noun gender, an idea I got from Spanish. In Spanish, several fruits are feminine, while the tree they come from is masculine: la manzana, el manzano apple, apple tree la pera, el peral pear, pear tree

shimobaatar wrote:Do you mean that the semantics of a noun sometimes "overrides" the gender you'd expect based on the noun's form? That is, if an o-stem noun has something to do with women or the earth, would that noun be considered feminine/terrestrial (based on semantics) or masculine/celestial (based on form)?

I assume you just meant that, while gender is completely predictable based on the form of a noun, sometimes a noun's meaning matches up well with the gender it's in. The part above was the other interpretation that occurred to me a little later, and I just wanted to double check to be absolutely clear.
I would say that your first thought, that gender is predictable from form and that sometimes a noun's meaning matches up with that gender class, is what I was trying to communicate. At this point, an o-stem would be masculine/celestial based on form, despite its semantics. I imagine that the o-stems and a-stems developed early on as gender markers, so there would be fewer exceptions whereas other stem types fell into common/neuter (based on animacy) as catch-all genders. One thing I need to work on more, is to consider semantic drift a bit more for the animate noun genders so that I could have an o-stem that is masculine in grammatical gender, but perhaps refers semantically to a woman. It's interesting to think about how thinkers would resolve that "mismatch".
Sḿtuval wrote:Words like fire being animate doesn't seem arbitrary at all. [:D]

Maybe the ancestors of the conculture that speaks Shonkasika (if you have one) originally thought fire was alive, like some sort of spirit or formless being.

Same goes with wind too.
I haven't extensively developed the conculture, but that's exactly why I decided that those words should be animate in gender! It's like you read my mind! The word for water in general, shu is neuter (inanimate) but the word for liquid water is shwas feminine (animate)! I think there may be a few more natural words that fall in the animate genders once I think about the ancestors of the conculture more.

Thanks for the feedback you guys!

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by shimobaatar » 22 May 2015 03:14

felipesnark wrote:Good question! I actually have two reasons. One, I see the original speakers of the language as conceptualizing fruits as something fleshy hanging from trees, or hanging from the sky, hence celestial. The other reason was to make a correspondence with a 'natural pair' with another noun gender, an idea I got from Spanish. In Spanish, several fruits are feminine, while the tree they come from is masculine: la manzana, el manzano apple, apple tree la pera, el peral pear, pear tree
Ah, OK, cool! That makes sense. [:)] The stuff about wind, fire, and liquid water being animate makes sense, too.

By the way, sorry if this was talked about before, but how is animacy typically determined? Is it mainly just semantics?

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by Lao Kou » 22 May 2015 06:31

shimobaatar wrote:
felipesnark wrote:
Sḿtuval wrote:
felipesnark wrote:the gender an inanimate noun belongs to is somewhat arbitrary, and there exceptions to the semantic rules. Likewise, a few non-living things are in animate gender. Kunkos fire and zefros wind are both masculine.
Words like fire being animate doesn't seem arbitrary at all. [:D] Maybe the ancestors of the conculture that speaks Shonkasika (if you have one) originally thought fire was alive, like some sort of spirit or formless being. Same goes with wind too.
I haven't extensively developed the conculture, but that's exactly why I decided that those words should be animate in gender! It's like you read my mind! The word for water in general, shu is neuter (inanimate) but the word for liquid water is shwas feminine (animate)! I think there may be a few more natural words that fall in the animate genders once I think about the ancestors of the conculture more.
The stuff about wind, fire, and liquid water being animate makes sense, too.
Indeed. As these things seem to act (well, "of their own accord" may be giving them too much credit, but at least) "automotive"-ly, animacy seems a rather natural choice, and you don't have to go all protohistory cosmologico-spiritual Weltanschauung to justify it (unless you want to, of course [:)] ).

On the other hand, while nothing leaps out at me from "kunkos" (unless, perhaps, a very tortured route from "Vulcanus"), if "zefros" doesn't hail from the Greek god, Zephyros, that's one very happy coincidence. [:)]

I'm afraid I don't understand the distinction between "general" and "liquid" water, but the "shu/shwas" pair reminds me of Chinese "shui" (for that matter, I don't know where the morpheme boundaries are, but if Shonkasika is "mountain speech", then "shon" from Chinese "shan"?). Is that where these come from, or is that my own (erroneous) linkage?
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 22 May 2015 11:27

shimobaatar wrote:Ah, OK, cool! That makes sense. [:)] The stuff about wind, fire, and liquid water being animate makes sense, too.

By the way, sorry if this was talked about before, but how is animacy typically determined? Is it mainly just semantics?
Animacy is usually determined by semantics, so nouns that refer to people, animals, and spirits/deities would be animate. Occasionally other nouns, like wind, fire, (liquid) water, are also animate. Hopefully later this afternoon, after work, I will be able to post about animate nouns, as they decline differently from their inanimate counterparts.
Lao Kou wrote:Indeed. As these things seem to act (well, "of their own accord" may be giving them too much credit, but at least) "automotive"-ly, animacy seems a rather natural choice, and you don't have to go all protohistory cosmologico-spiritual Weltanschauung to justify it (unless you want to, of course [:)] ).

On the other hand, while nothing leaps out at me from "kunkos" (unless, perhaps, a very tortured route from "Vulcanus"), if "zefros" doesn't hail from the Greek god, Zephyros, that's one very happy coincidence. [:)]

I'm afraid I don't understand the distinction between "general" and "liquid" water, but the "shu/shwas" pair reminds me of Chinese "shui" (for that matter, I don't know where the morpheme boundaries are, but if Shonkasika is "mountain speech", then "shon" from Chinese "shan"?). Is that where these come from, or is that my own (erroneous) linkage?
Kunkos, shu, shwas, shonka mountain, and sika speech are all a priori so any resemblance to words in natlangs is purely coincidence. [:)]

Zefros on the other hand, is indeed derived from Zephyros; good job! [+1]

Any form of water may be shu whether it be snow, ice, water in a glass, steam, etc. Shwas is specifically water in its liquid state, particularly if it is running or moving.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 23 May 2015 00:25

Animate nouns

Animate nouns have a different set of morphemes to form its primary (or primordial) cases (nominative, genitive, and accusative) than the inanimate nouns. Like the inanimate nouns, the other cases are built off of the accusative case forms. Likewise, for the definite case forms, the affixes -le/-lo/-la are used for the common, masculine and feminine genders as opposed to the -ne/-no/-na of the neuter, celestial and feminine genders.

Below are presented examples of a regular common, a regular masculine and a regular feminine noun:
gudes cat, droxtos king, kwenias girl
Spoiler:
ImageImageImage
Like with the inanimate nouns, there are a few small subgroups of declensions with some minor changes, but the nouns listed above cover the vast majority of animate nouns.

Because of their differences in forms, the grammatical animacy of a noun is clear from its inflections. There are often doublets of certain pronouns and determiners for animate and inanimate noun. For example, there are two sets of 3rd person pronouns: se for inanimate nouns and le(s) for animate ones. Both decline irregularly for gender, number and case.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 24 May 2015 17:11

Regular Finite Verbs

Shonkasika's verbs are agglutinative, with various affixes to indicate mood, tense, aspect, voice and person. There are also many non-finite forms, but I will discuss those more in another post. For now, I will just say that verbs have basic stems that end in a vowel (which is identical to the 2s active imperative form) and are usually cited in their simple active infinitive form, ending in -nu.
E.g.
ruvanu, semonu, laidonu, glainanu, tunu, methonu to love, to drink, to eat, to see, to give, to read

First, an overview of the affixes in a table with explanation and a few examples to follow.
Spoiler:
Image
SLOT 1 (optional) - Mood2
This slot contains some mood prefixes that are used in conjunction with other mood markers in Slot 7.
Jussive, ca-: The jussive is used to indicate future commands, and various types of hortatory expressions: "They shall sit here!" "We shall leave at once!" "You shall finish this work!" It is used in conjunction with the non-past optative ending in Slot 7 in only the simple and perfect aspects and present tense.

Potential, go-: The potential expresses likely and probable events. It is used in conjunction with the subjunctive endings in Slot 7.

Dubitative, mu-: The dubitative expresses unlikely possibilities. It is used in conjunction with the subjunctive endings in Slot 7.

If the verb stem begins with a vowel, an epenthetic -y- is inserted between the prefix and the stem

STEM
This may be the bare verb stem or it can be modified in the following ways:
Habitual, ωo-: The habitual expresses habitual and customary actions. Reduplication of the onset cluster plus the vowel -o forms the habitual aspect stem. It cannot be used in conjunction with other aspects in Slot 4.

Progressive, ωe-: The progressive expresses ongoing actions. Reduplication of the onset cluster plus the vowel -e forms the progressive aspect stem. It cannot be used in conjunction with other aspects in Slot 4.

For both reduplicating stems, if the verb in question begins with a vowel, the stem is simply prefixed with o-/e- plus an epenthetic -y yielding oy-/ey-.

SLOT 2 (optional) - Causative
Causative, gi-: This affix makes the verb causative.

SLOT 3 (optional) - Voice
Active, -: Active voice
Middle/reflexive, da-: Middle voice and reflexive verbs
Reciprocal, du-: Plural subjects acting on each other.
Passive, te-: Passive voice

SLOT 4 - Aspect
Simple, -: Indicates a basic, non-descript (and perhaps aorist) aspect.
Perfect, -pe/-ka: Indicates a completed aspect that has some continued relevance. This cannot be used in conjunction with the habitual nor progressive stems.
Prospective, -na/-vi: Indicates an action that is about to occur or is going to occur. This cannot be used in conjunction with the habitual nor progressive stems.

The choice of the perfect or prospect aspect suffix depends on the verb class:
Class I verbs - pe-perfects, na-prospectives: most verbs
Class II verbs - ka-perfects, vi-prospectives: verbs of motion, inchoatives with infinitives in -tronu or -dathi, causatives, all middle/passives
Class III verbs - ka-perfects, na-prospectives: verbs in -vinu by analogy with ovinu to come
Verbs are usually cited with their simple active infinitive (in -nu) are assumed to be class I unless other information, such as the class number is given. If the verb is cited in the middle, -thi or passive, -li infinitive form, it must belong to class II.

SLOT 5 (optional) - Future/conditional
Future/conditional, bo-: Indicates conditional if used with the past indicative endings in Slot 7. Indicates future otherwise.

SLOT 6 - Person
2sg imperative, -: 2sg. imperative
2pl imperative, -n: 2pl imperative

All other moods use the following endings:
Personal (non-imperative) endings
Image
*-nde and -san are used with the non-past indicative endings and -nd- and -zn- are used for all other tense/mood combinations.

SLOT 7 - Tense/mood
Nonpast indicative, -: Present and future indicative. Normal declarations of events.
Past indicative, -ar: Past indicative. Also used with the tense marker -bo in Slot 5 to mark the conditional. The conditional is used in both clauses of counterfactual statements and as a future-in-the-past tense.
Nonpast subjunctive, -i: Present and future subjunctive to express irrealis and deliberation in questions. Used with the mood marker go- in Slot 1 to indicate present and future potential to express likely or probable events. Also used with the mood marker mu- to indicate present and future dubitative to express unlikely or improbable events.
Past subjunctive, -ai: Same uses as the nonpast subjunctive, but in past tenses.
Nonpast optative, -u: Present and future optative to express wishes, blessing and curses. Also used with the mood marker ca- in Slot 1 to indicate the jussive mood for formal, future and future perfect commands. The jussive mood is only used with the simple unmarked aspect or the perfect aspect.
Past optative, -os: Same use as the nonpast optative, but in past tenses and no jussive mood use.

Here are a few random examples:
Maktek laidot.
makte-k laido-t
bread-ACC eat-1s
I eat bread.

Raikenek gosemobondi.
raik-(e)ne-k go-semo-bo-nd-i
wine-DEF-ACC POT-drink-FUT-1p-SUBJ
We will probably drink the wine.

Gevi glainadufar.
gevi glaina-du-f-ar
yesterday see-RECIPR-2p-PST.IND
You all saw each other yesterday.

Sha memethos.
sha m<e>~metho-s
now PROG~read-2s
You are reading now.

Slornana totu tutekas ep caguneth mati laidotekasan.
slorna-na to-tu tu-te-ka-s ep cagú-ne-th ma-ti laido-te-ka-san
beer-DEF 1s.MASC-DAT give-PASS-PERF-3s and nut-DEF-PL 2s.FEM-INST eat-PASS-PERF-3p
The beer has been given to me and the nuts have been eaten by you.

Of course, there are a few irregular verbs that I will post about later.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by shimobaatar » 24 May 2015 22:20

Very interesting! Looking forward to hearing about irregular finite verbs and non-finite forms sometime in the future! [:D]

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 25 May 2015 15:10

Adjectives
I appreciate the response I've gotten to other posts. I have been working on my notes on adjectives so I decided to make a post about them.

Adjectives decline like nouns and agree with the noun they modify in gender, number and case but not definiteness. Adjectives only decline for definiteness when they are substantivized, i.e. used as a (definite) noun. Adjectives generally precede the nouns they modify but can follow them for style or emphasis.

Adjectives come in three varieties based on their basic stem, which is the same as their neuter nominative singular form: e-stem, i-stem, and u-stem. Below is an example of an example adjective of each type, displayed in the nominative singular form of each case:

Image
Otos deros. A tall man.
Otaka shonkaka. Towards a tall mountain.
Lusith makteneth. The sweet breads.

Adjectives can take a wide variety of suffixes and prefixes to inflect for positive and negative comparisons as well as form derivate adverbs, nouns and other adjectives:

Image
Augmentative, diminutive, pejorative, laudative
These suffixes modify the sense of the adjective. The augmentative can imply that the quality of the adjective is too much for the given situation.

Otothos kotanakes kis.
ot(e)-oth-os kota-na-kes ki-s
tall-AUG-MASC.NOM.SG house-DEF-LOC be.LOC-3s
He is very tall (too tall) in the (this) house.

Unlike many languages, such as Spanish, augmentative and diminutive forms usually don't have connotations of value judgement; for that we have the pejorative and laudative suffixes:

Otucos gampos Horribly tall young man. (It's bad for some reason or I just don't like him)
Otitas gampas Pleasantly tall young woman.

Augmentative and diminutive can be combined with the laudative and pejorative affixes with the laudative or pejorative suffixes coming last.

Otothucos gampos A great big horribly tall young man.

All four of the affixes in this category can also be used with nouns.

Comparisons
Two things may be compared by putting the noun phrase to be compared in the instrumental case. This is called the instrumental of comparison.

Derolos lopnalati oteptos bas.
Dero-lo-s lopna-la-ti ote-pt-os ba-s
Man-DEF-NOM.SG woman-DEF-INSTR tall-COMPAR-MASC.NOM.SG be-3s
The man is taller than the woman.

Comparisons may also be made with the conjunction weni than:

Derolos weni lopnalas oteptos bas.
Dero-lo-s weni lopna-la-s ote-pt-os ba-s
Man-DEF-NOM.SG than woman-DEF-NOM.SF tall-COMPAR-MASC.NOM.SG be-3s
The man is taller than the woman.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by shimobaatar » 25 May 2015 20:57

felipesnark wrote:Augmentative and diminutive can be combined with the laudative and pejorative affixes with the laudative or pejorative suffixes coming last.
Are these the only combinations of derivative affixes allowed? For example, how would you say something like "the least great big pleasantly tall young man"?
felipesnark wrote:Adjectives generally precede the nouns they modify but can follow them for style or emphasis.
What kind of desired style might motivate someone to use adjectives after nouns?

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 25 May 2015 21:41

shimobaatar wrote:
felipesnark wrote:Augmentative and diminutive can be combined with the laudative and pejorative affixes with the laudative or pejorative suffixes coming last.
Are these the only combinations of derivative affixes allowed? For example, how would you say something like "the least great big pleasantly tall young man"?
No, those aren't the only combinations allowed.

venotothiteskos gampos
ven-ote-othe-ite-ske-os gamp-os
NEG-tall-AUG-LAUD-SUPER-MASC.NOM.SG youth-MASC.NOM.SG
the least great big pleasantly tall young man

I wrote this and then a thought occurred to me. How do I know which order? I guess I need another template!
I came up with:
negative-prefixes(inten./atten.)-STEM-quantity(aug./dim.)-quality(laud./pejor.)-comparison-abstraction/adverb

Markoso ishotothucea bences.

marko-so ish-ote-othe-uce-ea bence-s
Markos-GEN INTENS-tall-AUG-PEJ-ABSTRACT annoy-3s
Markos's very big horrible tallness is annoying.
shimobaatar wrote:
felipesnark wrote:Adjectives generally precede the nouns they modify but can follow them for style or emphasis.
What kind of desired style might motivate someone to use adjectives after nouns?
Poetry and maybe other things I have yet to come up with! [:D]

felipesnark
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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 30 May 2015 19:21

Irregular Finite Verbs

Shonkasika does not have very many truly irregular verbs. This is probably due to the fact that its verb morphology is mostly agglutinative. Most irregularity is from the appearance of suppletive stems in certain forms. Only four irregular verbs have been "discovered" thus far:

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So what does this mean? It means to form the present and past perfect forms of banu, we use the stem su-:
sut, sutar I have been, I had been
The present and past prospective forms use bovi-:
bovit, bovitar I am going/about to be, I was going/about to be
All future tense forms, no matter the aspect, use the stem bo- and is conjugated like a regular class I verb:
bot, botar, bopet, bopetar,… I will be, I would be, I will have been, I would have been,…
All other forms use the stem ba-:
bat, batar,… I am, I was,...

zembanu to be able (to), can is conjugated the same way, with zem (zen- before /s/) prefixed onto the forms.

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veku- is used for all negative forms:
vekut, vekutar, vekubot I don't want, I didn't want, I won't want
kuve- is used for the simple active non-future forms:
kuvet, kuvetar I want, I don't want
ku- is used for all other forms:
kubot, kubotar,… I will want, I would want,...

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wistanu is only irregular in that all the negative forms use the stem vekista-

Diphthong stems
Verbs that have stems ending in diphthong are mostly regular, but most ending in -ai and -oi (often derived from the suffix -yenu to do ) maintain the stress on the diphthong on all forms of the present simple active indicative, the present habitual active indicative, and the present progressive active indicative. Basically, these are all forms that have the stem final diphthong in the final syllable of the word. That means that all forms of those tenses will have a written accent to indicate the non-penultimate stress except the 1p and 3p forms. This is only true of polysyllabic words:

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Lan sha sesemotháis.
lan sha se~semothai-s
3.PL.FEM now PROG~have.round.of.drinks-3SG
They are having a round of drinks (right) now.

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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by shimobaatar » 31 May 2015 06:35

Lovely as always! For some reason I'm particularly fond of the negative stems. [:D]

felipesnark
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Re: Shonkasika (WIP)

Post by felipesnark » 31 May 2015 13:29

shimobaatar wrote:Lovely as always! For some reason I'm particularly fond of the negative stems. [:D]
Thanks, I like the negative ones too! [:)] For regular verbs, the particle vek is used to negative the verb:

Sek laidot vek.
se-k laido-t vek
3.SG.NEUT-ACC eat-1.SG NEG
I don't eat it.

The weather verbs above have given me an idea about using the weather as a metaphor for certain emotions for derivative purposes.

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