Classical Arrdhilan

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Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 08 Nov 2015 02:21

This is a language spoken around 1600 in the fictional Islands of Arrdhila, in the Bay of Bengal. It is an isolate, though it was a lot of influence from Pali, Bengali, Arabic and Farsi. The Arrdhilans were converts to Buddhism, but when Islam was introduced a syncretic Religion called Gradhphanism became popular.

Phonology:
/p pʰ b bʱ t tʰ d dʱ k kʰ g gʱ kʷ/ <p ph b bh t th d dh k kh g gh q>
/m n ʰm̥ ʰn̥/ <m n hm hn >
/t͡s t͡sʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ d͡ʒʱ/ <z zh c ch j jh>
/ɸ s ʃ h/ <f s sh h>
/ɾ r/ <r rr>
/l/ <l>
/ʋ j/ <v y>

/i u ɯ/ <i u eu>
/e o/ <e o>
/ʌ/ <eo>
/æ ɑ/ <a aa>
/ɔi ai au/ <oi ai au>

Phonotactics:
(C)(C)V(C)

Permited clusters: /sm ʃm sn ʃn pr br kr gr pl bl kl gl/
Last edited by Shemtov on 11 Nov 2015 05:12, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by clawgrip » 08 Nov 2015 03:30

The setup sounds interesting. It will be interesting to see how the other languages influence this one.

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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 08 Nov 2015 03:48

This thread shows the influence of Arabic and Pali on Gradhphanist religious terminology:
viewtopic.php?f=24&t=5103
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Ahzoh » 08 Nov 2015 04:12

/m n ʰm̥ ʰn̥/ <m n hm hn >
But, preaspirated nasals are voiceless nasals, it's redundant to have both.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 08 Nov 2015 05:06

Nominal Morphology:
The language is split-erg, Ergative when the verb is in the Perfective Past.
The language has three numbers: Singular, Paucal (2-5) and Plural. There are invariable plural and paucal endings, though if the noun ends with a vowel and the ending begins with a vowel, /h/ is inserted, unless the first vowel is /i/ or /e/ in which case the inserted consonant is /j/.
The Paucal ending is <an> and the Plural ending is <hni>.

Cases:
The Cases are placed between the noun and the Number:
Core Cases:
Accusative: <un>
Ergative <eul>
Absolutive: <dha>

Non-Core Cases:
Genitive: <Rrin>
Dative-Allative: <om>
Locative: <vai>
Possesed-Ablative: <gheo>
Instrumental: <ijh>

The possessed case is used in conjunction with the genitive when the possessed noun is a). Nominative and b). animate.
Last edited by Shemtov on 12 Nov 2015 20:21, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 10 Nov 2015 03:48

Verbal Morphology:
This post will focus on the Indicative active, as I'm still working out details of the Mood and Voice systems.
The Verb has 3 tense-Aspects: Past Perfect (which triggers ergativity) the Simple Past, and The Non-Past.
Endings:
Past Perfect: -Kraa
Past: -euph
Non-Past: Unmarked

The verb also takes person and number marking:
1p sing: -maa
1p plural: -nas
2p sing: te
2p Plural: aach
3p sing: unmarked
3p paucal: an
3p Plural: Hni

The Verb also takes an optional patient marker for emphasis in Nom-Acc utterances. In Erg alligned intransitive utterances, these are used instead of the above markers. They do not mark for number:
1p: Hmoem
2p: Tadh/Tedh*
3p: Eo

*The 2p object marker takes the second form if the 3p plural subject marker is used or with past tense verbs.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 10 Nov 2015 04:23

Example sentences:
Gradhphaneul nokhasdha visaarkraa
Gradhphan-eul nokhas-dha visaar-kraa
Gradhphan-ERG truth-ABS speak-PST.PRFCT
"Gradhphan has spoken the truth"

Bhikhuhni purravai dhorriyeuhnipheo
Bhikhu-hni purra-vai dhorri-yeuph-hni-eo
Buddhist.Priest-PLR city-LOC curse-PST-3p.PLR-3p
"The Buddhist priests cursed at him in the city"

Alaarin nabi giraahijh shtavidh
Alaa-rin nabi giraa-hijh shtavidh
God-GEN prophet word-INSTR conquer
"Alaa's prophet conquers with words"
Last edited by Shemtov on 11 Nov 2015 10:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 11 Nov 2015 05:20

Allophony:
The voiced aspirates are usually relezied as voiced fricatives intervocalicly or between a vowel and /r m n l/ or vice versa. This means that /bʱ dʱ gʱ d͡ʒʱ/ are releized as [β ð ɣ ʒ:].
/n/ assimilates to POA before velars.
/ʋ/ is realized as /w/ before non-high back vowels and /ɯ/.
/ʌ/ is rounded after labials.
/h/ is pronounced as /x/ syllable-finally.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 11 Nov 2015 10:29

Another example:
Alaa Alaaganthahun Shmakhhmaathivai fereoheupheo
Alaa Alaagantha-hun Shmakhhmaathi-vai fereoh-euph-eo
God Alaagantha-ACC Shmakhhmaathi-LOC give-PST-3p
"Alaa gave me the Alaagantha at Shmakhhmaathi"
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 11 Nov 2015 11:18

An Example of the possessed case:
Alaarin nabirin jheodo plugh dutanhigheo purrahniyom shakrikheuphni
Alaa-rin nabi-rin jheodo plugh duta-nhi-gheo purra-hni-yom shkarikh-euph-hni
God-GEN prophet-GEN eight MW messenger-PLR-POSES city-PLR-ALL go-PST-3p.PLR
"The 8 messengers of Alaa's prophet went to the cities"
We see here an interesting pragmatic use: In Gradhphanism none of Alaa's possessions can take the Possessed case, the idea being that any animate being compared to God is like an inanimate object.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 13 Nov 2015 04:22

Pronouns:
Nominative:
1p sing: Meu
1p Plural: Naaz
2p sing (familiar): Teo
2p sing polite: Zhaa
2p Plr: Tehn
3p sing: Hau
3p Paucal: Va
3p Plr: Hon

Accusative:
1p sing: Mun
1p Plural: Nazeun
2p sing (familiar): Ton
2p sing polite: Zheon
2p Plr: Tehn
3p sing: Hun
3p Paucal: Vaan
3p Plr: Hon

Ergative:
1p sing: Meur
1p Plural: Nazar
2p sing (familiar): Taar
2p sing polite: Zhar
2p Plr: Teth
3p sing: Heurr
3p Paucal: Bhair
3p Plr: Heon

Absolutive:
1p sing: Meol
1p Plural: Naazdha
2p sing (familiar): Tadh
2p sing polite: Zhaadha
2p Plr: Tetha
3p sing: Haudha
3p Paucal: Vadha
3p Plr: Hohna


Genitive:
Ergative:
1p sing: Murr
1p Plural: Nazaarr
2p sing (familiar): Taarr
2p sing polite: Zhaarr
2p Plr: Tis
3p sing: Hurr
3p Paucal: Bhair
3p Plr: Honir

Dative:
1p sing: Mom
1p Plural: Naam
2p sing (familiar): Taam
2p sing polite: Chom
2p Plr: Tehm
3p sing: Haum
3p Paucal: Bhaum
3p Plr: Hom
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 13 Nov 2015 07:43

The copula is based on the pronouns, the form changing based on the subject of the sentence's person and number. The copula in the present tense is the same as the pronoun:
Murr giraahni hon nokhas
Murr giraa-hni hon nokhas
1p.GEN word-PLR 3p.PLR truth
"My words are the truth"
But simple statements when the subject is a pronoun have zero copula in the present tense:
Meu nabi
1p prophet
"I am a prophet"

The past tense copula doesn't distinguish for aspect like regular verbs.
Forms of the past tense copula:
1p sing: Meuph
1p Plural: Naazuph
2p sing (familiar): Teoph
2p sing polite: Zhaahuph
2p Plr: Tehneuph
3p sing: Hauph
3p Paucal: Vaph
3p Plr: Honeuph

Naazuph klamirhni
Naazuph klamir-hni
1p.PLR.COP fool-PLR
"We were fools"
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by clawgrip » 13 Nov 2015 11:57

So the copula is just the pronoun repeated. Kind of interesting.

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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 21 Dec 2015 05:37

clawgrip wrote:So the copula is just the pronoun repeated. Kind of interesting.
It was inspired by Modern Hebrew/Modern Standard Arabic.

Anyway, moods in Classical Arrdhilan:
Aside from the Indicative, Classical Arrdhilan has three moods:
1. Subjunctive: Used as the general irrealis mood, except in situations in which the parasubjunctive mood is used. It is used as the protasis of conditional clauses, to express wishes,hopes, and desires.
2. Parasubjunctive: Used as the apodesis of conditional clauses, as a potential mood when used alone, and when negated, as a dubitative.
3. Imperative
The irrealis moods cannot occur in the past perfect.
Modal endings:
Past subjunctive: -qai
Non-Past subjunctive: -jhali
Past parasubjunctive: -shom
Non-Past parasubjunctive: roikh
Imperative:-zeu
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 24 Dec 2015 00:38

NEGATION:
Verbs are negated by the prefix <Leo>
Heurr saachoidha leovisaarkraaheo
Heurr saachoi-dha leo-visaar-kraa-heo
3p.ERG truth-ABS NEG-speak-PST.PRFCT-3p
"He hasn't spoken the truth"

For emphasis, the particle <naa> can be appended to a verb:
Zheon leoklaapeuphmaa naa
Zheon leo-klaap-euph-maa naa
2p.POL.ACC NEG-strike-PST-1p NEG
"I did not hit you"

Nouns are negated (existential negation) by the preposition <Hnai>:
Gradhphan hau hnai nabi
Gradhphan 3p NEG prophet
"Gradhpan isn't a prophet"

This can also be used to mean "Not any", and in this use it can be coupled with a verb prefixed with <leo> like <naa> is used.

POLAR QUESTIONS:
Polar questions are usually marked by the interrogative particle <ah>:
Zhaa nabi ah?
2p.POL prophet INT
"Are you a prophet"

Rhetorical questions use the particle <sach>
Gradhphaneul nokhasdha visaarkraa sach?
Gradhphan-eul nokhas-dha visaar-kraa sach?
Gradhphan-ERG truth-ABS speak-PST.PRFCT RHETOR
"Hasn't Gradhphan spoken the truth?"
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 24 Dec 2015 18:40

The beginning of the Gradphanist creation story from the Alaagantha:

Alaa hau feud. Hau hmotajhi qashikhun ma malakunhni nabireuph. Hau malakunhni dheo dhakaanom dhakaareuph. Hau hnaashudilun theograateuph: “ Hmotajhi qashikhun leoblashzheu!”



1. Alaa hau feud
Alaa hau feud
Alaa 3p one
“Alaa was one [alone]”

2. Hau hmotajhi qashikhun ma malakunhni nabireuph
Hau hmota-jhi qashikh-un ma malak-un-hni nabir-euph
3p. light-INSTR tree-ACC CONJ angel-ACC-PLR create-PST
“He created a tree of light and angels”
NOTE: Here we see the instrumentive being used to mean “made out of”

3. Hau malakunhni dheo dhakaanom dhakaareuph
Hau malak-un-hni dheo dhakaan-om dhakaar-euph
3p ngel-ACC-PLR two group-DAT divide-PST
“He divided the angels into two groups”
NOTE: Here we see a translative use of the dative/ablative.

4. Hau hnaashudilun theograateuph:
Hau hnaashud-il-un theograat-euph
3p high-NOM-ACC warn-PST
“He warned the higher [angels]:”
Note: The suffix <il> nominalizes an adjective.

5. Hmotajhi qashikhun leoblashzheu
Hmota-jhi qashikh-un leo-blash-zheu
light-INSTR tree-ACC NEG-touch-IMP
“Do not touch the tree of light”


“Alaa was alone. He created a tree of light and angels. He divided the angels into two groups. He warned the higher angels: “Do not touch the tree of light!”
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Omzinesý » 25 Dec 2015 18:02

1. Subjunctive: Used as the general irrealis mood, except in situations in which the parasubjunctive mood is used. It is used as the protasis of conditional clauses, to express wishes,hopes, and desires.
2. Parasubjunctive: Used as the apodesis of conditional clauses, as a potential mood when used alone, and when negated, as a dubitative.
Are conjunctions 'if' used or do the moods express conditional meanings alone?
What does 'general irrealis mood' mean? Is it used in main clauses as well?
What does dubitative mean hear?

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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 25 Dec 2015 20:11

Omzinesý wrote: Are conjunctions 'if' used or do the moods express conditional meanings alone?
The moods alone express the meaning.

Omzinesý wrote:

What does 'general irrealis mood' mean? Is it used in main clauses as well?

It's used n main clauses to mean "In theory".

Omzinesý wrote:
What does dubitative mean hear?
That the speaker doubts that something is true, though it is possible.
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Re: Classical Arrdhilan

Post by Shemtov » 07 Feb 2016 05:34

The "Passive" Voice is formed by inserting the diphthong <oi> after the verb stem. This triggers Ergative alignment.
Example:
Bhikhuheulhni nabidha shtavidhoihni
Bhikhu-heul-hni nabi-dha shtavidh-oi-hni
Buddhist.Priest-PLR-ERG prophet-ABS conquer-PASS-3p.PLR
"Buddhists priests are conquered by the Prophet"

The same construction in Nominative alignment, or with pro-drop, signifies a reflexive:

Dhorri-yoi-yeuph
Dhorri-yoi-yeuph
curse-REFLX-PST
"He cursed himself"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien

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