Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

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Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 11 Nov 2015 15:35

Because I think I actually have a neat idea about it.

Phonological history

Start with the following phonology.

/n/
/p b t d k g q ʔ/
/s/
/w l ɹ j/

/u ʊ o ɔ a ɛ e ɪ i/

(With the exception of alveolar consonants, no consonants immediately adjacent in a root can be at the same place of articulation. e.g., *√ppb is not allowed, but *√ptb is. The exceptions to this rule are rare biconsonantal roots which usually take some sort of third consonant as a "modifier".)

Next, put the vowels through something like the 7-to-5 vowel merger that happened in some Bantu dialects.

C > C[+ lenited] / _V[+ tense] (i.e., any of /u o e i/)

The patterns work like so:

n ~ ɹ
p b ~ f v
t d ~ ts dz (<c j>)
k g ~ x ɣ (<ḵ ḡ>)
q ~ χ (<ḥ>)
ʔ ~ h
s ~ h

The rest of the consonants are analogically fortited before non-tense vowels (i.e., /ʊ ɔ a ɛ ɪ/):

w ~ kʷ
l ~ ɬ (<ł>)
ɹ ~ s
j ~ ts (<c>)

Then the lax vowels merge with their tense counterparts (*a is unaffected), phonemicizing the lenitions.

Next, in a VCVCV sequence where all vowels are the same, the middle one is dropped:

*isɪʔiq "I eat" > isihiq > ishiq

Next, in a VhV sequence where both vowels are the same, the sequence becomes a long vowel:

*dusuk "he will be found" > juhuk > ju:k

Then, the fricatives /f v/ > /h w/:

*qabek "three" > qavek > qawek

Then, /b/ > /m/:

*√tqb > *tʊqʊb "he is caught up in it" > tuqum

Some verb root things for the protolanguage

*√sʔq "eat"
*√qlt "write"
*√dsk "find"
*√ʔpr "know"
*√brg "hair"
*√lsr "tie up"
*√tqb "sweep up, catch something up in"

Biconsonantal roots:

*√nk+k > naḵek "one"
*√tr+k > tarek "two"
*√qb+k > qawek "three"
*√ln+k > lanek "four"
*√dr+k > darek "five"
*√sp+k > safek > sahek "six"

*√tk – white (> taḵek "white in color")
*√sr – red (> sarek "red in color")
*√nn – yellow (> narek "yellow in color", nareg "intense yellow in color")
*√lr – black/blue/green (> łarek "black/blue/green in color")

Biconsonantal modifiers:

-k – stative
-n – cause to be in a state, causative (tirin "split in half")
-l – partitive (corol "distribute by twos, count by twos")
-q – to do X away from
-r – to do X towards
-g – to do X again (also used as an intensive with colors)
-s – to undo X (also used to say that a color is not very intense)

Patterns

The proto-patterns are given below. The verb *√dsk "find" will serve as an example.

CaCC – active imperative (> dask)
CuCC – passive imperative (> jusk)
CoCC – active purposive imperative (> josk)
CɔCC – passive purposive imperative (> dosk)

CiCCi – past active (> jisḵi)
CɪCiC – present active (> dihik > di:k)
CiCiC – future active (> jihik > ji:k)

CuCCu – past passive (> jusḵu)
CʊCuC – present passive (> dusku)
CuCuC – future passive (> juhuk > ju:k)

CoCCo – past active purposive (to go to do X) (> josḵo)
CoCɪCi – present active purposive (> josiḵi)
CoCiCi – future active purposive (> johiḵi)

CɔCCɔ – past passive purposive (to go to have X done to oneself) (> dosko)
CɔCɪCi – present passive purposive (> dosiḵi)
CɔCiCi – future passive purposive (> dohiḵi)

Geminating the first consonant in a root leads to an intensive, more or less. Geminating the second consonant leads to a reflexive, more or less. In cases where the first consonant is geminated but is word-initial, the vowel *a- is added; in cases where a geminated consonant is in contact with another consonant, an *a is inserted to break up the cluster.

*addask "leave no stone unturned"
*dassak "find oneself"

Further derivations

*qaCCaC – elative (also used to form ordinal numbers—*qadra > qadsa "fourth")
*ɹaCoCC – abstract/conceptual nominalizer
*CaCoC – resultative (*√ʔpr "know" > *ʔapor > ʔafor "experience, insight, wisdom, advice")
*CaCCɛ – malady (*√brg "hair" > *bargɛ > marge "baldness, mange")
*CaCeC – rare participializer usually used with numbers or colors

Adpositions

You may have noticed that nominals generally have *a as the first vowel. Certain adpositional relations are indicated by changing the first vowel of a nominal, whether a nominalized root or a pattern. I don't really have examples for this yet. I'm also considering not doing this because it seems too artificial, but I wanted to get y'all's opinions about it.

*u – instrumental
*ʊ – inside, in
*o – dative
*ɛ – concerning, about
*e – from
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Davush » 11 Nov 2015 22:08

I like triconsonantal-root languages in general because I am a fan of the Semitic language aesthetic, however I often wonder why triconsonantal langs are treated like a 'grouping' in the way isolating, agglutinating, etc. languages are when it comes to conlanging.

Aren't triconsonantal roots very specific to Semitic languages due to (probable) unique sound changes which produced this system? I am intrigued by conlangs which use triconsonantal systems and by how they developed a system which is nearly always a replica of the Semitic system (unless the conlang is meant to be part of the Semitic family).

Of course, that is not to say a triconsonantal conlang is bad, I just always equate them with Semitic-ness. Triconsonantal roots may be better regarded as a specific type of morphology or morpho-phonological alterations specific to Semitic languages, than a general 'language type'. I would be interested to know if there are any non-Semitic natlangs which use a triconsonantal system similar to the Semitic style?

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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by sangi39 » 11 Nov 2015 22:30

Davush wrote:I would be interested to know if there are any non-Semitic natlangs which use a triconsonantal system similar to the Semitic style?
If I remember correctly, someone, either here or over on the ZBB, mentioned a native North American language which had something like triconsonantal roots.

Excluding that, though, a number of languages use morphology similar to Semitic languages, i.e. nonconcatenative morphology (through process like ablaut and reduplication), alongside prefixes and suffixes to indicate differences in grammatical meaning (PIE, for example, Proto-Kartvelian and several languages of North America and Africa, including related Afro-Asiatic languages but other non-related languages as well).
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Ahzoh » 12 Nov 2015 03:10

Davush wrote:I am intrigued by conlangs which use triconsonantal systems and by how they developed a system which is nearly always a replica of the Semitic system (unless the conlang is meant to be part of the Semitic family).
My conlang, while having a triconsonantal root sytem, is still very distinct. Although, at first, it was very Semitic.
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by qwed117 » 12 Nov 2015 21:38

Ahzoh wrote:
Davush wrote:I am intrigued by conlangs which use triconsonantal systems and by how they developed a system which is nearly always a replica of the Semitic system (unless the conlang is meant to be part of the Semitic family).
My conlang, while having a triconsonantal root sytem, is still very distinct. Although, at first, it was very Semitic.
Dishashta also has non-ablaut based apophony in verbal forms. For the most part, however, nouns aren't derived from these roots, meaning that it strictly isn't a tricon. [:'(]
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 22 Jul 2016 09:01

Let's do a SYSTEM REBOOT.

Start with the following phonology.

/n/
/p b t d k g q ʔ/
/s/
/w l ɹ j/

/u ʊ o ɔ a ɛ e ɪ i/

In a two-vowel sequence, the first vowel drops:

V > Ø / _V

Next, put the vowels through something like the 7-to-5 vowel merger that happened in some Bantu dialects.

C > C[+ lenited] / _V[+ tense] (i.e., any of /u o e i/)
ʊ ɔ ɛ ɪ > u o e i

The patterns work like so; C = consonant, R = lenited consonant because it was a good letter to work with at the time:

C ~ R
n ~ ɹ
p b ~ f v
t d ~ ts dz (<c j>)
k g ~ x ɣ (<ḵ ḡ>)
q ~ χ (<ḥ>)
ʔ ~ h
s ~ h
ɹ ~ j (<y>)
ɬ (<ł>) ~ l (analogical; happens after changes mentioned above)
ʍ ts ~ w j (also analogical)

Then, a few rules to rid ourselves of final high vowels:

oCu oCi > uoC ioC / _#
eCu eCi > ueC ieC / _#

CuCCɪ # Present active

-i CuCCi > RuCRi (e.g., *gunbi > ɣunvi)
-e CuCCe > RuCRe
-Ø CuCCɪ > RuCCi

-nɛ CuCCɪnɛ > RuCCine
-in CuCCin > RuCRin
-ne CuCCɪne > RuCCire

-te CuCCɪte > RuCCice
-o CuCCo > RuCRo
-u CuCCu > RuCRu

-ar CuCCar > RuCCar
-or CuCCor > RuCRor
-ɪ CuCCɪ > RuCCi > RuCCio (by analogy with other active 3PL forms)

CʊCoC # Present passive

-i CʊCoCi > CuRoRi > CuRioR
-e CʊCoCe > CuRoRe
-Ø CʊCoC > CuRoC

-nɛ CʊCoCnɛ > CuRoCne
-in CʊCoCin > CuRoRin
-ne CʊCoCne > CuRoCre

-te CʊCoCte > CuRoCce
-o CʊCoCo > CuRoRo
-u CʊCoCu > CuRoRu > CuRuoR

-ar CʊCoCar > CuRoRar
-or CʊCoCor > CuRoRor
-ɪ CʊCoCɪ > CuRoCi > CuRioC

aCCɔC # Future passive

-i aCCɔCi > aCCoRi > aCCioR
-e aCCɔCe > aCCoRe
-Ø aCCɔC > aCCoC

-nɛ aCCɔCne > aCCoCre
-in aCCɔCin > aCCoRin
-ne aCCɔCne > aCCoCre

-te aCCɔCte > aCCoCce
-o aCCɔCo > aCCoRo
-u aCCɔCu > aCCoRu > aCCuoR

-ar aCCɔCar > aCCoCar
-or aCCɔCor > aCCoRor
-ɪ aCCɔCɪ > aCCoCi > aCCioC

aCCoC # Future active

-i aCCoCi > aCRoRi > aCRioR
-e aCCoCe > aCRoRe
-Ø aCCoC > aCRoC

-nɛ aCCoCnɛ > aCRoCne
-in aCCoCin > aCRoRin
-ne aCCoCne > aCRoCre

-te aCCoCte > aCRoCce
-o aCCoCo > aCRoRo
-u aCCoCu > aCRoRu > aCRuoR

-ar aCCoCar > aCRoCar
-or aCCoCor > aCRoRor
-ɪ aCCoCɪ > aCRoCi > aCRioC

CiCɛC # Past passive

-i CiCɛCi > RiCeRi > RiCieR
-e CiCɛCe > RiCeRe
-Ø CiCɛC > RiCeC

-nɛ CiCɛCnɛ > RiCeCne
-in CiCɛCin > RiCeRin
-ne CiCɛCne > RiCeCre

-te CiCɛCte > RiCeCce
-o CiCɛCo > RiCeRo
-u CiCɛCu > RiCeRu > RiCueR

-ar CiCɛCar > RiCeCar
-or CiCɛCor > RiCeRor
-ɪ CiCɛCɪ > RiCeCi > RiCieC

CiCeC # Past active

-i CiCeCi > RiReRi > RiRieR
-e CiCeCe > RiReRe
-Ø CiCeC > RiReC

-nɛ CiCeCnɛ > RiReCne
-in CiCeCin > RiReRin
-ne CiCeCne > RiReCre

-te CiCeCte > RiReCce
-o CiCeCo > RiReRo
-u CiCeCu > RiReRu > RiRueR

-ar CiCeCar > RiReRar
-or CiCeCor > RiReRor
-ɪ CiCeCɪ > RiReCi > RiRieC

CaCiC # Singular active imperative

CaCiC > CaRiC

CoCCo # Singular passive imperative

CoCCo > RoCRo

CɛCCon # Dual active imperative

CɛCCon > CeCRon

CiCanC # Dual passive imperative

CiCanC > RiCanC

CiCteC # Paucal active imperative

CiCteC > RiCceC

CaCtaC # Paucal passive imperative

CaCtaC > CaCtaC

CʊCCɪ # Plural active imperative

CʊCCɪ > CuCCi

CuCaC # Plural passive imperative

CuCaC > RuCaC

For the personal endings…

SINGULAR
-i
-e


DUAL
-nɛ
-in
-ne

PAUCAL (typically five or less)
-te
-o
-u

PLURAL
-ar
-or
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 23 Jul 2016 07:25

Here we go again. Lots of spoiler text in this one; a lot of it is so I don't lose data/examples. A lot of this is based rather closely on Mecislau's write-up of the origin of triconsonantal morphology on the ZBB as well as, to a lesser extent, Simpson's 2009 dissertation on the origin of Semitic morphology.

Start with the following phonology. Again.

/n/
/p b t d k g q ʔ/
/s/
/w l ɹ j/

/u ʊ o ɔ a ɛ e ɪ i/

Next, put the vowels through something like the 7-to-5 vowel merger that happened in some Bantu dialects. Again.

C > C[+ lenited] / _V[+ tense] (i.e., any of /u o e i/)
ʊ ɔ ɛ ɪ > u o e i

The patterns work like so; C = consonant, R = lenited consonant because it was a good letter to work with at the time:

C ~ R
n ~ ɹ
p b ~ f v
t d ~ ts dz (<c j>)
k g ~ x ɣ (<ḵ ḡ>)
q ~ χ (<ḥ>)
ʔ ~ h
s ~ h
l ~ w
ɹ ~ j (<y>)
{w.j} ~ ː (unless at the beginning of a word, in which case they would go to a vowel)

The typical root shapes were -CVC- and -CCVC-.

Now, CV1CV2# > CV2C#. The penult vowel in this case assimilated to a final vowel, which then dropped. This means that the tenses are now marked by ablaut since they were initially of the form -V.

A brief list of some of the preverbs that eventually fused with some biconsonantal roots (basically the pretonic vowel was unstressed and everything went to *a in this position):

*ʔa- "to do X near the ground"
*sa- "to do X badly, mis-"
*ra- "to do X away (from)"
*na- "to do X to and fro"
*ba- "to do X along a slanted surface"

*-ɪs was the early agentive participializer.
Spoiler:
*dur-i "walk" > juyi
*ʔa-dur-ɪs "sneaking, creeping" > ʔajuris > ʔajris CaRCis ʔ-d-r "sneak, creep"
*ra-dur-ɪs "walking away" > rajuris > rajris CaRCis r-d-r "desert"
*sa-dur-ɪs "staggering" > sajuris > sajris CaRCis s-d-r "stagger"
*na-dur-ɪs "pacing" > najuris > najris CaRCis n-d-r "pace"
*ba-dur-ɪs "descend" > bajuris > bajris CaRCis b-j-r "descend"

I don't remember exactly what this was for:
*ba-dur-ɪs-i > badurihi > badurhi
*ba-nɛr-ɪs-i > banerihi > banerhi
*ba-dur-is > bajuyis > bajyes CaRRis
Gerunds come from the triconsonantal root: *CCVCi. Biconsonantal-to-triconsonantal gerunds (*Ca-CVCi > *CaCiR) analogized out.

Gerund: CCiR > E: iCCiR / W: CiCiR / N: aCCiR
Spoiler:
*√sql > sqiw > isqiw / siqiw / asqiw
*√ndr > ndiy > indiy / nidiy / andiy > indiː / nidiː / andiː
*√pkn > pkir > ipkir / pikir / apkir
*√jnp > inif
Agent nominalizers come from the biconsonantal participle. The form originally had to be a trisyllable since the second consonant is lenited, and the reflex shows evidence of a tense vowel, though this could be an analogical effect. Original suffixes: *-ɪs, *-is, *-ɔs.

Agent nominalizer: CaRCis
Agent plural: CaRRis
Agent collective: CaRCos >
E: CaRCoC / W: CaRsoC / N: CaRCo >
E: CaRCoC / W: CaRːoC / N: CaRCo >
E: CaRCoC / W: CaːRoC / N: CaRCo
Spoiler:
*√sql > saχlis
saχwis
saχlos > saχlol / saχsol / saχlo > saχlol / saχːol / saχlo > saχlol / saːχol / saχlo
Patient nominalizers come from the triconsonantal root—biconsonantals were often intransitive. If I'm reading this right the shapes of the original suffixes were *-ɛn, *-en, *-ɛn-ɔs.

Patient nominalizer: CCaCen > E: CaCCen / W: CaCaCen / N: aCCaCen
Patient plural: CCeRen > E: CeCRen / W: CeCeRen / N: aCCeRen
Patient collective: CCeCnos > E: CeCCnon / W: CeCeCson / N: aCCeCno >
E: CeCCnon / W: CeCeCːon / N: aCCeCno >
E: CeCCũ / W: CeCeːCon / N: aCCeCno >
E: CaCCũ / W: CeCiːCon / N: aCCeCno
Spoiler:
*sqalen > saqlen / saqalen / asqalen
*sqewen > seqwen / seqewen / asqewen
*sqelnos >
seqlnon / seqelson / asqelno >
seqlnon / seqelːon / asqelno >
seqlũ / seqeːlon / asqelno >
siqlũ / seqiːlon / asqelno
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 23 Jul 2016 09:33

I just realized that I didn't post much about the verbs themselves.

*-ʊ PST
*-ɪ PRES
*-a FUT

C(a)CVC-X > C(a)CXC

So verb root final vowels take on the characteristic vowel of the suffix, which then drops.

The original verb *qɛ 'force, compel' is an interesting case. It developed a prefixal form *qa- that ended up on a bunch of biliteral roots:

*qa-dar-ʊ 'force to walk' > *√qdr, *qadur 'condemn to exile'

The verb stem analogizes to CaCVC under the influence of the biconsonantal roots plus prefix. Yes, this is a lot of *a, but Sanskrit had a lot of it as well.

THE EASTERN GROUP

The eastern group is characterized by the following sound changes:
- Ø > i / #_CCV(C)#
- CCVC > CVCC / #_
- {s,r} > C₃ / C₁(V)C₂(V)C₃V_#
- a > ã
- Bn an En > ũ ã ĩ / _%
- n > Ø / C_V[+ nas]
- {o,e} > a

The eastern group innovated an intensive via reduplication:
C₁aC₂VC₃ > C₁aC₂VC₃C₂VC₃
*√sql "prick; inject" saqul > saqulqul "stab"
Spoiler:
C₁aC₂iC₃C₂iC₃ > C₁eC₂iC₃C₂iC₃ > C₁eC₂iC₃iC₃ > C₁eC₂iC₃ by haplology
a > o / _Cu > C₁oC₂uC₃
a > ə / _Ca > C₁əC₂aC₃
THE WESTERN GROUP

The western group is characterized by the following sound changes:
- Ø > V / C_CVC
- C₃Vs C₃Vr > sVC₃ rVC₃
- Cs > Cː

The western group innovated a repetitive/iterative via reduplication:
C₁aC₂VC₃ > C₁aC₂VC₃VC₃ > C₁aC₂C₃VC₃
*√sql > saqlul

THE NORTHERN GROUP

The northern group is characterized by the following sound changes:
- Ø > a / #_CC
- {s,n} > Ø / _# ! = C₃
- {k,q} g {x,χ} > ʃ ʒ j / _E

The northern group developed a reflexive via, you guessed it, reduplication. The original reflexive construction ended up as a passive.

C₁aC₂VC₂VC₃
saququl
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 23 Jul 2016 20:25

The pronoun *ar REFLEXIVE would often come between the subject and the verb:

*X ar saqul "he condemned himself to exile"

Eventually the *ar fused to the verb, yielding forms like *ar-saqul. The *r often assimilated to the first consonant giving a pattern aC₁ːaC₂VC₃:

*assaqil "prick oneself" (> N "be pricked, get stuck")
*aqqadir "seclude oneself, exile oneself" (> N "get exiled, be thrown out")

The gerunds developed like this:

*ar-C₁C₂iR₃ > E: aC₁ːC₂iR₃ ~ (in a minority of languages) C₁aC₂iR₃ / W: aC₁ːiC₂iR₃ / N: arC₁C₂iR₃ > raC₁C₂iR₃ > C₁aC₁C₂iR₃
√sql
asːqiw ~ saqiw / asːiqiw / arsqiw > rasqiw > sasqiw

This could also be applied to the results of reduplication:

E: arC₁aC₂iR₃C₂iR₃ arsaqiwqiw > aC₁ːaC₂iR₃C₂iR₃ asːaqiwqiw > ãsːãqiwqiw

W: ar-C₁aC₂iR₃iR₃ arsaqiwiw > arC₁C₂iR₃iR₃ > aC₁C₂iR₃iR₃ asqiwiw
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 26 Jul 2016 06:46

Place nominalizers

Nominalizations of characteristic places come from an earlier *-o. The resultant patterns are:

ptVno > ptor ~ pator
prVto > proc ~ paroc
Singular: ʔa-nVd-o > ʔanoj CaCoR *√sql saqow
Plural: ʔa-nVd-un > ʔanujun > ʔanjun CaCRun *√sql saqwun
Collective: ʔa-nVd-o-ɔs > ʔanVdos > ʔandos CaCCos *√sql saqlos

Colors and Numbers

Colors are an interesting formation. There are two forms for colors; just why these forms came to be associated with colors is anyone's guess. Numbers from one to six also use both of these two forms.

ReCCu
RiR(e)Cɛ

*√bnr 'plant'
> venru 'green'
> virere > virre 'green'

*√qpr 'float, drift' (> *qafros 'clouds')
> χepru 'white' ('cloud-colored')
> χifre 'white' (v.s.)

The plural is formed by analogy with the plural of the agent nominalizer:

ReCCu *χepru 'white (sg.)' > ReCRu *χepyu 'white (pl.)'
RiRCe *χifre > RiRRe *χifye

Numbers one to six. Some of these have been generalized into roots of their own.

*√bkt 'lone' > vektu 'one'
*√ʔts 'double' > hetsu 'two'
*√wgr 'be left over' (> *wigrɛ > *uiɣre) iɣre 'three'
*√rlb 'be even, be equal, be distributed evenly' > yelbu 'four'
*√pkd 'grab; hand' > fixde 'five'
*√nt > net 'six'

Habitual/characteristic nominalizer:

CCVC-er
CRVRer > E: iC₁R₂VR₃eR₃ / W: C₁R₂VreR₃ > CVRːeR / N: aC₁R₂VR₃e
CaCVC-er
CaCVRer > CaCRer
CCVC-ir
CRVRir > CRVriR
CaCVCir
> CaCVRir > CaCRir
CCVC-rʊ
> CRuCru > CRVCru
CaCVCru
> CaCVCru > CaCCru

Miscellanea

The form CoRCa : CoRCan : CoRCas occasionally pops up. When it does, it typically seems to refer to a specific location or structure:

*√tbr 'pile up' > *tovra 'pile of stones used as a landmark' (> 'landmark')
*√dsr 'graze' > *dohra 'cattle enclosure'
*√lsk 'be ill' > *lohka 'sick-bed'
*√wjl 'live in, reside' > *woːla 'house'
*√kdn 'sit' > *kojna 'shade (of trees, buildings)'
*√ʔls 'tan, dry' > *ʔowsa 'clothesline'
*√kls 'excel' > *kowsa 'playing field (sports), obstacle course, training course'
*√qpq 'die' > *qofqa 'deathbed'

Ignore this, this is my own record-keeping:
Spoiler:
ʔə- "to do X near the ground"
sə- "to do X badly, mis-"
rə- "to do X away (from)"
nə- "to do X to and fro"
bə- "to do X along a slanted surface"

prut-o > pjuco
parcim
tul-im
tulim
istulim > isclim > siclim
ʔatulim > ʔaclim

-i
-or



-er
-an

-

prʊti > pruci
pajtis CaRCis

dur-i "walk" > juyi
ʔa-dur-ɪs "sneaking, creeping" > ʔajuris > ʔajris CaRCis ʔ-d-r "sneak, creep"
ra-dur-ɪs "walking away" > rajuris > rajris CaRCis r-d-r "desert"
sa-dur-ɪs "staggering" > sajuris > sajris CaRCis s-d-r "stagger"
na-dur-ɪs "pacing" > najuris > najris CaRCis n-d-r "pace"
ba-dur-ɪs "descend" > bajuris > bajris CaRCis b-j-r "descend"
ba-dur-ɪs-i > badurihi > badurhi
ba-nɛr-ɪs-i > banerihi > banerhi
ba-dur-is > bajuyis > bajyes CaRRis

na-dur-ʔuʔ > naduruʔuʔ > nadurʔuʔ > najrʔuʔ
ʔa-dan-ʔu > ʔadunʔu > ʔadnʔu > ʔadanʔu > ʔadunʔ > ʔadun
ʔa-dan-ɔr > ʔadanɔr > ʔadnor > ʔadron - ʔadːon / ʔadnon - ʔadno
ʔa-dan-os > ʔadaros > ʔadros > ʔadsor - ʔadːor / ʔadror - ʔadro / ʔadro - ʔədor

ʔa-dan-i > ʔadiri > ʔadir
ptal-i > ptiw

ʔa-dan-ɛn > ʔadanen > ʔadnen
ptal–ɛn > ptalen

ptal-en > ptawen CCaRen

ʔa-dan-ɛn-ɔs > ʔadanenos > ʔadannos
ptal-ɛn-ɔs > ptalenos > ptelnos

ʔa-dal-e > ʔadawe > ʔadew
ptal-e > ptawe > ptew

uqi > iχ
uqi-ɪs > uχis
uqi-ɔs > uχɔs > uχos

V > V0 / _CV0#
7-to-5
V > Ø / _#

pajtis
tawnis
talris

prʊt-ʊ > prʊtʊ > prutu > prut PST
prʊt-ɪ > prʊtɪ > priti > prit PRES
prʊt-a > prʊta > prata > prat FUT


tlɪr-ʊ > tlʊrʊ > tluru > tlur
tlɪr-ɪ > tlɪrɪ > tliri > tlir
tlɪr-a > tlɪra > tlara > tlar

talor > tawor CaRoC "plant"
CaCoC-ɪs > CaRoCis > CaRCis

i-tlɪr-a > itlara > itlar
naratlira > naratlara > naratlar > nartlar
χindar - indar - jandar - nindar - nondar - narndar
χĩdar - ĩdar - jãdar - nĩdar - nõdar - narndar

qi - 1SG
ja – 1PL
ni – 2SG
no - 2PL
nar - 3

Gerund: CCiR > E: iCCiR / W: CiCiR / N: aCCiR
*√sql > sqiw > isqiw / siqiw / asqiw
*√ndr > ndiy > indiy / nidiy / andiy > indiː / nidiː / andiː
*√pkn > pkir > ipkir / pikir / apkir

Agent nominalizer: CaRCis
Agent plural: CaRRis
Agent collective: CaRCos > E: CaRCoC / W: CaRsoC / N: CaRCo >
E: CaRCoC / W: CaRːoC / N: CaRCo >
E: CaRCoC / W: CaːRoC / N: CaRCo

√sql > saχlis
saχwis
saχlos > saχlol / saχsol / saχlo > saχlol / saχːol / saχlo > saχlol / saːχol / saχlo

Patient nominalizer: CCaCen > E: CaCCen / W: CaCaCen / N: aCCaCen
Patient plural: CCeRen > E: CeCRen / W: CeCeRen / N: aCCeRen
Patient collective: CCeCnos > E: CeCCnon / W: CeCeCson / N: aCCeCno >
E: CeCCnon / W: CeCeCːon / N: aCCeCno >
E: CeCCũ / W: CeCeːCon / N: aCCeCno >
E: CaCCũ / W: CeCiːCon / N: aCCeCno

sqalen > saqlen / saqalen / asqalen
sqewen > seqwen / seqewen / asqewen
sqelnos >
seqlnon / seqelson / asqelno >
seqlnon / seqelːon / asqelno >
seqlũ / seqeːlon / asqelno >
siqlũ / seqiːlon / asqelno

CɔCɔC > CoCoC
CɔCɔCis > CoCRis
CɔCɔCɔs > CoCCos

Habitual/characteristic nominalizer:
CCVC-er
CRVRer > CRVreR > CVRːeR
CCVC-ir
CRVRir > CRVriR
CCVC-rʊ > CRuCru > CRVCru

qɛ ~ qa- 'force'
√qdr 'force to walk' > 'exile'
qjuyer > iqjuyer / qujyer - qujjey - quːjey / aqjuyer
qjurir
qjurru

REDUPLICANTS ɣ

ptʊno > ptor ~ pator
prVto > proc ~ paroc
ʔa-nVd-o > ʔanoj CaCoR paroc
ʔa-nVd-un > ʔanujun > ʔanjun CaCRun parcun saqwun ~ saqwuw ~ saqʷuː
ʔa-nVd-o-ɔs > ʔanVdos > ʔandos CaCCos partos ~ partot saqlos ~ saqlol
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Linguifex
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 27 Jul 2016 02:04

Pronouns!

1SG *a > *a
2SG *nur > *rur
3SG *sɪqɪr > *siqir

1PL *a-i > *i (> *iː by analogy with the other plurals)
2PL *nur-i > *riy > *riː
3PL *sɪqɪr-i > *siχiy > *siχiː

1COLL *a-ɔs > *os
2COLL *nur-ɔs > *ruros
3COLL *sɪqɪr-ɔs > *siqros

Animals

Some animals names were originally unanalyzable in the scheme:

*tɔsɔr > *tosor 'type of animal'
*ptɛr > *pter 'type of animal'

These were analogically extended to fit into the root-and-pattern system:

*CɔCɔC > *CoCoC
*CɔCɔCis > *CoCRis
*CɔCɔCɔs > *CoCCos

*CCɛC > *CCeC
*CCɛCis > *CCeRis ~ *CeCRis (by analogy with the other animal derivation)
*CCɛCɔs > *CCeCos ~ *CeCCos (by analogy with the other animal derivation)

So you get new coinages like:

*√str 'annoy' > *sotor / *sotyis / *sotros 'gnat, fly'
*√krb 'whittle' > *kreb / *kervis / *kerbos 'woodpecker'
*√qst 'blow, gust' > *qset / *qescis / *qestos 'dragon'
*√npr 'announce' > *nopor ~ *nper / *nopyis ~ *nepyis / *nopros ~ *nepros 'type of bird known for its call'

This also goes the other way:

*poqot 'type of lizard' > *√pqt 'lie in the sun'
*qter 'type of fish eaten for food' > *√qtr 'gut a fish'
*nonoq 'type of lizard' > *√nnq 'be venomous'
*tsen 'moth' > *√tsn 'moonlight'

The Northern Branch

I'm thinking of removing the sound change Ø > a / #_CC. I realize this will create problems with the sonority hierarchy—some consonants will become syllabic or vocalize or maybe an epenthetic vowel will appear in some later developments of the languages.
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Re: Linguifex's obligatory triconsonantal-root language

Post by Linguifex » 27 Jul 2016 05:18

Some provisional ideas for northern languages

PN: {s,n} → Ø / _# ! = C3
PN: {k,q} g {x,χ} → ʃ ʒ j / _E

A: w → ʔ / E_%
A: a → ə / _C(C){u,i}(ː)
A: {B,a}w{B,a} {a,E}j{a,E} → Bː Eː
A: awV əwV → aː əː
A: V → Ø / VC(C)_#
A: w j → u i / C_#
A: a-epenthesis
A: aCː → C / #_

B: CVw → CʷVh
B: s → i / #_C
B: VhV → Vː
B: h → Ø / _#
B: Cn → nC / V_o#
B: Vn → Vː / _C
B: loss of short penult vowels in trisyllables
B: o(ː) e(ː) → u(ː) i(ː) / _#
B: VCː → VːC
B: uː oː aː eː iː → aʊ̯ oʊ̯ ɨ eɪ̯ aɪ̯

C: a → o / _C(C)u(ː)
C: a → e / _C(C)i(ː)
C: CːV → CVː
C: V → Ø / #_CVː
C: sʃV ʃsV → sVʃ ʃVs
C: w j → u i / C_{C,#}
C: k g x ɣ → tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ
C: q χ → k x
C: a(ː) E(ː) → ja(ː) je(ː) / _K
C: s ts z dz → ʃ tʃ ʒ dʒ / _{k,x,j}
C: ja(ː) je(ː) → e(ː) i(ː)
C: {xC,Cx} → Cː
C: x → h

D: a → o / _C(C)u(ː)
D: a → e / _C(C)i(ː)
D: CːV → CVː
D: V → Ø / #_CVː
D: sʃV ʃsV → sVʃ ʃVs
D: w j → u i / C_{C,#}
D: V → Vː / _% ! _#
D: VC → CV / VC_#
D: o e → u i / _#

*CCiR
*√sql → *sqiw → *sʃiw → saʃiʔ / iʃʷi / siʃu / siːʃu
*√qnr → *qniː → *qniː → qniː / qnaɪ̯ / kniː / qniː

*CaRCis
*√sql → *saχlis → *saχli → səχal / saχli / ʃilːi / seχli
*√qnr → *qarris → *qarri → qərː / qɨri / keriː / qeːri

*CaRRis
*√sql → *saχwis → *saχwi → səχu / saχwi / ʃiwːi / seχwi
*√qnr → *qarjis → *qarji → qəri / qarji / kerji / qerji

*CaRCos
*√sql → *saχlos → *saχlo → saχal / saχlu / ʃelːo / saχlu
*√qnr → *qarros → *qarro → qarː / qɨru / karoː / qaːruː

*CCaCen
*√sql → *sqalen → *sqale → sqal / iqli / ʃkale / sqaːli
*√qnr → *qnaren → *qnare → qnar / qnari / knare / qnaːri

*CCeRen
*√sql → *sqewen → *sqewe → saʃeʔ / iʃʷaɪ̯ / ʃkewe / sqeːwi
*√qnr → *qnejen → *qneje → qneː / qneji / kneje / qneːji

*CCeCnos
*√sql → *sqelnos → *sʃelno → saʃeln / iʃeɪ̯lu / seʃlno / seʃlnu
*√qnr → *qnernos → *qnerno → qnern / qneɪ̯ru / knerno / qnernu

*aCːaCaC
*√sql → *asːaqal → *asːaqal → saqal / ɨsqal / ʃeːkal / saːqal
*√qnr → *aqːanar → *aqːanar → qanar / ɨqnar / kaːnar / qaːnar

*aCːaCiC
*√sql → *asːaqil → *asːaʃil → səʃil / ɨsʃil / seːʃil / seːʃil
*√qnr → *aqːanir → *aqːanir → qənir / ɨqnir / keːnir / qeːnir

*CaCoR
*√sql → *saqow → *saqow → saqow / saqʷu / ʃekow / saːqwu
*√qnr → *qanoj → *qanoj → qanoj / qanoj / kanoj / qaːnju

*CaCRun
*√sql → *saqwun → *saqwu → səqu / saqwu / ʃekwu / saqwu
*√qnr → *qanjun → *qanju → qəni / qanju / kanju / qanju

*CaCCos
*√sql → *saqlos → *saqlo → saqal / saqlu / ʃeklo / saqlu
*√qnr → *qanros → *qanro → qanar / qanru / kanro / qanru
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